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Fare thee well, and for ever! I once thought thee kind;
THEY KNOW NOT MY HEART.
The following lines are said to be really the production of the Doctor Marshall, to whom the verses on the burial of John Moore have been ascribed. They appeared in the Dark ham Chronicle in 1821:
STREET) CLOCK AND WATCH MAKER, ELVETT, DURNA M.
I held a friendship with this man in life,
The cloud at length hath pass'd away
That veil'd this heart of mine,
And gladsome e'en as thine:
On hearts thus bright with joy,
Should beam but to destroy;
The shades of hopes long past-
Too bright, too fair to last,
Were lighted at the flame
Yet is this heart the same
That heaven will bless thy lot;
Through life, I'll heed them not;
Shed tears of grief, or heave a sigh?
[From Moore's New Melodies.]
They know not my heart, who believe there can be
The following lines are said to have been written by the mad poet Lee, while in Bedlam :
“If Fortune wrap thee warm,
Like bees about a honey-pot:
By Jove! thou mays't lie there and rot."
Defoe. In the centre of Whitechapel market is a little Planting Trees.--He who plants trees upon his paterdirty alley, called Harrow-alley, opposite to which is a nal estate, repays a debt to his posterity which he owes to
hair-dresser's shop, kept by Mr. Lunsun. In this house, his ancestors. A gentleman, whose lands were more exTHE KING AXD LORD BYRON.
above 150 years ago, dwelt that prince of wits and excel. tensive than fertile, used to plant 1000 trees, on the birth
lent man, Daniel Defoe ; here he wrote that much-read, of every daughter, upon his waste grounds, which The story of the Prince Regent's gracious notice of and excellent moral work, Robinson Crusoe, and here he were, on an average, worth one pound each, on her Lord Byron, and the singular return it met with, is not a wrote a memorable melancholy journal of the plague in coming of age; thus enabling him to give her a fortune of little characteristic. The occurrence took place in 1811, London, of which he was an eye-witness.--Economist. £1000 without any extraordinary economy on his part, and is thus related in Mr. Dallas's Recollections of Lord
the regular thinning of the trees, at proper seasons, with Byror:
Amongst all the inventions of human wit, there is none barking, &c. paying off all the current expenses, besides " Lord Byron (says Mr. D.) was the wonder of gray.
more admirable than writing; by means whereof a man yielding him a small rent for the land. In the year 1758, beards, and the show of fashionable parties. At one of may copy out his very thoughts, utter his mind without ninety. two fir trees were planted upon a piece of ground, these, he happened to go early, when there were very few opening his mouth, and signify
his pleasure at a thousand about three-quarters of an acre in extent. The land was persons assembled; the Regent went in soon after ; Lord miles distance, and
this by the help of twenty-four letters
. waste and
poor; no extra expense was incurred, and no Byron was at some distance from him in the room. On Clarius, the Jesuit, has taken the pains to compute, to they were cut down, and yielded ninety tons of timber, being informed who he was, bis Royal Highness sent a gentleman to him to desire that he would be presented. 5,852,616,738,497,664,000 ways.
then worth £4 per ton, giving a round sum of £360, which Tore presentation, of course, took place: the Regent ex.
The autograph of Edward, the Black Prince, which years." Can a more convincing proof be given of the faci.
was equal to a rent of £6 10s. during the intervening 55 pressed his admiration of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, and continued a conversation, which so fascinated the antiquaries have been in search of for many years, has atlity with
which a man may save a fortune for his grandPoet, that, had it not been for an accidental deferring of length been found on the roll of the Artillery Company, children the next levez, he bade fair to become a visitor at Carlton illustrious patriots and heroes of early times
are inscribed. The remains of a whale have been found, four feet deep, house, if not a complete courtier. "I called on him on the morning for which the levee
Increase of Attorneys. - It appears, from the notices under the carse clay at Blair-drummond, on a part of the had been appointed, and found him in a full-dress court. posted up near
the Law Courts in Westminster, that not property that had been covered with moss. We underruit of clothes, with his fine black hair in powder, which fewer than 154 persons intend to apply in the approaching bones to Edinburgh, to be placed in the museum.-Ster. by no means suited his countenance. I was surprised, as term to be admitted as attorneys al law. Of these, seven he had not told me that he should go to Court ; and it are applications for re-admission from parties who have
ling Journal. reemed to me as if he thought it necessary to apologize for been attorneys before.
American Spider.- [From the Mirror, printed at Hart his intention, by his observing, that he could noi' in de.
ford, Connecticut.) We found, the other day, the followtency but do it, as the Regent had done him the honour At the siege of St. Jean d'Acre, in Egypt, Bonaparte ing remarkable account of the feats of a spider:-“ One to say that he hoped to see him soon at Carlton-house. I had three aides-de-camp, or officers, killed in advancing day, last week, the workman of Mr. Peck's machine facla spite of his assumed philosophical contempt of royalty, with his orders to the same point. It was necessary to send a tory, in Southington, discovered under one of the benches, and of his decided junction with the opposition, he had fourth. He had no officers near him but Eugene Beau: a black snake, of the white-throat species, and about six not been able to withstand the powerful operation of royal harnois and Lavalette ; he called the latter, and without inches long, suspended by the web of a spider. The spider praise ; which, however, continued to influence him only being overheard by the former, said to him, Il faut y was of the common house sort, and not uncommonly large. till fattery of a more congenial kind diverted him from aller; ne veux pas y envoyer cet enfant, et le faire tuer When first discovered, the little insect had raised its victhe enjoyment of that which, for a moment, he was dis.si jeune ; sa mere me la confié ; vous savez ce que c'est tim about half a foot from the floor, and had hung him bly posed to receive. The levee had been suddenly put off, que la vie." Lavalette set off
, and, contrary to every ex- a single thread. The ingenuity and power of the spider Ind he was dressed before he was informed of the altera. pectation, returned safe and sound.
