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ken to with command; Command the rich. That foolish shaveling soared too high a pitch, when, in his imperious Bull, he commands the Angels. Francis of Assise and he were both of a diet. may safely say, that all powers, below the angels, are liable to our spiritual Charge: and this command implies obedience; else, to what purpose do we command, and go without? Christ gave us the keys; (for that which the Romanists would plead out of Origen, of claves cæli, the keys of heaven to the rest, and claves cælorum, the keys of heavens to Peter, is a distinction without a difference:) what becomes of them? That I may not say, on some of our hands they are suffered to rust for want of use; on others, as the Pontificians, the wards are altered, so as they can neither open nor shut: sure I am; that, if they be not lost on their behalf, whether in disuse or abuse, the power of them is lost in the hearts of many. They have secret picklocks of their own making, Presumption and Security; whereby they can open heaven-gates, though double-locked by our censures, and shut the gates of hell at pleasure, which their own sins have opened wide to receive them. What use is there of us, but in our chair? and there, but to be heard, and seen? eren in this sense spectaculo facti sumus; we are to gaze on, not to employ. Now ye are full, now ye are rich; ye reign as Kings without us: we are weak ; ye are strong: ye are honourable ; but we are despised. It was well noted by one, that the good father of the Prodigal, though he might himself have brought forth the prime robe, or have led his son into his wardrobe to take it, yet he commands his servants to bring it forth; Proferte stolam; because he would bring means into credit; because he would have his son beholden to his servants, for their glory. It is a bold word, but a true one, “Ye shall never wear his long white robe, unless his servants, your Ministers, bring it, and put it on.” He, that can save you without us, will not save you, but by us. He hath not tied himself to means; man, he hath. He could create you immediately to himself; but he will have you begotten by the immortal seed of your spiritual fathers. Woe be to you therefore, if our word have lost the power of it in you! you have lost your right in heaven. Let us never come there, if you can come thither ordinarily without us. The words of the wise, saith Solomon, are like goads, like nails: but, if these goads light upon the skin of a Leviathan, who esteems iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood; if these nails meet with iron or marble in their driving, that they turn again: what shall we say, but our Gospel is hid to them that perish; and woe unto your souls, for ye have rewarded evil to yourselves!

Hitherto the Power implied in this Charge: the Sufficiency followeth. This Evangelicus must be Parangelicus; like as the forerunner of Christ had a charge for all sorts, so must his followers: so hath Timothy, in this epistle, a charge for Wives, for Bishops, for Deacons, for Widows, for Servants, and here for the Rich. He must charge; and how shall he charge, if he have neither shot nor powder?

It is no brag to say, that no nation under heaven, since the Gos.

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pel looked forth into the world, ever had so many, so learned teachers, as this Island hath at this day. Jerome said of old to his Paulinus, De Hierosolymis et de Britanniá, æqualiter patet aula cælestis : Heaven is open in Britain as in Jerusalem. It holds well, if you take it for a prophetical comparison betwixt Jerusalem as it had been, and Britain as it should be. Jerusalem, the type of God's Church upon earth, in the glory of all her legal magnificence, was never more blessed than this Church of ours.

For the Northern part of it, beyond the Tweed, we saw not, we heard not of a congregation, whereof indeed there is not so great frequence *, without a preaching minister; and, though their maintenance hath been generally but small, yet their pains have been great, and their success suitable. And now lately, his Sacred Majesty, in his last year's journey, as if the sun did out of compassion go beyond his tropic line to give heat unto the northern climate, hath so ordered it, that their means shall be answerable to their labours: so as both pastors and people profess themselves mutually blessed in each other; and bless God and their King for this blessedness. As for the learning and sufficiency of those teachers, whether Prelates or Presbyters, our ears were for some of them sufficient witnesses; and we are not worthy of our ears, if our tongues do not thankfully proclaim it to the world,

As for this Southern part, when I consider the face of our Church in an universality, methinks I see the firmament, in a clear night, bespangled with goodly stars of all magnitudes, that yield a pleasing diversity of light unto the earth. But, withal, through the incomparable multitude of Cures, and the incompetent provision of some, we cannot but see some of our people, especially in the utmost skirts, like to those that live under the southern pole, where the stars are thinner set; and some stars there are in our hemisphere, like those little sparkles in the Galaxy, or Milky Circle, wherein ye can scarce discern any light. The desire of our hearts must be, That every congregation, every soul, might have a Timothy to de liver the charge of God powerfully unto it, even with St. Paul's charge of note: That every one, which hath a charge, were didanTinós, able to give the charge; and every hearer 9eodídent@, ready to take it.

