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Before the sun rose, he was harness'd light,
3 Before the fun rose, he was barness'd light,] Does the poet mean (says Mr. Theobald) that Hector had put on light armour ? mean! what else could he mean? He goes to fight on foot; and was not that the armour for his purpose? So, Fairfax, in Tasso's Jerusalem :
“ The other princes put on harness light
“ As footmen use. Yet, as if this had been the higheft absurdity, he goes on, Or does he mean that Hector was sprightly in his arms even before funrise ? or is a conundrum aimed at, in fun rose and harness'd light Was any thing like it? But to get out of this perplexity, he tells us, that a very
Night alteration makes all these construations unnecessary, and fo changes it to harness-dight. Yet indeed the very flighteft alteration will at any time let the poet's sense through the critick's fingers: and the Oxford editor very contentedly takes up what is left behind, and reads harness-dight too, in order, as Mr. Theobald well expresses it, to make all construction unnecessary. WARBURTON.
How does it appear that Hector was to fight on foot rather today, than on any other day? It is to be remembered, that the ancient heroes never fought on horseback; nor does their manner of fighting in chariots seem to require lefs activity than on foot.
JOHNSON. It is true that the heroes of Homer never fought on horseback; yet such of them as make a second appearance in the Æneid, like their antagonists the Rutulians, had cavalry among their troops. Little can be inferred from the manner in which Alcanius and the young nobility of Troy are introduced at the conclusion of the funeral games; as Virgil very probably, at the expence of an anachronism, meant to pay a compliment to the military exercises instituted by Julius Cæfar, and improved by Auguftus. "It appears from different passages in this play, that Hector fights on horseback; and it should be remembered, that Shakspeare was indebted for most of his materials to a book which enumerates Efdras and Pythagoras among the bastard children of King Priamus. Our author, however, might have been led into his mistake by the manner in which Chapman has translated several parts of the Iliad, where the heroes mount their chariots or descend from them. Thus Book VI. speaking of Glaucus and Diomed:
from horse then both descend.” Steevens. If Dr. Warburton had looked into The Destruction of Troy already quoted, he would have found, in every page, that the leaders on each side were alternately tumbled from their horses by the prowess of their adversaries. MALONE.
And to the field goes he; where every flower
What was his cause of anger?
the Greeks A lord of Trojan blood, nephew to Hector; They call him, Ajax. Cres.
Good; And what of him? Alex. They say he is a very man per se, And stands alone.
Cres. So do all men; unless they are drunk, fick, or have no legs.
Alex. This man, lady, hath robb'd many beasts of their particular additions ;' he is as valiant as the lion, churlish as the bear, Now as the elephant : a man into whom nature hath so crowded humours, that his valour is crush'd into folly, his folly
4- perse,] So, in Chaucer's Teftament of Creffeide :
Of faire Cresseide the floure and a per se
" Of Troie and Greece." Again, in the old comedy of Wily Beguiled: “In faith, my sweet honeycomb, I'll love thee a per fe a.' Again, in Blurt Master Constable, 1602:
“ That is the a per fe of all, the creame of all.” Steevens.
their particular additions;] Their peculiar and character istick qualities or denominations. The term in this sense is originally forenfick. MALONE. So, in Macbeth:
whereby he doth receive
that his valour is crush'd into folly,] To be crushed into folly, is to be confused and mingled with folly, so as that they make one mass together. JOHNSON. So, in Cymbeline :
“ Crush him together, rather than unfold
sauced with discretion : there is no man hath a virtue, that he hath not a glimpse of; nor any man an attaint, but he carries some stain of it: he is melancholy withoạt cause, and merry against the hair :: He hath the joints of every thing; but every thing so out of joint, that he is a gouty Briareus, many hands and no use; or purblind Argus, all eyes and no fight.
Cres. But how should this man, that makes me smile, make Hector angry?
Alex. They say, he yesterday coped Hector in the battle, and struck him down; the disdain and shame whereof hath ever since kept Hector fasting and waking.
CREs. Who comes here?
Pan. Good morrow, cousin Cressid: What do you talk of?-Good morrow, Alexander.-How do you, cousin? When were you at Ilium ?9
-against the hair:] is a phrase equivalent to another now in use--against the grain. The French fay-à contrepoil. See Vol. VIII. p. 540, n. 2.
STEEVENS. See Vol. III.
p. 393, n.
MALONE. 8 Good morrow, confin Crellid: What do you talk of?-_Good morrow, Alexander.— How do you, coufin?] Good morrow, Alexander, is added in all the editions, (fays Mr. Pope,) very absurdly, Paris not being on the stage.-Wonderful acuteness! But, with submislion, this gentleman's note is much more abfurd; for it falls out
Cres. This morning, uncle.
Cres. Hector was gone ; but Helen was not up.
Pan. True, he was so; I know the cause too; he'll lay about him to-day, I can tell them that: and there is Troilus will not come far behind him; let them take heed of Troilus; I can tell them that too.
Cres. What, is he angry too?
Pan. Who, Troilus ? Troilus is the better man of the two.
very unluckily for his remark, that though Paris is, for the generality, in Homer called Alexander; yet, in this play, by any one of the characters introduced, he is called nothing but Paris.' The truth of the fact is this : Pandarus is of a busy, impertinent, insinuating character: and it is natural for him, so soon as he has given his coufin the good-morrow, to pay his civilities too to her attendant. This is purely 'not, as the grammarians call it; and gives us an admirable touch of Pandarus's character. And why inight not Alexander be the name of Cressida's man? Paris had no patent, I suppose, for engrossing it to himself. But the late editor, perhaps, because we have had Alexander the Great, Pope Alexander, and Alexander Pope, would not have so eminent a name prostituted to a common varlet. THEOBALD.
This note is not preserved on account of any intelligence it brings, but as a curious specimen of Mr. Theobald's mode of animadversion on the remarks of Mr. Pope. Steevens.
- at Ilium ?] Ilium or Ilion (for it is spelt both ways) was according to Lydgate and the author of The Destruction of Troy, the name of Priam's palace, which is said by these writers to have been built upon a high rock. See a note in Act IV. sc. v. on the words--" Yon towers,” &c.
Cres. O, Jupiter! there's no comparison.
Pan. What, not between Troilus and Hector? Do you know a man,
know a man, if you see him? Cres. Ay; if I ever saw him before, and knew him.
Pan. Well, I say, Troilus is Troilus.
Cres. Then you say as I say; for, I am sure, he is not Hector.
Pan. No, nor Hector is not Troilus, in some degrees.
Cres. 'Tis just to each of them; he is himself. Pan. Himself? Alas, poor Troilus ! I would,
Cres. So he is.
Pan. -'Condition, I had gone bare-foot to India.
CREs. He is not Hector.
Pan. Himself? no, he's not himself.-'Would 'a were himself! Well, the gods are above;? Time must friend, or end: Well, Troilus, well, I would, my heart were in her body!-No, Hector is not a better man than Troilus.
Cres. Excuse me.
Pan. The other's not come to't; you shall tell me another tale, when the other's come to't. Hector shall not have his wit' this year.
Cres. He shall not need it, if he have his own.
2 Well, the gods are above;] So, in Othello : “ Heaven's above all." MALONE.
- his wit-] Both the old copies have-will. Corrected by Mr. Rowe. MALONE.