were truly wonderful. Passing rapidly down his line, he ion which had taken place.
would fasten his cordage round the neck of the snake, pass * It was the first and the last time he was ever so Natural Curiosity.--Mr. Gall, chemist, of Woodbridge, back to his own nest, on the under surface of the bench, tressed, at least for a British
Court. A newly-made has in his possession a toad and a mouse, which were dis- then, going again down, cast a hitch” around the tail, Lord Byron was more than half prepared to yield to this the manner in which they were found,
that they had killed tortions of the snake, alternately hauling up his lines, so mlaence; and the harsh verses that proceeded from his each other
in battle. The toad, in trying to subdue his as to bring his game nearer home. In this manner le hen, were, I believe, composed more to humour his new enemy, has several wounds; and the mouse, which was continued his labour until evening, leaving the snake alive, riend's pussions than his own. Certain it is, he gave up fastened on the toad's back, with his teeth near
the jaws, but so completely exhausted and secured as to be safe för ill ideas of appearing at Court, and fell into the habit of is supposed to have died from the reptile's poison.
the night : in the morning it was dead." peaking disrespectfully of the Prince."
The ladies of Paris formerly, in order to keep their bou. Buried Porest.–At Lawrence Park, four miles beyond quets fresh, placed the stems in a small tin funnel, filled Cæsar, having married a young lady called Rome, a wag
1 Pun from Germany.- A young man, of the name of Linlithgow, there is a piece of ground lower than the ad- with water, and covered with green ribbon, it was found; wrote upon his door, “Cave, Cæsar, ne tua Roma fiat ra Dining country, and covered with moss, but tolerably, however, that colds and sore throats were the consequences r5, which the proprietor has opened with the view of of the occasional overturning of these reservoirs, and the
publica. rming a pond. About four feet under the surface a nosegays were left to their fate.
The Albanians have a very extraordinary method of teat number of large trees have been discovered, which
A provincial paper advertises the “Museum” of the it down with so sudden and violent a jerk as leaves the
killing fowls ; seizing the animal by the neck, they dash od is still fresh and fit for ase ; and there has also been late Mr. Kirkland surgeon, Ashby-dela-Zouch, which, head in their hands, separated
from the body, which for und,
strewed upon the soil, arnong the trees, a vast quan- among other articles of vertu, contains,“ many halter some time runs about the yard with a stream of blood y of nuts, conceived to be those of the hazel. They are used in the execution of noted characters."
running from the trunk.-Hughes's Travels in Greece. ite empty ; but have preserved their form very perHly. It is much to be wished that this curious deposit hazel eye. Dr. Harvey told me it was like the eye of the sixth day, at nine in the morning ; that he fell about
“ Lord Bacon," says Aubrey, "had a delicate, lively, Precision.-Lightfoot says, that Adam was created on é examined by some well informed geologist, 'who wld be able to note facts and circumstances which escape viper."
noon, that being the time of eating; and that Christ was pmon observer. It is, for instance, of much impor.
promised about three o'clock in the afternoon !
How to arrive at Perfection-Regularly read the sporting lee to know whether the trees lie confusedly, in all di.
Change of Rings.-Two lovers bound themselves by tions, with roots some higher some lower in the soil. Sunday newspapers-visit the fancy houses-blow your i would indicate that successive forests have grown up steamer every night at, a lush crib-associate with its fre: mutual faith to separate during the latter part of the I fallen to the
ground, one after another, from natural quenters-wcar a poodle upper benjamin, mother-of-pearl seven years' war; they agreed, however, to consider them. ay or common accident. But if the tops of these trees the Fives Court, and be present at the mills-carefully swore eternal and inviolable constancy. On the ring of
buttons, a lilly shallow, and a bird's-eye wipe-chaff at selves as engaged, and accordingly exchanged rings, and been levelled, at once, by some great catastrophe, mix up all the slang phrases in your ordinary conversation the lady, which she had given her lover, were the follow ch as a sudden irruption of vast currents of water. -call a shilling a bob a coachman a Jarvie-your uncle ing letters: or your father a rum old cove; and if you find yourself at
A. I. L. T. N. A. F. A. sarnan.
a loss, take half a dozen lessons from any Paddington stage. Alas! I languish truly; now, adored friend, adieu. A gentleman in Edinburgh is in possession of the cap coachman; you cannot fail becoming a perfect BLACK- On the ring which the gentleman gave to her :
H. T. F. T. P. E. hich the Earl of Argyle, who was beheaded in 1685, upon GUARD.-London paper.
Hold thy faith thy pains endure. iniquitous sentence, wore upon the scaffold. It is of ite satin, lined with linen, and having a border beauti.
General Otway had been many years in the service; After an absence of eighteen months, the officer returned ly wrought. It is also much stained with the blood during which time several junior Colonels had got regi- at the end of the war, in expectation of marrying the itleman is a Tory, but feels a profound and becoming by his friends, to state his case to his Majesty George III to reproach ber with her infidelity, but was received with beration for this sad relic of one of Scotland's greatest by petition, and employed
the chaplain of the regiment to raillery: On his mention of the ring, and the verses on most upright patriots.
draw up the document. This was accordingly done; but it, she desired him to read the letters backwards on the
observing that it concluded with the words " and your ring she had given him, and he would find their true Numerous Family. According to an authority quoted petitioner shall ever pray,” he told the chaplain he had meaning Browne Willis, * Dame Hester Temple, wife of Şir made a mistake, and imagined he was presenting a peti.
