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What struck me the most in this extraordinary man, / failed to do so by their singularity. Mr. Maturin was tall, (in your recollection, that I have before pointed out parisularly when he was abusing Napoleon, was, that slender, but well proportioned, and, on the whole, a good some of their severities and inconsistencies; and I merely aming to my opinion, he had no real knowledge of figure, which he took care to display in a well-made black

sind; his pride, his rank, his renown, had prevented coat, tightly buttoned, and some odd light-coloured stock- mention this, to afford myself the opportunity of again

from treating with them on a footing of equality. ing-web pantaloons, and shoes, surmounted in winter' by a avowing an adherence to the same sentiments. The ques. hauteur and distrust had always kept them at too coat of prodigious dimensions, gracefully thrown on, so as tion, then, which we should now particularly look at and a distance to allow him to observe them properly; not to obscure the symmetry it affected to protect. This examine, is, not whether the law, which awards the pu

too much accustomed to undertake nothing but odd exhibition, however, of an elegant form in the street, nishment of death to perpetrators of crimes similar to

he could carry by main force. As some compen- the church, or the drawing-room, did not suffice. The those committed by Mr. Fauntleroy, is just and well sation, he displayed a multitude of delicate and just Rev. Gentleman sang and danced, and prided himself on ideas when we happened to talk of women whom he performing the movements and evolutions of the quadrille, founded ; but whether, from its being a law long in opeknee, as he always had a desire to please and to de- certainly better than any other divine of the Established ration, and by which hundreds have been consigned to the are them. He spoke with pity of the women of Eng, Church, and equal to any private lay-gentleman of the silent tomb, we can at once abrogate it, to meet the case of land, of Geneva, and of Neufchatel, &c. What Lord three kingdoms. It often happened, too, that Mr. Maturin a particular individual ? I know that it is never too late Bran's genius wanted was, to be put under the necessity either laboured under an attack of gout, or met with some of negociating and discussing with his equals. I am accident, which compelled the use of a slipper or a bandage to discover an error, and upon that discovery to amend convinced that, if he had lived to return from Greece, on one foot or one leg, and, by an unaccountable congruity our ways; but I think it wrong, broadly and without any his talents would have appeared, all at once, enlarged of mischances, he was uniformly compelled on these occa- limitation, to apply this principle to the Government dio-half. In his endeavours to reconcile Mavrocordato sions to appear in the public thoroughfares of Dublin, where of a country: for it must be well known, that the and Colocotroni, he would have acquired some positive the melancholy spectacle of a beautiful limb in pain

never regulation of a state cannot exactly keep pace with indiviTon might have elevated himself to the

height of real tra- teresting persons who passed, as well as prompting their dual or family improvement, neither can it be regulated gedy. He would have had fewer fits of misanthropy; he curiosity to make audible

remarks or inquiries respecting with the same nicely of feeling, or the same regard to prewould not have always thought that every one about him the possessor.

cision and despatch. As we have gradually emerged from Was solely occupied with him, and occupied with a view to The effect upon a person of this temperament of the barbarism, so must we gradually approach the climax of

excite his envy, or to deceive him. The fund of misan unexpected success of Bertram, led to some untoward human perfection. I conceive Mr. Fauntleroy to be now society. His friends remarked, that the more he lived copyright of that tragedy, exceeded, perhaps, one thou- dead, in point of law; and that the only cheering rays with the Italians, the more happy and obliging he became sand pounds, while the praises bestowed upon its author which can at present illume his gloomy cell will be we substitute black bile for fits of childish anger, we by critics of all classes, convinced Mr. Marturin that he those arising from the contemplation of that bright and hall find that Lord Byron's character had the most strik. had only to sit down and concoct any number of plays he resplendent jewel which always has, and ever will dazzle, og resemblance to that of Voltaire.

pleased, each yielding him a pecuniary return, at least in the British diadem, MERCY ! But a moment's ** But I must conclude, in order not to make a disserta- equal to the first. He had therefore scarcely arrived in ion instead of a letter. You must excuse me, Madam, Dublin, with his full-blown dramatic honours and riches, reflection as to the nature and extent of this royal for troubling you with these general observations. I could when tradesmen of all hue, and callings, were ordered to prerogative, will, I am afraid, tend to extinguish even bare wished rather to have given you facts;

but an inter. York-street, to paint, furnish, and decorate, with suitable this last and only hope ; for as justice is tempered with lervalof seven or eight years has banished these from my taste and splendour, the mansion of the great new-born mercy, so must mercy be tempered with justice. It is memory

, in which there now only remain the conclusions tragic poet of Ireland. The Reverend Gentleman's porno well known that the King may pardon, and that the King happy if you are satisfied with this kind of moral portrait, spring. Unfortunately the brightest hopes of genius are individually, in a temporal sense, can do no wrong; but and if you regard these hastily.written pages as a proof of often the most fallacious, and so it proved in the

present it is also known, that the King hath sworn “ to govern the profound respect with

which, I have the honour to be, instance. A few months produced a second tragedy, the people of this kingdom, according to the statutes in &c. &c.

“ H. BEYLE." which failed, and with it not only faded away the dreams

of prosperity in which the author of Bertram 50 fondly parliament agreed on, and the laws and customs of the THE REV. R. C. MATURIN. indulged, but his house was assailed by importunate cre

same:" how then can he, consistently, be advised to adhere ditors, who lodged executions, and every other disagreeable to the operations of a law, in all its bearings, except the The Irish papers, in announcing the death of this gentle Time enabled Mr. Maturin gradually to extricate himself | case ten hundred times more heinous and aggravated than

sort of legal inmates in that abode of genius and merit. penalty, and be called upon to mitigate that penalty, in a man, have indulged in various panegyrics on his character from these embarrassments, and having thus had the wings other cases, where the full penalty has been rigorously Hoferer, gives an imperfect idea of any person, and, to a safer flight. His eccentricities,

however, remained in their inflicted ? Let the mates of that host of miserable beings judge correctly of Mr. Maturin, his portrait must be drawn former vigour, and in the coteries of Lady Morgan, or now mouldering with the silent dust, wliose lives were and coloured with a more impartial pencil than that of the romantic solitudes of Wicklow, the vain oddities of the forfeited for petty forgeries and uttering of forged notes, either an arowed friend or a professed eulogist. If he was Curate of St. Peter's continued as remarkable as during speak, and let their voice be heard! To what end shall gifted with genius, he was also given to follies, nor were the height of his tragic triumphs. Of late years his pen we listen to their voice? to perpetuate the same miseries? sen his excellencies, however great, unalloyed with the was chiefly employed on works of romance, in which he ranities and eccentricities of common-place humanity. Before the tragedy of Bertram was produced at Drury-guage, with evident and lamentable carelessness in the public attention is now alive to the importance of a revi.