Wherein I cannot but thankfully congratulate the happiness of this famous city; which if in other riches it equalize the best, I am sure in this it exceeds all. There is not a city under the cope of heaven so wealthy in the spiritual provision; yea, there are whole countries in Christendom, that have not so many learned preachers, as are within these walls and liberties, Hear this, ye Citizens; and be not proud, but thankful! Others may exceed you in the glory of outward structure, in the largeness of extent, in the uniform proportion of streets, or ornaments of temples; but your pulpits do surpass theirs: and, if preaching can lift up cities unto heaven, ye are not pon earth. Happy is it for you, if ye be well fed

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and taught; and woe be unto you, if you do not think yourselves happy.

II. Charge them, but Whom? THE RICH. Man, that came naked out of the womb of the earth, was even then so rich, that all things were his. Heaven was his roof or canopy; earth, his floor; the sea, his pond; the sun and moon, his torches; all creatures, his vassals: and, if he lost the fulness of this Lordship, by being a slave to sin, yet we have still Dominium gratificum, as Gerson ternis it.

Every son of Abraham is heir of the world; Rom. iv. 13: but to make up the true reputation of wealth, for thus we may be as having all things and possessing nothing, another right is required besides spiritual, which is a civil and human right; wherein I doubt not but our learned Wickliif, and the famous Archbishop of Armagh, and the more famous Chancellor* of Paris (three renowned Divines of England, France, and Ireland) have had much wrong; while they are accused to teach, that men, in these earthly things, have no tenure but grace, no title but charity: which, questionless, they intended in foro interiori, in the Consistory of God, not in the Common-Pleas of men; in the Courts, not of Law, but of Conscience, in which only it may fall out, that the civil owner may be a spiritual usurper, and the spiritual owner may be a civil beggar. God frames his language to ours; and, speaking according to that Jus Gentium, whereon the divisions of these earthly possessions are grounded, he calls some rich, others poor.

Those heretics, which called themselves Apostolic, as somebody doth now at Rome, before the time of Epiphanius and Augustin, which taught the unlawfulness of all earthly properties, seconded in Austin's time by our countryman Pelagius, and in our times by some of the illuminate Elders of Munster, are not worth confutation; or, if they were, our Apostle hath done it to our hands, in this one word, Rich: for there can be neither rich nor poor in a Community. Neither doth he say, Charge men that they be not rich, but, Charge the rich that they be not high-minded.

With these let us couple our ignorant votaries, that place holiness in want: with whom, their very Crosses cannot deliver their coin from sin'; which, to make good the rule, that it is better to give than to receive, give all they have away at once, for but a licence to beg for ever,

Did these men ever hear that the blessing of God maketh rich? that the wings of riches carry then up to heaven? that the crown of the wise is their wealth? Do they not know, that, if Lazarus were poor, yet Abraham was rich, and pium pauperem suscepit sinus divitis: it was the happiness of poor Lazarus, that he was lodged in the bosom of rich Abraham.

I am no whit afraid, O ye Rich Citizens, lest this paradox of our holy mendicants shall make you out of love with your wealth: I fear, some of you would be rich, though ye might not. Now we tell you from him, whose title is Rich in Mercy, that ye may be at once rich and holy: In divitüs cupiditatem reprehendit, non faculta tem, saith Austin. It is a true word of the son of Sirach, which I would have you carry home with you, and write it as a fit motto, in your counting-house; Bona est substantia, si non sit peccatum in conscientia : Substance doth well in the hand, if there be no evil in the heart; Eccles. xiii. 25.

* Titulum Cbaritaris Dom, à Soro de Justiciâ et Jure.

Charge the Rich. Who are they? There is nothing, wherein is greater misprision. One man, in Laodicean conceitedness, thinks himself rich, when he hath nothing: another, in a covetous humour, thinks he hath nothing, when he is rich: and how easy is it for another man to mistake us, if we may thus easily mistake ourselves? I fear, some of you are like the pageants of your great solemnities, wherein there is the shew of a solid body, whether of a lion, or elephant, or unicorn; but if they be curiously looked into, there is nothing but cloth, and sticks, and air. Others of you, contrarily, are like a dissembling Convent, that professes poverty, and purchases lordships. The very same did Solomon observe in his time, in the great burgomasters of Jerusalem; Prov. xiii. 7.