Adieu for ayé; no true lover is absent. omas Temple, Lord of the Manor of Stow, lived to see tion from himself; and he insisted on the word fight, for On hearing this he was so enraged, that he begged the we 700 of her own descendants, among whom are no pray, which was accordingly done" and your petitioner same favour of her to read his ring likewise in the inverse er than nine daughters, all married to gentlemen of shall ever fight." The King was amused with the honest order of the letters, and she would also discover their true d fortunes and families. She was born at Latimers, in bluntness of the old officer, and soon conferred upon him signification. 59, and died in 1656." the comniand of a regiment.
Egregious perfidy! thou'rt false, thou harlot !--Portfolio.
Past and Loose.“A person at a public dinner, whose which is the cause of great confusion and manifest frauds: of which, as aforesaid, the Imperial standard Troy pound masticating powers appeared not at all deficient, com, for the remedy and prevention of these evils for the future, contains 5760; be it therefore enacted, that if at any
time plained to one who sat near him, of several of his teeth and to the end
that certain standards of weights and mea- hereafter the said Imperial standard Troy pound shall be being loose; “I am much surprised at what you say," sures should be established throughout the united king; lost, or shall be in any manner destroyed, defaced, replied his friend, " for you seem to eat with them very dom of Great Britain and Ireland; be it therefore enacted otherwise injured, it shall and may be restored by makine for."
by the King's most excellent Majesty, by and with the under the directions of the Lord High Treasurer, or
advice and consent of the Lords spiritual and temporal, Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury of the united The man who played the Aute, by some accident broke and
Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or any three it while in the orchestra of Covent-garden Theatre; Edwin, by the authority of the same,
them for the time being, a new standard Troy pound, running into the Green-room, cried out, “ Poor fellow, 1. That from and after the first day of May, 1825, the bearing the same proportion to the weight of a cubic inci poor fellow!" - What's the matter, my dear Edwin
?" straight line or distance between the centres of the two of distilled water, as the said standard pound, hereby estab exied Mrs. Webb. “ Why, Madam,” rejoined Edwin, points in the gold studs in the straight brass rod, now in lished, bears to such cubic inch of water. “ poor Mr. has just split his wind-pipe."
the custody of the clerk of the House of Commons, whereon 6. That from and after the first day of May, 1825, the
the words and figures, “ Standard yard, 1760” are en standard measure of capacity, as well for liquids as for dig An actor of some humour was pressed by his tailor for graved, shall be, and the same is hereby declared to be, goods not measured by heaped measure, shall be the the payment of a long bill. The debtor declared himselline original and genuine standard of that measure of lon containing ten pounds avoirdupois weight of distiled to be in what he called a state of impecuniosity. This length, or lineal extension, called a yurd, and that the water, weighed in air, at the temperature of 62 degresa being the case, the tailor very modestly asked for a bond, same straight line of distance between the centres of the Fahrenheit's thermometer, the barometer being a thirty which the other expressed his readiness to grant; provided said two points in the said gold studs in the said brass rod, inches; and that a measure shall be forth with made the matter was kept a secret. When the bond was pro the brass being at the temperature of 62 deg. by Fahren. brass, of such contents as aforesaid, under the directions duced, it was indignantly torn, and thrown in the tailor's heit's thermometer, shall be, and is hereby denominated of the Lord High Treasurer, or the Commissioner of Le face. "You rascal," said the enraged comedian, "you the Imperial standard yard," and shall be, and is hereby Majesty's Treasury of the United Kingdom, or any three promised to keep the affair a secret, and now your paper declared io be, the unit or only standard measure of ex. or more of them for the time being; and such broa miste begits, “ Know all men by these presents !"
tension, wherefrom or whereby all other measures of ex- sure shall be, and is hereby declared to be, the luperial A young sea nymph of Polkstone, whose father obtains tension, whatsoever, whether the same be lineal,
superficial, standard gallon, and shall be, and is hereby declared to be, a livelihood by ploughing the briny deep, was asked a few and that all measures of length shall be taken in parts or which all other measures of capacity to be used, as red
or solid, shall be derived, computed, and ascertained; the unit and only standard measure of capacity, frums days since if she knew the names of the seasons of the multiples, or certain proportions of the said standard for wine, beer, ale, spirits, and all sorts of liquids, as fixe year. The girl very readily replied...: Yes, there are yard; and that one-third part of the said standard yard dry goods not measured by heap measure, shall be derived Four, the Mackarel Season—the Whiting Season the shall be a foot, and the twelfth part of such foot shall be computed, and ascertained ; and that all measures shall Herring Season the Trowling Season."-Kent Herald. an inch; and that the pole or perch in length shall contain he taken in parts or multiples, or certain proportion d Mr. Smith.-Every body knons that Smith is a very five such yards and a half, the furlong 220 such yards, the said Imperial standard gallon; and that the quar
shall be the fourth part of such standard gallon, and common name, but hardly any body would have thought and the mile 1760 such yards. of turning its commonness to account in such a queer and
2. And be it further enacted, that all superficial mea- pint shall be one-eighth of such standard gallon, and oruel way as a “gentleman" did the other night at one
of sure shall be computed and ascertaines by the said stand.iwo such gallons shall be a peck, and eight such galom che theatres
the pit at half-price, and finding ard yard, or, by certain parts, multiples, or proportions shall be a bushel, and eight such bushels a quarter of con, every seat occupied, he bawled out--"Mr. Smith's house thereof; and that the rood of land shall contain 1210
square or other dry goods not measured by heaped measure is on fire!" In an instant twenty Mr. Smiths rushed out yards, according to the said standard yard; and that the 7. That the standard measure of capacity for cook
, of the pit, and the wicked wag, chuckling at the succes of acre of land shall contain 4840 such square yarus, being culm, lime, fish, potatoes, or fruit, and all other good his stratagem, coolly took possession of one of their vacated 160 square perches, poles, or rods.
and things commonly sold by heaped measure, shall seala.