evinced great powers of imagination and fecundity of lan- to pursue the same system? No! far otherwise. The Ine Theatre,

and received with such distinguished appro, application of both. He wrote, in fact, for money, not sion of the criminal code, and I firmly believe that, should ation, Mr. Maturin was the humble, unknown, and for fame, and succeeded in drawing a considerable re. Mr. Fauntleroy attone for his crimes, by the forfeiture of Baoticed curate of St. Peter's, Dublin ; from which he venue from the sale of his productions. crived a stated income of £70, or at the utmost £100 per

The immediate cause of Mr. Maturin's death was, we

his existence, he will not die in vain. I forbear to work In the same unostentatious corner of the splendid understand, his having taken a lotion, containing a large upon the feelings, by a statement of the incalculable ctober 30, 1824. Mr. Maturin, however, was at no period quantity of laudanum, in mistake for medicine intended misery which might

result from mal-practices so warily and for the stomach. pendant upon the emoluments of his curacy. Before

extensively executed as those of Mr. F., because my object dramatic performance already mentioned conferred

is merely to discu the point with reference to the just upon his name and works, he had published one or

Correspondence.

and legal possibility of sparing his life, as the law now o novels, which obtained an ordinary rank in the cala

stands, and I have therefore confined myself within the gues of our circulating libraries, although they afforded

MR. FAUNTLEROY.

limits of an attempt to show, that this cannot consistently láitle profit as fame to their author; and he besides pre

be done. ered a few young gentlemen to pass the entrance exami. ations of Trinity College, who for that purpose resided

“ We must not make a scarecrow of the law." There ith him, in his house, York-street, Dublin. But, not. Sir, -I am well assured, my differing with you, in must be consistency and vigour in the measures of a Gohitistanding these combined resources, Mr. Maturin's opinion, on the case of the unfortunate Mr. Fauntleroy, vernment; and the laws of a country should never proceed spårations surpassed them; and, like tnen of talent in will not exclude this letter from your columns. I con. to condemn, and then be afraid or pause to execute. I esires, he was constantly beset with duns and difficulties. fess I enter upon the subject with feelings which are at look upon this to be a certain means of bringing all law till these sublunary trifles had even then no serious effect variance with each other ; because, from motives of hu- into contempt, and sapping the best interests of society. am the Rev. Gentleman's conceit of his own importance. manity, with yourselves and many others, I should wish No alteration of the penal code can now affect the case he person calling at No. -, York-street, on indifferent Mr. F.'s life to be spared, and yet from principles of jus- of Mr. Fauntleroy, for he is civilly dead ; and therefore msiness, or the creditor who " for the last time” demanded tice and of law, I think he ought to suffer. The question, it can only have a general influence in guiding and regu. cative of the owner's several pursuits, and having waited of whether it is justifiable to put a man to death for any lating subsequent legislation in the amendment of such

fufficiently fashionable time, was received, answered, crime except that of murder, has, in my humble opinion, code. These remarks are founded upon the principle of ad dismissed with a sovereign air of superiority, which nothing to do with the point now under consideration. The public justice, and I trust they will be examined with pas, at least, as much calculated to surprise as to satisfy; penal code of this country is, in some instances, sanguinary, candour. The curate of St. Peter's, in short, though at that period and deals out death with a lavish hand;!and, in submitting I sincerely lament that there is nothing in the case of bedingly vain Both of his person and accomplishments; to your consideration the following observations, I trust it the unfortunate Mr. Fauntleroy, which can justify a dend, as his income would not allow hiin to attract attention will not be supposed I am an advocate either for the parture from the established law.

W. y the splendour of his dress and manners, he seldom equity, or continuance of these laws. It will, perhaps, bel' Liverpool, Nov. 22, 1824.

TO THE EDITOR.

TO THE EDITOR

yours, &c.

for our next.

LATIN GRAMMARS.

TO THE EDITOR

are sold at a price equal to two thirds of our whole for SIR-A few of the juvenile readers of the Kaleidoscope lume. A reserve of these is kept to supply back orden,

will consider themselves much indebted to its worthy edi- and may be had of the agents by timely application. SIR-I am a solitary learner of the Latin language. tor, if he or any of his correspondents will oblige them by The following popular and cheap publications, which The grammar recommended to me, for the purpose of answering the following question, which occurred the other have issued from our office, may not be uninteresting to the acquiring a knowledge of the syntax of that language, is night in one of their evening debates :—“ Would the gra. Irish readers : that of Mr. Jones, author of a Greek grammar, &c. On tification of every wish produce peace of mind ?". The A Perspective VIEW of the LIVERPOOL NEW MARKET, the whole, I much approve of Mr. Jones's Latin gram question, at first, appeared ridiculous, as every one acknow-with a GROUND PLAN of the INTERIOR of that extensin mar ; but there is one rule of syntax which I cannot ledges that abundance of possessions confer no real happi.