For the avoiding of both extremes, let us enquire, who is Rich. And, though greatness and riches be in rank of those things which are held to have no absolute determination, but consist rather in respect and comparison: (for a rich farmer is yet poor to a rich merchant, and a rich merchant is but poor to a prince, and he to some great emperor: that great Mammonist would say, he is rich, that can maintain an army: a poor man would say, according to that Italian inscription, “ He is rich that wants not bread;") yet, certainly, there are certain general stakes and bounds, which divide betwixt poverty and competency, betwixt competency and wealth: as there were variety of shekels among the Jews, yet there was one shekel of the Sanctuary that varied not.

Who then is Rich? I must give you a double answer: one will not serve: the one, according to true morality; the other, according to vulgar use.

In the first, he is rich, that hath enough; whether the world think so or not. Even Esau, though he were poor in grace, yet in estate he was rich: I have enough my brother. And he, that said Soul, thou hast goods enow for many years, was almost so: it was not his fault, that he thought he had enough; but that he meant to lie down and wallow in it. A man's wealth or poverty is most-what in hin self. And, though nature have professed to read unto heathen men this lesson of wise moderation, yet it hath been seldom seen, that any thing but true piety hath taught them to take it out; Godliness is great gain with contentment. Victus et vestitus divitia Christianorum, saith Jerome: “ Food and raiment are the Christian's wealth.” Those men therefore, which are still in the horse-leech's note, sucking and craving; which, like Pharaoh's lean kine, are ever feeding, and never the fatter; are as far from true wealth, as they would be from poverty; and further I am sure they cannot be, and not further from wealth than godliness. Having, is the measure of outward

wealth: but it is Thinking, that must measure the inward thoughts, I say of contentment, cheerfulness, and thankfulness; which it ye want, it is not either or both the Indies that can make you rich.

In the latter, he is rich, that hath more than enough; whether he think so or no: he, that hath the possession, whether civil or natural, of more than necessary. Now if necessary and superfluous seem as hard to define as rich; know, there are just limits for both these. Superfluous is defined by necessary; for what is above necessary is superfluous. There is then a double necessary: one, of nature; the other, of estate. That is necessary to nature, without which we cannot live; that, to estate, without which we cannot live well: that is necessary to estate, which were superfluous to nature; and that, which were superfluous to nature, is not so much as necessary to estate. Nature goes single, and bears little breadth: estate goes ever with a train. The necessity of nature admits little difference, especially for quantities: the necessity of estate requires as many diversities, as there are several degrees of human conditions, and several circumstances in those degrees. Justly therefore do the Schoolmen and Casuists teach, that this necessary to the decency of estate doth not consist in puncto individuo, but hath much latitude: that is necessary to scarlet, which to russet were superfluous: that is but necessary to a nobleman, which to an esquire were superfluous: that were superfluous to a peer, which to a prince is but necessary: that is necessary to the father of a family, which to a single man were superfluous. Neither doth this necessity look only to the present; but to the future: not to what may be, which were an endless prospect; but to what must be; the marriage of a daughter, the educațion of a son, the honest provision for posterity. He, that in just estimate, can go beyond the bounds of this necessary, enters into the superfluous estate, and may well pass with the world for rich.

Such an one is rich: let him look how he became so. That God, which can allow you to be rich, will not allow you all ways to your wealth. He hath set up a golden goal, to which he allows you all to run; but ye must keep the beaten road of honesty, justice, charity, and truth: if ye will leave this path, and will be crossing over a shorter cut through bye-ways of your own, ye may be rich with a vengeance. The heathen poet, Menander, (one of them whom St. Paul cited) could observe ydeis é whétyce TAXEWS Since wv, which Solomon translates to us, He, that makes haste to be rich, shall not be innocent; Prov. xxviii. 20. If ye have filled

have filled your bags with fraud, usury, extortion; this gain may be honey in your mouth, but it will be gravel in your throat, and poison in your soul.

There are some means of wealth in an ill-name; as those two trusty servants of Manimon, Use and Brokage. There are others as bad as they, little said to. Since I speak to citizens, let me be bold to say, There is not so arrant usury in letting of money, as in sale of wares. This oppression is both more, and more universal.

There are two maxims that do usually mislead men of traffic, all the world over: the one is, Res valet quanti vendi potest, “ A thing is worth what it may be sold for;" the other Caveat emptor, At the

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