3. And whereas it is expedient that the said standard the aforesaid bushel, containing 80 pounds avoirdupois
yard, if lost, destroyed, defaced, or otherwise injured, water as aforesaid, the same being made round, with Party Spirit.-Party spirit is so high in Edinburgh should be restored of the same length by reference to some plain and even bottom, and being nineteen inches and ' (an Edinburghian was lately telling in London) that invariable natural standard ; and
whereas it has been as half from outside to outside, of such standard messert Whigs and Torics are not invited to meet at the same certained by the Commissioners appointed by his Majesty aforesaid. tables ! “ We are still worse in London," observed one to inquire into the subject of weights and measures, that 8. That in making use of such bushel, all coals
, and of the company, "for we give dinners for the sake of the said yard, hereby
declared to be the Imperial standard other goods and things commonly sold by heaped mes. making parties, and include persons of every way of yard, when compared with a pendulum vibrating seconds sure, shall be duly heaped up in such bushel, io che forn shinking
of mcan time in the latitude of London, in a vacuum at of a cone, such cone to be of the height of st karte the level of the sea, is in the proportion of thirty-six inches, and the outside of the bushel to be the extremity
inches to thirty-nine inches and one thousand three hun. of the base of such cone; and that three bushels shall be Scientific Records.
dred and ninety-three ten thousandth parts of an inch: a sack, and that twelve such sacks shall be a chaldros.
be it therefore enacted and declared, that if at any time Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve hereafter the said Imperial standard yard shall be løst, or tracts, bargains, sales, and dealings, made or had for se
9. Provided always, and be it enacted, that any csgo ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin shall be in any manner destroyed, defaced, or otherwise with respect to any coals, culm, lime, fish, potatoes
, gular Medical Cases ; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi; injured, it shall and may be restored by making, under fruit, and all other goods and things commonly sold by losophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical the direction of the Lord High Treasurer, or the Commis. heaped measure, sold, delivered, done, or agreed for
, -Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History ; sioners of bis Majesty's Treasury of the united kingdom to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for, by weight Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.; List of Patents ;- of Great Britain and Ireland, or any three of them, for measure, shall and may be either according to the sa to be continued in a series through the Volume. 1 the time being, a new standard yard, bearing the same standard of weight, or the said standard for heaped nas
proportion to such pendulum as aforesaid, as the said Im. sure; but all contracts, bargains, sales, and dealing WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. perial standard yard bears to such pendulum.
made or had for any other goods, wares, or merchandise
4. That from and after the first day of May, 1825, the or other thing done or agreed for, or to be sold, delivered The great importance and almost universal interest standard brass weight of one pound Troy weight, made in done, or agreed for by weight or measure, shall be mad attached to the new act, which, in May next, will effect the year 1758, now in the custody of the clerk of the and had according to the said standard of weight, or to • radical change in the weights and measures of Great clared to be, the original and genuine standard measure and in using the same, the ineasures shall not be heapede
House of Commons, shall be, and the same is hereby de. said gallon, or the parts, multiples, or proportions thered Britain, has induced us to spare no pains to prepare the of weight, and that such brass weight shall be, and is but shall be stricken with a round stick or roller, straight public for a great change, which, as we have already ob- hereby denominated, the Imperial standard Troy pound, and of the same diameter from end to end. gerved, will, at first, occasion much trouble and incon. and shall be, and the same is hereby declared to be, the 10. Provided always, and be it enacted, that other renience, both to the legislature and to the community unit or only standard measure of weight, from which all herein contained shall authorize the selling in Ireland at large. The following abstract of the act carefully pre- and that one-twelfth part of the said Troy pound shall be law
in force in Ireland are required to be sold by other weighis shall be derived, computed, and ascertained ; measure, of any articles, inatters, or things, which bring pared, together with the original letters on the subject, an ounce; and that one twentieth part of such ounce only. have already appeared in the Liverpool Mercury; and, as shall be a penny-weight; and that one twenty-fourth part 11. That copies and models of each of the said standard var supplemental half-sheet affords us the opportunity of of such penny-weight shall be a grain; so that 5760 such yard, pound, gallon, and heaped measure, &c. sball mikla presenting them to the readers of the Kaleidoscope, we bey and
they are hereby declared to be, a pound
of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and the Hall avail ourselves of that facility.
pois, and that one sixteenth part of the said pound avoir- deposited in the Exchequer, and copies thereof sent to the
dupois shall be an ounce avoirdupois, and that one six- Lord Mayor of London, the Chief Magistrates of Edin Whereas it is necessary for the security of commerce, teenth part of such ounce shall be a dram.