Structure. Price Sixpence. dearly comprehend : it is rule 2, and stands thus :- ness, till some of the party suggested the following argu. HALL, with a Plan of the SPLENDID SUITE OF Roons, and a

An elegantly-engraved VIEW of the LIVERPOOL TOWX. “ When a person is distinguished by any rank, quality, ment:_“If a person could obtain every wish, and wished fun description of that admired Edifice. Price Sixpence.-or character, the noun expressing it is used in the for peace of mind, would it not be obtained ?" This, of (This publication is adapted to binding with the Kaleidoscope genitive to denote the source, or in the ablative to de- course, is a mere play upon the words ; but, as it acciden

A MAP and DESCRIPTION of the celebrated MAMMOTH note the origin of that distinction ; as, Adolescens summa tally arose in conversation, and was strenuously supported CAVE (several miles in extent) to North Amerier Price virtutis, a youth of consummate virtue. But the ablative on the one hand, and as positively denied on the other, a is used for the genitive, when the quality, rank, or cha- solution from a third party would decide it. An early at- lately died in the Liverpool Workhouse, aged 110 years

A Lithographic PORTRAIT of OLD ELLEN TATE, WA racter, in question, is represented, not as the source of tention to this request will particularly oblige, as the event months and 12 days. Price Sixpence. distinction, but as the instrument or medium by which is awaited with some anxiety by the members of the

Mr. ROSCOE'S DISCOURSE on the Opening of the Lee the subject is distinguished ; as, Vir summá prudentia,

CHIT-CHAT ASSOCIATION.

pool ROYAL INSTITUTION. Price Fourpence. a map with the highest prudence ; i. c. a man accompanied with, or distinguished by, the highest prudence." Funeral Oration delivered in the Roman Catholic Chapel, To Correspondents. Querè :-May we not say the same of adolescens and Seel-street, Liverpool, on the 27th October, 1824, on

the occusion of the death of Louis XVIII.

FORBIGN CONNBRCE. virtue

-The elegant and entertaining es If, Sir, you will make the Kaleidoscope the “instruThe Rev. Mr. Orré, of Liverpool, has just published a

from the Spectator, lately introduced with sub ta

effect by Mr. M'Culloch, in his interesting Lectures en ment or medium" by which some grammatical friend will pamphlet, of thirty pages, with the foregoing title.

Our other a vocations have not yet permitted us to peruse

litical Economy, shall be given in an early number die elucidate the above rule, you will do a great kindness to, this work, which is thus noticed in the Saturday's paper:

Kaleidoscope.
INQUIRER. “ A tract is advertised in another part of our paper, an

ASTRONOMY.—The second part of Newtonian's Thoughts as
Edgc-hill, November 18, 1824.
Oration on the Death of Louis XVIII., to which respect

Astronomy, which have been unintentionally delayed, stat

appear in our next. I will just observe to yourself, Sir, by way of P. s. for the production itself, which we have

perused with

pleathat Grant, in his “ Institutes," Syn. R. 12, says :-“ If make us desirous of calling the attention of our readers. sure, as well as personal esteem for its respectable author, MAUVAISE HONTE—The correspondent who has faround on

with an essay on this subject has opitted to state whether the latter of two substantives have an adjective of praise it is a brief sketch of the life of the deceased monarch, It is original; and if not, from what work it is selected. or dispraise joined with it, it may be put in the genitive from which is drawn the encomium on his character, A's lines, addressed to Miss B. on her nuptials, are reserved or ablative; as, Vir summe prudentia, vel summá prue and amiable man: and the obvious moral reflections which VOLTAIRE's English POETRY.-The two stanzas written by dentia."

arise out of the subject, and which are applicable to all, Zumpt (translated by Kewick) sect. 70, says:-" The are derived and enforced with grace and eloquence. It is

Voltaire in English, and presented to us by a correspondent,

have been mislaid, but we have no doubt will be found be wubstantive can only be used in the genitive, when joined a remarkable example of a correct and elegant style, at.

fore our next publication. The Italian and French places with an adjective, as, not homo ingenii, but homo magni, tained by a foreigner in our language."

which accompanied them shall appear in our next. summi, excellentis ingenii.” This, however, throws no Theatre. Our readers will perceive that the benefit of SUPPLEMENT 10 THE KALEIDOSCOPR.–The next Intelbrecept light on the subject, why the noun should not be in the Mr. Andrews is advertised for Wednesday next, when the will be accompanied by a gratuitous Supplement, in order ablative, as in Grant's example.

deeply-affecting tragedy of Jane Shore will be performed, that we may bring up some arrears, and put our readers to Lastly, Mr. J. says, Syn. R. 15:-“ Adjectives signify- tragedy is seldom acted here, and cannot fail to be at Mrs. M.Gibbon personating the principal character. This possession of some very valuable documents connected with

the great change which will take place in the British weights ing qualities of mind, or of body, require a noun in the tractive. After the play, Mr. Richard Andrews (son of and measures, in May next. The supplements we have genitive, to express the origin of those qualities." In the respectable and useful actor whose benefit is announced) occasionally been in the habit of giving, are intended to rule two he had said the ablative was to denote the origin will perform on the grand piano-forte ; and the laughter

compensate some of our readers for the introduction of of the distinguishing quality. loving world will have another opportunity of seeing

any subjects in which they may take no interest-mulle "* Life in London."-Sce adv.

or advertisements; and we take occasion to repeat, that Towards the close of R. 15, Mr. J. says :-“ As the ge

exclusive of these two items, our subscribers will find that nitive and ablative alike express cause or the origin of

nur annual volume contains much more general piatter things, they are often used one for the other."

Che Kaleidoscope.

than could be comprised in Afty-two weekly numbers It appears to me that this last clause might serve instead

We expect, by means of our extra half-sheet, to find rost of R. 2, but I think the matter well worth the investigation

TO THE PUBLIC IN GENERAL,

in our next for the following:-E. S. on the death

Madame Riego_La Gloire Militaire- L. L on the alleen of some of your correspondents.

plagiarisms of Anacreon Moore-Observator's critique, Nai TO OUR IRISH READERS.