burgh and Dublin, and to such other places and perma and for the good of the community, that weights and mea. 5. And whereas it is expedient, that the said standard as the said Commissioners shall direct. marea should be just and uniform: and whereas notwith- Troy pound, if lost, destroyed, defaced, or otherwise in- 12. That the justices of the peace in every counts: wanding it is provided by the great charter, that there jured, should be restored of the saine weight, by reference ding, or division, in England, Ireland, or Seorland, and shall be but one measure and one weight throughout the to some invariable natural standard ; and whereas it has the magistrates in every city, town, or place, in England Scotland, that the same weights and
measures should be Majesty to inquire into the subject of weights and mea- shall, within six months from the passing the act, purchase woed throughout Great Britain as were then established in sures, that a cubic inch of distilled water,
weighed in air copies and models of the aforesaid
standards, to be kept England, yet different weights and measures, some larger, by brass weights, at the temperature of G2 degrees of and produced by the keeper thereof upon reasonable notion and some less, are still in use in various places throughout Pahrenheit's thermometer
, the barometer being at 30 in writing given by the person requiring it, and parink the united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the inches, is equal to two hundred and fifty-two grains and the reasonable charges of the same. www measure of the present standards is not verily known, I four hundred and fifty-eight thousandth parts of a grain, 14. Provided always, and be it enacted, that is all
TO THE EDITOR
one for corn.
TO THE EDITOR
mazuy, ausg in a place wners recourse cannot be con- or ordinances made previous to the reign of King Euwara troy weight. eniently had to any of the aforesaid verified copies or the Third, but being of uncertain date, intituled or known Government has now established, by the late Act of Par odels of the standard measures of capacity, or parts or by the names or descriptions following : “ Assisa Panis et liament, the certainty of these two weights, but from a dil ltiples of the same, it shall and may be lawful to and Cervisiæ," or "The Assize of Bread and Ale;” “Sta- ferent standard, viz. water, which, when pure, is unerring.
any justice of the peace, or magistrates having juris- tutum de Pistoribus, et cetera," or "Statute concerning The weight of a cubic foot of this element being the same all sia in such place, to ascertain the content of such Bakers, et cetera ;" ** Assisa de Ponderibus, et Mensuris, over the world, and this cubic foot 1728 solid inches, and asare of capacity by direct reference to the weight of or “ 'Thactatus de Por.deribus,” or Coinpositio de Pon- weighing, invariably, 1000 ounces, avoirdupois, it becomes ze er rain water, which such measure is capable of con- deribus," or " Assize of Weights
and Measures ; " "Sta- extremely easy to deduce from this weight aceurate data for Sing; ten pounds avoirdupuis weight of such water, at tutum de Admensuratione Terræ," or " Statute for the the capaciiy of all liquid measures, as fully stated in the Aet : temperature of 62 degrees by Fahrenheit's thermome measuring of Land ;” “Compusitio Ulnarum et Pertica- itself. I am, &e.
ANONYMOUS. being the standard gallon ascertained by this act, the rum;" and also 14 E. 3, c. 12 and c. 21–18 E. 3, st. 2, Dat being in bulk equal to two hundred and seventy- C. 4–25 E. 3, st. 5, c. 9 and 10—27 E. 3, st. 2, c. 10-31 re cubic inches and iwo hundred and seventy four E. 3, st. 1. c. 2, 5—34 E. 3, c. 5-4 R. 2, c. 1-13 R. 2, ousandth parts of a cubic inch, and so in proportion for st 1, c. 9—15 R. 2, c. 4-16 R. 2, c. 3-1 H. 5, c. 10-2 parts or multiples of a gallon.
H. 6, c. 11–8 H. 6, c. 5-9 H. 6, c. 6, Id. c. &-11 11. 6, SIR,---Having in my last letter given a brief scoonpt of 15. That from and after the first day of May, 1825, all c. 8—18 H. 6, c. 17-22 E. 4, c. 2-1 R. 3, c. 13—7 H. 7, the origin of our measures of weight, I shall now attempt ontracts, bargains, sales, and dealings, which shall be made c. 4, Id. c. 8-11 H. 7, C, 4-12 H. 7, c. 5-23 H. 8, c. 4 to furnish you with a similar one of those of capacity: r had within any part of the united kingdom of Great -24 HI. 8, c. 6–12 Eliz. (1)-13 Eliz. c. 11, in pari--23 and here, as in the other, diversity of opinions prevails. The laitaia and Ireland, for any work to be done, or for any Eliz. c. 8, in part-43 Eliz.c. 1616 C. 1, c. 19–120.2, learned Mr. Ward, Chief Surveyor and Gauger General in xods, wares, merchandise, or other things to be sold, de- c. 23, in part-22 C. 2, c. 8—22 and 23 C. 2. c. 12–1 W. the Excise, in 1706, has given, I think, the best explanation reret, done, or agreed for, by weight or in casure, where and M. st. 1, c. 24, in part-5,6 W. and M. c. 7, in part of any writer upon the subject: his words are.--"All mes special agreement shall be made to the contrary, shall -- W. 3, (1)-7, 8 W. and M. C. 81, in part-9, 10'w.sures of capacity, both liquid and dry, were at first made from
deemed, taken, and construed to be made and had ac: 3, c. 6—10, 11 W. 3, c. 21, in part—10, 11 W. 3, c. 22, troy weight;—see statutes 9th Henry III.; 51st Henry IIL; ading to the standard weights and measures ascertained in part-11, 12 W. 3, c. 15–1 Anne, st. 1, c. 15, in part 12th Henry VII. &c. wherein it is enacted that eight pounda.
this act; and in all cases where any special agreement -Id. c. 21, in part—2 Ann. (1)–5, 6 Ann. c. 27, in part troy weight, of wheat, should make one gallon, wine mes sall be made with reference to any weight or measure -9 Ann. c. 6, in part-9 Ann. c. 15–10 Ann. c. 6-1G sure; and as there should be but one measure for wine, ale, stablished by local custom, the ratio or proportion which 2. (1) in part-8 G. 2, c. 12, in part–96. 2, (1)-24 G. 2, and corn, throughout this realm (vide statute 14th Edward
ery such local weight or measure shall bear to any of c. 31, in part-26 G. 3, (1)-38 G. 3, c. 89—and 43 G. 3, 11., 15th Richard II.) But time and custom hath altered said standard weights or measures, shall be express. d, c. 69-shall, froin and after the first day of May, 1825, be measures
, as they have done weights, for now we have three clared, and specified in such agreement, or otherwise repealed.
different measures, viz. one for wine, one for ale or beer, and sh agreement shall be null and void.
The beer or ale gallon (which are both one) is 16. And whereas it is expedient that persons should be
much larger than the wine gallon, it being, as I presume, used to use the several weights and measures which
made at first to correspond with avoirdupois weight, as the y may have in their possession, although such weights
wine gallon did with troy weight; and as one pound troy is in I measures may not be in conformity with the standard
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
proportion to the cubic inches in a wine gallon, so is one pound ights and measures established by this act ; be it there.
avoirdupois to the cubic inches in an ale gallon. That is, 1202 je enacted, that it shall and may be lawful for any person
231in : : 14 12-2002 : 282in. very nearly the capacity of the persons to buy and sell goods and merchandise by any
ale gallon. Dry measure is different both from the wine and ghts or measures established either by local custom, or
SIR.-As you have so promptly obliged the publle by your ale measure, being, as it were, a mean betwixt both, though nded on special agreement ; provided always, that in notice of the new act establishing uniformity
of weights not exactly so; which, upon examination, I find to be in pro ler diat the ratio or proportion which all such measures
and measures, and which will commence and be in force portion to the aforesaid old standard (of 224 cuble inches) I weights st.all bear to the standard weights and measures
on the first day of May, 1825, I beg to hand you a few wine gallon, as avoirdupois weight is to troy weight; that is, ablished by this act, shall be and become a matter of observations which perhaps may assist you in your future as one pound troy is to one pound avoirdupois, so is the cubie smon dotoriety the ratio or proportion which all such lucubrations on the subject.
inches contained in the old wine gallon to the cubic inches conSlomary measures and weighis shall bear to the said
In every treatise of arithmetic, troy weight is placed first ; cained in the dry or corn gullon, viz. 1207. 14 12-2002., 224in. ndard weights and measures shall be painted or marked but I am of opinion that the weight termed avoirdupois 272, which is very near to 272, the conmon received conda all such customary weights and measures respec. ought to have the precedence, as being undoubtedly that tents of a corn gallon, although now it is otherwise settled by ely; and that nothing therein contained shall extend, which was made use of before the Conquest, and which, 1 act of parliament, made in April, 1697: the words of that act be construed to extend, 10 permit any maker of weights am persuaded, was derived from the Roman Uncia, which are these; 'Every round bushel, with a plain and even botmeasures, or any person or persons whomsoever, to
contained exactly 437) grains, the real weight of the present tom, being made eighteen inches and a half wide throughout, ske any weight or measure at any time after the first avoirdupois ounce, 16 of which compose the pound, agyte and eight inches deep, shall be esteemed a legal Winchester of May, 1825, except in conformity with the standard sating 7000 grains: this is conformable to Lempriere and the bushel
, according to the standard in his Majesty's Exchequer: ights and measures established under the provisions of learned Dr. Cotes. As to troy
weight, it was introduced by Now, a vessel thus made, will contain 2150.42 cubic inches,
William the Conqueror, and had its name from Troyes, a consequently the corn gallon doth contain but 268 4-5cbscubio 7 and 18 direct inquisitions to be taken at the general town in the province of Champagne, in France, now in the inches." So far the learned author now quoted, and I muso per sessions of the peace for ascertaining renis, &c department of Aube. The English were dissatisfied with confess I have not yet met with any thing more clear and ble in grain, malt, &c. in England and Ireland.
this weight, because the pound did not weigh so much as the definite on the subject. In the report from the Select Coun, And whereas the weights and measures by which pound in use at that time in England; hence arose the term mittee, of weights and measures,
ordered to be printed by the ates and duties of the castors and excise, and other avoir du poids, or a restoration of the customary weight. By House of Commons, May
28th, 1821, are these words ; "" la lajesty's revenue, have been heretofore collect, d, are
an ordinance of Edward III. A. D. 1327, it is enacted, "That proceeding to measures of capacity, which, for convenience, ent from the weights and measures of the denomi: Jan English penie, called a Sterling, round, and without any your committee have postponed to those of weight, they find is directed by this act to be universally used ; and eare, and 20 pennies shall make
an ounce, and 12 ounces 116. not only by various measures designated by the same name,
clipping, shall way 32 wheat cornes in the middes of the themselves embarrassed, as the commissioners have been, as the alteration of such weights and measures may, and 81b. shall make a gallon of wine, and 8 gallons of wine but by a discrepance in the multiples and sub-multiples of lut due care had therein, greatly affect his Majesty's shall make 1 bushell London, which is the eight part of a the same measure. They are, on the whole, however, inue, and tend to the diminishing of the same: for the quarter." These 32 grains of wheat being afterwards sub- duced to believe that the gallon of England was originally otion thereof, be it therefore enacted, that so soon as divided into 24 metal weights were termed grains; hence the identical for all uses, and that the variations have arisen in niently may be after the passing of this act, accurate precise establishment of the present troy weight, consisting some cases from accident, and in others from fraud. The
shall be prepared and published under the direction of 12 ounces to the pound, or 5760 grains. But this weight, definition of a Winchester bushel in the act of William, for e said Commissioners of the Treasury for the time as Wingate observes, served only to weigh bread, gold, silver, laying a duty on malt, seems to have been made for the pur5. in order that the several rates and duties of customs, and electuaries, and to keep the money of England at a cer- pose of facilitating the construction of cylindrical measures se, and other his Majesty's revenue, may be adjusted tain standard." For about 200 years before the Conquest, by a near coincidence without minute fractions. From this made payable according to the respective quantities of Osbright, a Saxon, being then King of England, caused an definition the dry gallon would consist of 268.835 cubie legal standards directed by this act to be universally vunce troy of silver to be divided into 20 pieces, at the same inches. The gallon measure, in the Exchequer, contains 270.9 d; and that from and after the said first day of May, time called pence, and so an ounce of silver, at that time, cubic inches, and derived from the pint, quart, &c.; the gal 5, and the publication of such tables, the several rates daties thereafter to be collected by any of the officers same value till the time of Henry VI. who coined the ounce
was worth no more than 20 pence, which continued at the lon will stand as follows: his Majesty's customs or excise, or other his Majesty's into 30 pieces: this continued till the time of Edward IV. From the definition by King William. nue, shall be collected and taken according to the calwho coined the ounce into 40 pieces ; Henry VIII. coined it From the gallon measure..... tions in the tables to be prepared as aforesaid. into 45 pieces ; Queen Elizabeth coined it into 60 pieces, From the pint.