-Cantab Li's lines to his brother,

The communication of Caustic is under consideration,
TOADS.
The circulation of the Kaleidoscope in Ireland has in. Music - The Swiss Air, with which we have been farowy

Juvenis', query shall be answered next week.
creased, is increasing, and it shall not be our fault if it

by a correspondent, is somewhat too long for our stock 818,—The very curious subject of toads being found do not continue to increase. Our readers in that country, types. We are of opinion, that some of the music dealer alive in solid rocks, I was talking about lately with some to which we are much attached, have it in their power to in Liverpool would publish it. We have 'not made up of * colliers at Burnley, in consequence of toads having recently, serve us materially by their recommendations of our minds with respect to the musical offering of Solomon Line

ingale. The old Scotch air, to which a correspondest in two instances, been found there alive in a deep and work, if it appear to them to deserve that favour. Such

composed a few verses, is certainly very beautiful: 14 solid rock of blue grit, which is nearly as hard as limc publications as ours, not containing news, stand espe.

appears to us that if we should give the words, stone in working the coal-pit in summer, they said they cially in need of individual recommendation, which has refer to the tune, which is very familiar, the objet oftea met with youug frogs and toads, where there were more weight than any thing the proprietors can offer in our correspondent would be accomplished; and our 2

cal types might be employed on other subjects. Howeret, cracks and liule streams of water; the frogs jumped about, their favour.-Our friends in the sister country are re

we shall examine the accompaniment afixed to the air, and became the prey of the rats and mice, with which the spectfully informed, that they may be supplied with any

If we find that it is original, or varied from the ordinary rer workings abounded: but, following the toads with the of the former four volumes of the Kaleidoscope, through

sion, we shall, in all probability, introduce the whole istu streams, one would expect them to be found in such parts Messrs. De Joncourt and Harvey, Dublin, who will an early number of the Kaleidoscope. We should be giadi of the rocks as had veins differently coloured by a sandy forward them to any part of Ireland. These volumes speak personally with friend Solomon, which might serta

world of future explanatione, sediment; but, in most instances, they are found in what contain a most copious and minute index, and the appears to have been an uniform rock for ages: though, price in boards is 178. 6d. Irish-We beg further to HALIFAX-We assure our agent, Mr. Whitley, that we seat

the usual number of the Kaleidoscope to his address * doubtless, whatever is the colouring matter of the blue trespass upon the patience of our Irish friends while week. We cannot form an idea of the cause of their name grit, in the above instance, may also change the colour of we state, that our original translation of L'Hermite en arrival, but to prevent disappointment we have forwarded he sediment.--Yours, &c. H. Italie, which is this very day brought to a conclusion, another supply. We should be glad to know whether any

copies of our work, of Nov. 28, got into circulation is There have been many experiments made of burying was commenced in February last; between which time

Halifax, and by what means. roads in alr-tight boxes for years in the ground, and when and the present, we have put our readers in possession of Laken up again they appeared of the same size, with the the first, and we believe the only translation of a favourite

Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, by yellow ring round their eyes as bright as ever.

French author, the two volumes of which, in the original, E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord-strest, Liverpool

AND SPECIALLY

TO THE EDITOR

[graphic]

OR,

Literary and Scientific Mirror.

“ UTILE DULCI.”

The fumfliar Miscellany, from which religious and politicalmatters are excluded, containsa varietyof originalandselected Articles; comprehending Literature, Criticism, Men and Manners

Amusement, Elegant Extracts, Poetry, Anecdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Arts and Sciences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c. &c. forming a handsome Annual Vome, with an Index and Title-page. Its circulation renders it a most eligible medium for Literary and Fashionable Advertisements.—Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents.

No. 232.– Vol. V.

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1824.

Price 36

Natural History.

I could allege many reasons sufficient to justify me in with the earthy particles which had risen in the air, and

refusing to obey your command; but, setting aside all which gradually fell as the atmosphere became purified The work, of which we now give the first portion of an those that do not regard yourself, are you not aware, that, This mixture of the oily superficial layer with the gross original translation, will, we feel confident, amuse and in- although I may have succeeded in engaging your atten- particles fallen from the atmosphere, formed the first land struct the generality of our readers. It was transmitted to tion for some time by presenting to your mind new sub- which men cultivated before the deluge. It was light, us by a judicious friend in Paris, who has assured us that jects of medication, I can hardly hope to awaken an equal and extremely fertile; its surface was perfectly smooth, the work is there highly esteemed. We have seen no an. degree of interest by means of cold letters, conveying to and free from inequalities of every kind. nouncement of its having yet found its way to London ; you, periodically, ideas that will no longer possess the But the first men did not long enjoy this happy abode. sad we have every reason to believe that our translation is charm of novelty ?

The heat of the sun, drying up by degrees the soil which he first that has appeared. This production will remind A letter may often tell you what you already know, they cultivated, at length caused it to crack at the end of or readers of Goldsmith's celebrated work; but it pos- without satisfying you on the subject of your immediate fifteen or sixteen centuries, and the terrestrial crust fell esses one great advantage over that popular favourite: it curiosity.

into the abyss of waters beneath it. reats of important discoveries made subsequently to the You have, however, rendered useless whatever objec- Such, according to Burnet, was the cause of the deluge. ime of Goldsmith ; discoveries which have thrown a new tions I may urge to oppose the gratification of your He considers our present continents as large masses of the ight over some points, until lately, involved in great ob- wishes, by formally announcing your intention to listen ancient crust, which have filled up the abyss of the waters : carity. The work is one volume, and consists of nearly to none. I shall, therefore, without further comment, the islands and rocks under water are small fragments of 22 hundred pages, illustrated by four engravings of a enter upon my subject ; but, if I become obscure or te- it, and the heights and hollows, by which the face of our ke of non-descript and extinct animals. dious, do not fail to let me know it.

soil is varied, are consequences of the confusion occasioned PREFACE.

The subject of our correspondence will be the documents by the fall of the crust. As for the ocean, it is a part of

furnished to us by the enlightened observation of philoso- the ancient abyss, the remaining part of it having entered Myobject in publishing these letters, is to give the pub- phers, relative to the revolutions of which our globe must, the

interior cavities, with which the ocean communicates. € some idea of the curious results of observations made at different periods, have been the victim. But, Madam, This system, as you see, Madam, is supported by no ob5 our most distinguished inodern naturalists, in the study before I make known to you the opinions formed by mo- servations, by no authenticated facts. It may be consi, I the terrestrial globe.

dern naturalists on this subject, I think it will be agreeable dered merely as the production of the imagination of the If I may judge by the pleasure I have experienced in to you to have some idea of the principal systems which author; it is explanatory of nothing, and no inferences xamining their interesting inquiries, I shall have per- have been invented for the last two centuries, on the origin can be deduced from it. Yet, as Burnet was not deficient ormed a service, not unacceptable to those who have a of our planet, the modifications it may have experienced, in talent, and as his book was well written, it remained in aste for the acquisition of knowledge, without having it the deluge, and the causes which may reasonably be pre repute until the period when the discovery of very ima their power to devote much time to study. sumed to involve its future ruin.

portant phenomena gave a new direction to philosophical Asl have endeavoured to adapt my style to the compre- All these inquiries which so much engaged the attention speculation. asion of persons little versed in the study of natural of authors who wrote in the eighteenth century, on the

These curious phenomena, which form the foundation tors

, such an elementary knowledge of that subject as Theory of the earth, hardly find a place in modern works of all the systems invented since the beginning of the sequired in the routine of a common school education on geology; and our most distinguished literati, notwith- eighteenth century, consist in the existence of bones of I suffice to render these letters intelligible. standing the additional knowledge they have acquired, or

fish, shells, and other marine animal productions in the Shribas to avoid being the means of diffusing error, rather in consequence of that knowledge, have deemed it interior of the soil of our continents. These marine prove imposed upon myself an obligation to adduce no fit to refrain from discussing them.

ductions, particularly the shells, are exceedingly numerous,

and sometimes in a state of excellent preservation : they non that is not sanctioned by the authority of a cele- But, though the naturalists of the present day no longer are often found inclosed in the hardest stones. ed name.

lose their time in inventing theories of the earth, it may be headmirable work of M. Cuvier on fossil bones has interesting to know those which have been the most generalist first made and published these important observa

You are, perhaps, Madam, curious to know what natuAlied me with all that I have written on that subject. rally received, or which have been proposed by the most tions. His name is obscure, his profession still more so. * of my observations on the formation of the mineral celebrated naturalists

. They belong, in fact, to the history Bernard Palissy lived towards the end of the sixteenth of the earth, on volcanoes, earthquakes, &c. are of the progress of the human understanding on this sub-century: he was a potter, and resided at Paris. The from the lectures of M. Cordier.

ject, and I shall, by giving you a brief exposition of them, greatest natural philosopher, as Fontenelle observes, ever have also borrowed something from the works ard in some measure imitate the historians of all ages, who formed by the unassisted efforts of genius, he was the fute of M. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire.

have thought fit to introduce the recital of well authenti- first who dared to aver at Paris, in the face of all the Wherever I have hazarded my own opinions, I have cated events, by an account of the fables which have ob- learned world, that fossil shells were real shells formerly a careful to make known their source, that they might tained credit among different people, but which they have deposited by the sea in the places where they were found,

be received with the confidence due to those which are represented in their true light. ported by the authority of the celebrated men whom I

and not minerals, extraordinary productions, mere lusus Burnet is the first author who has, in modern times, naturæ, as they were supposed to be in his time. The e just mentioned.

endeavoured to explain, by a system, the general revolu. proofs which he adduced appeared incontestible to all who ETTERS ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE. tions which the earth has experienced, and those which it examined them. Nearly a century, however, elapsed, be

is yet destined to undergo. The following are his ideas fore his opinions were predominant, and became the means

upon the subject. legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne

of awakening new ideas in the minds of the learned. que des ruines.

The earth, which was at first only a fluid mass, a chaos The first system in which an hypothesis is proposed to Paris: printed, 1824.

composed of matter of every species, and of every figure, explain the existence of fossil bodies in the interior of our

began to assume a regular form, when the heaviest parts, continents, is that of Woodward. He maintains that, at (Translated expressly for the Kaleidoscope.]

descending towards its centre, had formed there a hard the period of the deluge, God, by an act of his will, susLETTER 1-02 THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS.

and solid nucleus, enveloped in the waters, which, being
lighter, were collected around it on all sides. The air es- found in the interior of the earth, and, in a manner, incor-

By fossils are understood the remains of organized bodies t is then, Madam, your serious request that I should caped above this superficial and watery bed, whilst, on its porated with it. A more accurate definition of the meaning respond with you on the subject of our last conver- surface, floated, as being lighter, a thin layer of unctuous attached to the term fossilisation will be found in the letters ions

oily matter, at first unmixed, but soon afterwards united' which treat particularly of animal fossils.

BY M. ALEX. B.

pended the power of cohesion which united together the with a rain so copious, that, in two days, as much water pion upon this subject, I cannot forbear telling you what molecules of all! solid bodies; that he thus reduced all descended upon the earth, as is now contained in the has been the result of his speculations. · these bodies to dust, and that the waters of the deluge, whole ocean. The vapours of the tail of the comet were According to him, the planets are so many litue suns, moistening this dust, formed of it a sort of soft paste, the flood-gates of heaven, which God opened, according which, after having burnt a long time, have been final easily penetrated by all sorts of marine productions. to the words of Genesis, " and the windows of heaven were extinguished for want of combustible matter, and har The author has recourse to this hypothesis, because he opened.

become opaque bodies. The fire has, by the liquefaction is aware how impossible is the supposition, that during The author, by means of this rain continued for the of the various kinds of matter, invested them with a vitti the short period of time that the deluge lasted, the water, space of forty days, might have accounted satisfactorily fied layer, and all bodies found upon their surface an which covered the earth, should have power to decompose enough for the deluge, even supposing that the water had either glass reduced to very small particles like sand, I the continents to any considerable depth, and to dissolve covered the earth to a height exeeeding that which is fixed glass mixed with fixed salts and water. the hardest stones, so as to render them the receptacles of by the holy scriptures. But, that he may not depart from A large quantity of the water which had been reduce marine productions. We shall shortly have occasion to the sacred text, he does not allow this rain, derived from so to vapour by the original burning temperature of th mention the existence of facts which prove incontrovertibly, distant a source, to have been the only cause of the deluge: earth, fell to its surface as soon as it was become cold, and that the deposition of marine bodies in the places where as Buffon says, he takes water wherever it can be found, formed the seas and oceans, such as we now behold ther. they are found, cannot be the result of a violent and sudden and supposes the comet, when it approached the earth, to