276.9 and 22. That all the powers, rules, and regulations valuing the ounce at 60d. or 5s. at which rate it remained From the quart..
279-3 srce and contained in 29 Geo. 2, chap. 25,-31 Geo. 2, till the late new silver coinage, when the fb troy was coined By an act of Parliament, made for revenue ,-35 Geo. 3, c. 102,-and 55 Geo. 3, c. 43, relating into 66 pieces or shillings From this deduction it will be purposes, the beer gallon... eights, balances, and measures in Great Britain, and seen that troy weight was only used for the finer articles, and By an act 42d George III. the Winchester gal. ine, -11 Geo. 2,-25 Gco. 2,-27 Geo. 3,-28 Geo. 3, that another weight, we may presume, was used all along, lon is estimated at......
272 ing to the same in Ireland, shall be applied to this act. by the people, for all things of a coarse or drossy nature. The wine gallon is supposod to have continued gradually
That the several statutes, ordinances, and acts, Accordingly, we find, in the year 1542, or 33d Henry VIII. shrinking in dimensions till its progress was arrested by » parts of the several statutes, ordinances, and acts the butchers petitioning the King to establish the customary fiscal definition at 231 cubic inches, This last measure differs in after mentioned and specified, so far as the
same weight, called haberdepois, and to allow them to sell their so materially from all the rest, that it must either be retained e to the ascertaining or establishing any standards of " vittels" by this weight. This is the first Act, I believe, as one quite distinct, and applicable to its peculiar uses, or, as bus and measures, or the establishing or recognising which recognises this weight, and makes it lawful to sell by seems most expedient, it must be abolished. But amidst the in differences between weights and measures of the it, though, as has been before observed, it was undoubtedly variations and uncertainty of the remainder, your committe
From the bushel...
266.1 268.9 270.4
METHOD OF GROWING EARLY CELERY.
agree with the commissioners in recommending that they M'Adam's Plan of Road Making. A correspondent may be all brought back to an equality, and at the same time in a Liverpool paper, admitting the advantages of ihe plan Mr. Jobn Anderson, gardener to the Earl of Esses, made to bear a stmple relation to the standard of weight, by of roads made
by broken stones, notices the serious incon. Cassiobury, communicated in a letter to the secretare taking the pint for a basis, which contains 20 ounces of dis- venience
experienced for weeks, and
early tilled water, avoirdupois, at the temperature of 62 degrees." public, before these roads become smooth and compact; celery. He forms, in the ground, a trench, "six feet en From these extracts some idea may be formed of the necessity —the injury to horses' feet, and the increased draught, and one foot deep: into this he puts six inches of reta which exists of reconciling, as the legislature has now done occasioned by the unsettled stones. He states the ad- dung, mixed with a little road.grit, and mises the
crepe by the act coming in force on the 1st of May, 1825, such a vantage of roads“ made of broken stones arises from the well with the soil, by digging it together. The celet heterogeneous system of weights and measures as has hitherto square angular shape of the materials, which renders then planted in cross rows, six inches apart
, and eight existed in this nation.-Yours, &c.
them, when once compacted into a solid mass, less liable inches from row to row: as the plants advance they November 18, 1824.
to be disturbed and loosened. But what is the effect of earthed across the trench. By this means a much lan
sending carriages immediately, over a stratum of loose quantity of celery can be grown, in the same spete SIR H. DAVY'S IMPROVED COPPER SHEATHING, AND of the stones one against another, to destroy their square plicable to early celery, for late crops, so grown, would
stones? The effect is, by continual friction, and moving ground, than in the usual way; but the method is only DR. TIARK'S TRIGONOMETRICAL SURVEYS.