Towards the middle of the eighteenth century, a writer movement.

have exercised upon its whole mass, an attraction, by vir- (Maillet) who thought fit to assume the character of a The work of Woodward is filled with observations, of tue of which the waters contained in the great abyss (he Indian philosopher, gave to the world his ideas ca the which the truth and accuracy have been confirmed by time. also supposes a great abyss of water under our continents) formation of our globe, its original state, and future de He says that he has discovered that all the terrestrial mat. were agitated by se violent a commotion, that the super- tiny. His work met with great, and, in some deta ter in England, from its surface to the greatest depths to ficial crust, unable to resist it, was burst asunder in several merited success. It is, in fact, well writter, and 11 which he has descended, was disposed in layers; that, in parts, and the waters of the interior diffused over its sur- with just observations, particularly on the subject of fces a great number of these layers, there are shells and other face; “ and the same day were all the fountains of the great remains. The inferences deduced from those observation marine productions ; he then adds, that he has ascertained, deep broken up."

are certainly not admissible in the present state of science by means of his correspondents and friends, that the land Whiston, as you see, explains with equal facility, the but may have been so, at the period when the sake of every country is composed in the same manner, and creation and the deluge, such as they are described by wrote. Having observed traces of the presence of the sea that shells are found mixed with it, not only on the sum. Moses. Neither is he at all perplexed in accounting for on the summits of the highest mountains, and besting mits of mountains, but in the bottom of the deepest hol. the form of the earth, the long life of its first inhabitants, that he had grounds sufficient to justify him in consider lows. He has remarked, that these layers were horizon- and their inordinate passions. What, do you think, is the ing all the continents, without exception, as having be tally placed one above another, as would be the case with difficulty which proves insurmountable to him? The formed in its interior ; relying also upon observatice matter transported by the waters and deposited in the form ark of Noah, which was the salvation of mankind, is the which appeared to him to prove incontestibly that aile of a sediment.

rock upon which his system splits. How was it possible seas gradually diminish, and abandon their shores Nothing can be more just than these observations ; but, to account, by natural canses, for its preservation amidst was led to conclude that our globe was formerly entin on the other hand, it is manifestly contrary to truth, that the subversion of all nature, while the waters of the tail of covered with water, that this immense sea had, byd these substances are, as Woodward affirms, disposed; with the comet; on one hand, and the torrents of the great grees, formed in-its bosom the mountains, whose summi respect to their proximity to the surface of the earth, in abyss, on the other, were inundating and destroying all appeared when the waters first began to retire ; that e exact proportion to their specific gravity. This would be matter to the innermost recesses of the earth ? “ It is easy whole surface of our continents was afterwards left ba the case if the earth, having been entirely liquified at the to imagine,” says Buffon, “how distressing is the situation and that new islands will shortly arise from the boson time of the deluge, as the author supposes, had been har- of a man, who, after having accounted for so many im. the waves, whilst the present islands will be united to d dened by degrees. But, on the contrary, we may be con portant events without having recourse to miracles or the continents, by the retreat of those portions of the sea, b vinced by the slightest observation, that the heaviest intervention of supernatural power, finds himself pre- which they are now separated from them. These inter layers are frequently placed above very light substances vented from proceeding further, by a single detached cir- ences are supported by facts, either carelesedy obserre Who does not know, for instance, that rocks are frequently cumstance. Our author, therefore, prefers running the or entirely false. A more enlightened study of foonil found placed above beds of clay, sand, coal, and bitumen, risk of being drowned with the ark, to the mortification of mains has proved, as we shall shortly see, that if the which are certainly much lighter than they are ? ascribing, as he ought to do, to the will of the Almighty, did ever really cover all the continents, it never can be Besides, another insurmountable difficulty may be op- the preservation of this precious vessel.

been sufficiently copious to inundate them, except posed' to the system of Woodward. This consists in the While I am speaking to you of the system of Whiston, leaving dry a part of its ancient bed; in a word, tha absurdity of supposing that there can have been a suffi. Madam, I must not omit to make known to you an opinion, has often and frequently changed its bed, but that, cient quantity of water on the globe, to liquify all the which he was the first to advance, although without proofs, cording to all appearances, it has never covered at these terrestrial matter, even allowing it, according to his hypo- or rather upon entirely false suppositions, and which has been time the entire surface of the earth. thesis, to have been miraculously reduced to dust. confirmed by recent experiments. He supposes that there Our knowledge of the real planetary system das

Whiston, who, as well as Woodward, wrote in English, exists in the centre of the globe a nucleus, which was al. permit us to pause for a moment on the pretended I adopts, indiscriminately, in his work, all the observations ready there while the earth was only a comet, and which, liamed's visionary notions respecting the future destin of the latter ; but he proposes new hypotheses, which will having been prodigiously heated, when it approached the our earth. They differ widely from the imaginative appear to you very singular, although many of them are sun, has ever since preserved a great part of the high tem- Whiston ; of a part of which it may at least be said, not without ingenuity. It is this author's constant en- perature then acquired. You will be less astonished by although they are whimsical, they are not absolutely deavour to adhere scrupulously to the text of Genesis. this opinion, if you consider to how high a degree comets trary to the laws of nature. He is of opinion, that According to him, the earth was formerly a comet, in are sometimes heated. In 1680 a comet passed so near our present sun shall have become extinct, we shal which all the elements, confusedly blended together, the sun, that, according to astronomers, it must have having wandered for some time in the space of the formed one vast abyss. The gross vapours, surrounding acquired a temperature two thousand times higher than rean, exchange it for another. He maintains that we it on all sides, enveloped it in eternal' obscurity, and that of red-hot iron, and that it will require fifty thousand already undergone a similar revolution at the time darkness was upon the face of the deep."

years to cool it. We may then suppose that the nucleus deluge, and he thus accounts for that great catalar The day after the creation, the earth, having acquired a of our earth is still burning, as not more than six thou- and for the different length of the year before the me greater degree of solidity, became a planet, and assumed a sand years have elapsed since the period when it was when it took place. spherical form. The atmosphere was cleared from the heated.

Although the opinion of Maillet, upon the origin gross particles which had before darkened it, and which However this inay be, one of the most curious observa. human race, resembles that of a celebrated naturali now fell to the surface of the globe; the air was purified, tions of latter years is that, by means of which it is de. the present day, I am so well aware of the ridiculouse and, yielding a free passage to the rays of the sun, per- monstrated that the temperature is invariably more ele. ner in which it will strike you, that I hardly dare mitted it, for the first time, to shine on the surface of our vated in proportion to our proximity to the centre of the it known to you. According to him, our first ance earth. Thus was executed the will of the Almighty, earth, a fact necessarily leading to the supposition of a were fish, which, having become amphibious anin when he said, “Let there be light."

very considerable internal heat. But I will not anticipate when the primitive earth was left dry, have finally as Whiston, after having endeavoured to explain, consist- what I have to say upon this subject.

an entirely terrestrial nature. He is not ashamed to ently, all the particulars of the creation, arrives at the I should fear to weary your attention by describing port his system by the most ridiculous stories of si deluge . According to him, this great disaster was occa- particularly to you all the other systems which, before the tritons, marine men, men with tails

, and men bar sioned by the passage of a comet, whose tail met our time of Buffon, have been invented to explain the forma. only a single leg and a single hand. He sometimes es earth, and enveloping it, during forty days, in its thick tion of the planets, the deluge, the future fate of the vagantly distorts real facts, that he may adduce then and watery vapour, inundated it, during all that time, earth, &c. Nevertheless, as Leibnitz has given his opi- corroboration of his opinions; he cagerly avais hin

SOLUTION TO GAME XXII.

of the discovery made by an English vessel of a large letter. He had treated that letter lightly, and said he ocean, are rare accompaniments of city grandeur; and manber of Esquimaus, who were navigating in their boats would not answer it. He was not able to keep his resolu- Edinburgh, instead of being a blot upon the fair scene, the sea of Greenland. The English succeeded in seizing tion; and, on finding his correspondent to be a fine young harmonizes with it and ornaments it. The Calton-hill one of these men, whom they had the barbarity to suffer to woman, and distinguished for eccentric notions, he became overlooks it as much as St. Paul's overlooks London. How die of grief, perhaps of hunger, on board their vessel. were almost entirely devoted to reading her letters and an. is visible: as far as the eye can reach, the scene is filled

so enraptured, so intoxicated, that his time and thoughts different is the scene! From the one, nothing but town As the only food which they offered him was entirely dif- swering them. One morning he was so absorbed in the with human habitations, of which the red-tiled roofs only fereat from that to which he had been accustomed, he the composition of a letter to her, that he barely noticed are visible. From the other, the town, instead of forming constantly refused it, and died at the end of twenty days, me as I entered the room. I said, “ Pray go on;" and sat the whole scene, appears only as an ornament to the without uttering a word. The boat and the remains of the down at one side of the table at which he was writing, country: as an appropriate decoration of art,

to perfect a man are preserved at Hull, in England, at the Admiralty that he did not conclude, I looked at him, and was asto. where I looked over a newspaper for some time. Finding scene on which nature has lavished her noblest ornaments.

Edinburgh is built on three distinct ridges, each con. Hall; and Maillet carries his ignorance so far as to believe nished at the complete abstraction of his mind, and at the trasting so much with the other as to make even deformity, that the body of this wretch was covered with scales from emanation of his sentiments on his countenance. He had like the discords in music,

add to the beauty of the general the waist to the soles of the feet, and that he did not pos- a peculiar smile on his lips; his eyes beamed the pleasure effect. The northern ridge is covered with elegant buildsess the power of speech.

he felt from what was passing from his imagination to his ings of white stone, uniformly disposed in parallel streets,

paper; he looked at me, and then at his writing; but I crossed by others at right angles. Queen-street, facing the (To be continued.)

am persuaded he did not see me, and that the thoughts north, forms a terrace, overlooking the rich gardens which

with which he seemed labouring, prevented his see extend to the sea. Prince's-street faces the south, forming fashions for December. ing any thing about him. I said, “I see you are another terrace, looking towards the old town, from which

deeply engaged.” His ear was as little open to sound it is separated by a valley, in which a lake formerly stood. EVENING DRESS.-Gold-colour striped gossamer dress: as his eye to vision. I got up, on which he said, “ Pray The openness, the regularity, the elegance of this new part the corsage cut straight, and rather high; the upper part sit.” Í answered that I would return. This roused of the town, contrasts finely with the

strange and fantastic full, and ornamented with narrow gold-colour satin rou- him a little, and he said, "I wish you would." I do masses of the enormously-high black adifices of the middle leaus:

a trimming of bouffants, separated by turban folds, not think he knew what passed, or observed my quitting ridge, which, rising gradually from the ancient palace of rises from the waist, and forms a stomacher front; it ex him. The scene gave me great pain ; I began to fear that Holyrood. house, terminates in a perpendicular rock, on tends over the shoulder, and meets behind. The sleeve is his fame would be dearly bought. Previous to the appear which the castle holds a most commanding aspect. The short and full, and has a row of satin leaves emanating ance of “Childe Harold's Pilgrimage,” his mind had southern ridge is covered with regular streets;

but, being from the band, and spreading half way: the point of each gained some important conquests over his senses; and I at a distance from the place where we stood, my attention leaf is fastened to a small corded satin band, and attached also thought he had barred his heart against the grosser was more directed to the part of the town of which we had to the shoulder. Two rows of very full bouffants, fastened attacks of the passion of vanity. If these avenues of de- a bird's eye view, and I could not sufficiently admire the to the dress by gold-colour satin turban folds, ornament struction to the soul were again to be thrown open by the happy effect of contrast, which rendered insipid uniformity the bottom of the skirt. Dress hat of crepe lisse ; the brim publication of the poem, it were better that it had never been beautiful, and blackness and irregularity venerable and circular, with one puffing and another beneath the edge. published. I called upon him the next day, when I found sublime.- Letters from Scotland. Round crown, ornamented with shaded satin ribbon and him in his usual good humour. He told me to whom he had ostrich feathers of white and amber colour. Necklace, been writing, and said he hoped I never thought him rude. The Beauties of Chess. ear-rings, and bracelets of topaz and turquoise : the ear- I took my usual liberty with him, and honestly warded rings large, and of the Chinese bell-shape. French

trim him of his now dangers. While I was with him the lady's mied white kid gloves and white satin shoes. page brought him a new letter. He was a fair-faced de

Ludimus effigiem belli"...........VIDA. MORNING DRESS.-Demi-blouse dress of rainbow- licate boy of 18 or 14 years old, whom one might have shaded gros de Naples ; the waist long, and the corsage taken for the lady herself. He was dressed in a scarlet fall and straight, and the stripes placed perpendicularly. hussar jacket and pantaloons, trimmed in front in much

White.

Black. The sleeves are of the gigot de mouton shape; the upper the same way, with silver buttons and twisted silver lace, 1 Queen .....B-3+ 1 King......A-5 part being very large, and small towards the wrist, where with which the narrow slit cuffs of his jacket were also 2 Queeu ....B-5+ 2 Pawn ...,B-5 a fulness is introduced, and arranged by three flat bands, embroidered. He had light hair curling about his face; 3 Castle ....A-8 +MATE. neatly corded with satin edges ; at the bottom of the skirt and held a feathered fancy hat in his hand, which com are four wadded rouleaus of 'the same material as the pleted the scenic appearance of this urchin Pandarus. I

(No. XXIII.] dress, headed with narrow satin roleaus, and a broad wad could not but suspect at the time that it was a disguise. ded hem beneath. Lace or worked muslin frills, pelerines , If so, he never disclosed it to me; and as he had hitherto

The white, being threatened with checkmate by the in the print is a richly worked vandyke muslin pelerine, object of it, and I do not precisely recollect the mode of black queen at H-1, undertakes to checkmate the black formed of two rows, with long embroidered ends crossing his exit. I wished it otherwise, but wishing was in vain. in eight moves at the utmost. 0787 the bust, and confined by the ceinture, which is of

CTO de Naples, edged with corded satin. The hair is erested in large curls. Pale yellow gloves and shoes.

The Traveller.

Black, Reticule of ponceau velvet, with gold chain, clasp, and orsaments.

DESCRIPTION OF EDINBURGH.

у я о а я н он Biographical Notices.

On the morning after our arrival, B. called me up at an early hour, and proposed a walk to the Calton-hill. We

went the nearest way through some mean lanes, crossing PALLAS'S RECOLLECTIONS OF LORD BYRON. a long street of black and dirty-looking buildings, which

had a melancholy air of uninhabitedness. Among the other marks of favour which the renown of I hurried up the steep hill, glad to escape the hell beChilde Harold” brought down upon its author, was the hind me, and gained the summit before I looked back. I stice of the Prince Regent, and the condescension of a gazed around me with astonishment! I felt as if I had ay, whose amour with his Lordship seems to have been been translated into another world : every unpleasant gun in admiration of his genius.

feature of the picture was thrown into shade. The city Fas now (says his biographer) to sce Lord Byron in a lay below us in all the pride of ancient grandeur and mo

point of view. The town was full of company, as dern elegance. Any thing I had ever imagined of supersual in the spring. Besides the speech he had made on lative magnificence, shrunk into poverty and meanness

e frame-breaking bill, he again attracted notice on the when my eye fell on this wonderful place; and yet the Satholic question, which was agitated warmly in the Peers sublimity of the scene immediately below me was compa

the beginning of April. His name was in every mouth, ratively insignificant with that of the objects which surand his opinion in every hand. He converted criticism to rounded it. On the north lay the Firth, the estuary of a dolation, and admiration to love. His stanzas abounded noble river, to the east widening into the ocean, to the west rith passages which impressed on the heart of his readers apparently losing itself in a mass of blue hills, which ity for the miserable feelings of a youth who could express bounded the distant horison. A rich and beautifully

A B C D E F G H I admirably what he felt; and this pity, uniting with the varied plain lay between the Firth and the capital, over Llight proceeding from his poetry, generated a general af- which, to the south, appeared the Salisbury crags, a cir.

WHITE. etion of which he knew not the value; for while the fruits cular ridge of rocks, presenting the appearance

of a hill happiness clustered around him, he neglected them, and of which one half had sunk into the bowels of the earth, There is an exquisitely beautiful work just published Same absorbed in gratifications that could only tend to leaving the rocky section to frown in commanding majesty by Ackermann, of the Strand, London, intended as a token are the reputation he had gained. He professedly de- over the town. From this strange line of precipices rosea of friendship and affection, entitled, “ Forget Me Not,” ased the society of women, yet female adulation became hill, sublime in its altitude and picturesque in its form; for 1825 ; and, for this

purpose, it is assuredly a splendid Be most captivating, charm to his heart. He had not ad- and, stretching far to the west, the Pentland hills formed little momento. The letter-press is neat and elegant; but Gitted the ladies of his own family to any degree of inti. the southern boundary of the rich plain, which,

extending its embellishments

are superior to any thing we have yet Bey; his aunts, his cousins, were kept at a distance, and from them to the Forth, was finely ornamented by the Cor seen. The most eminent artists, such as Westall, Heath, es his sister had hitherto shared the like fate. Among storphine hills, a beautiful ridge, not too high to interrupt and others, have been employed to execute the plates; and

admirers who had paid their tribute, in prose and verse, the prospect of the distant mountains, the indistinct forms it is altogether a work highly creditable to the enterprise the muse of the "pilgrimage," I have already mentioned of which mingled with the clouds.

of the publisher, and to the talents of the respective artists who asked for an acknowledgment of the receipt of her Rocks, and hills, and mountains, a noble river and the who have been employed in its execution. See adv.

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