angular shape, to round their edges, and reduce them to liable to rot and perish.Trans of Hort. Soc. vol.5 We laid before our readers, in our number for July, little better than smooth river gravel. The result is, that Sir Humphry Davy's paper on the means for preventing the road loses its distinctive quality, and although it will,
Dr. Hale, jun. of Boston, United States, has publiche the corrosion of the copper sheathing of ships. Since that in time, become hard and snooth (as will a mass of river the result of a curious experiment made upan bite paper was read before the learned Society of which he is pebbles) it will much more easily be broken up again upon by the injection of castor-oil into his veins. Bifre President
, his discovery has been put to the test of expe- a thaw, or after long continued rains.” Considering that injected that liquid, he raised it to the temperature of ten rience. Sir Humphry has just returned from a voyage to Nor. retain their angular shape, at the same time that they are assistance of a friend, injected about an outce of the eil
. way. During the months of July and August he was en compacted in a solid mass,” and that at present the roads The operation lasted for about twenty five misetes
, and gaged in pursuing various philosophical researches, for are made by the carriages, and not for them,—the writer he lost about eight ounces of blood in it
. For a very which the Admiralty granted him the use of the Coniet recommends the use of a roller (of greater power than that time after the operation was performed. he feu pothing steam-boat. He has ascertained that his principle of pro- now in use at Toxteth-park, namely, a cylinder, four and unusual. His first sensation was a taste of cilnes in the Recting the copper sheathing of ships, by the contact of a half feet diameter, not more than three feet long, and mouth, soon after he felt a nausea, with belchinga
, and „1-200th of iron, is perfectly successful, even in the most weighing at least three tons and a half: this roller to be a commotion in the bowels, and a strange indescribablo rapid sailing and in the roughest sea; and Dr. Tiarks, by used in the first instance; then a thin stratum of small feeling ascending to the head. There was also a light direction of the Board of Longitude, has connected, by gravel to be laid on, and rolled well in ; after which, stiffness in the muscles of the face, which cut uberi chronometrical observations, the trigonometrical surveys carriages may pass over with ease and pleasantness.”
speaking in the middle of a word. After a short red of Denmark and Hanover with that of England ; so that the suggestion is, we think, good, and would not only his pulse beat seventy-five in the minute. The the triangulation of a great part of Europe may be render the road sooner available for convenient and easy
the head, dizziness, and nausea, continued from now said to form one system. M. Arago and Capt. Kater travelling, but would prevent the continual labour required to two o'clock, accompanied with a sensation having, two years ago, connected the surveys of England for months in filling up the rutts made by carriage-wheels bowels as if he had taken a purgative, although and France, by observatioi:s between Calais and Dover. passing through the stones before they become compact; attempt to find relief in this way was unsuccesful In the course of this last expedition to the North Seas, and obviate the constant practice of drivers recurring, for about twenty minutes after two o'clock, his arm began the longitude of the Naze of Norway, a point of great ease to their cattle, to the rutts already made smooth, bleed freely, and he had some difficulty in stopping importance in navigation, has been accurately ascertained, while the rest of the road (until obstacles are opposed to Towards evening, his arm became painful and some and some other useful data for correcting the nautical this particular tract, as at the present Mount road) remains and continued so all night. There was a considerada maps of Europe gained.-Philosoph. Mag. for Sept. a stratum of loose stones for months, and sometimes for beat and tension about the elbow, and at eleven olla Geology-We understand a very extraordinary discovery that, in the roads lately made in the outskirts of this town slept some. Next day he was too ill to make any more
years. Whilst on this subject, we cannot help remarking, his pulse was eighty-four, passed a restless night, has been made by T. Northmore, Esq. during some geo- on the M'Adam plan, the stralum of loose stones bas, as several days, and, on his recovery from it, his street In the celebrated cavern of Kent's Hole, he has found the pavement, on each side. Whether this is done to his arm began to abate, but it was four days tefore logical investigations in the neighbourhood of Torquay; we have frequently observed, been laid
flush, or level with
was much diminished. After two days, the stelling under the stalagmitic incrustations, buried in the mould, several teeth of the hyena, wild boar, wolf, and various economise the expenditure of stone-or uoder the mistabones of other animals not yet identified." 'A letter has ken notion that the stones will not sink or settle down could
raise his hand to his forehead. He féle tis vesk. been written on the subject to the Rev. Mr. Brickland, when they become compact, we know not ; but the
conness more than a month afterwards. professor of mineralogy and seology in the University sequence is already evident on the road to the Botanic New Invention.-An invention of great importante of Oxford ; and we hope, at some future period, to be able Garden and elsewhere, where the
road, is either too flat to the arts
, and particularly in bank-bote engraving, la to gratify our antiquarian and geological readers with a sunk considerably below the edge of the pavement at the ington, in the United States, by which
an endles pour carry off the
water readily, or the M'Adamed part has lately been perfected by Mr. William J. Stone, of Wat further detail of this interesting discovery. These fossil sides. In Scotland, where these roads have been in use for of figures can be produced, in a manner believed semains are now in possession of Mr. Northmore.-Bcs perhaps forty years, it is the invariable practice to bed the inimitable. The best idea of the powers of this machen ley's Exeter News.
stones two or three inches higher than the intended level is to compare it to a kaleidoscope, in forming combinson Contraction by Cold.—Some years ago, it was observed of the road,
and they are found to settle down to the de- of the most beautiful figures that can be imagined. 1 at the Conservatoire des dits et Metiers at Paris, that the sired line. The allowance to be made for the sinking are formed of one continued line, crossing and entangle two side walls of a gallery were receding from each other, must, of course, be determined, in a great measure, by themselves in the richest variety. This apparatus ise being pressed outwards by the weight of the roof and foors. the nature of the bottom, or foundation.-Kal.
posed of two cylinders, on the surface of which lerens Several holes were made in each wall, opposite to one another, and at equal distances, through which strong bars
Three fragments of Aulus, Gellius, and Cicero, have been pass and repass each other, they shift the fulcrum. in
attached, with moveable fulcrums, and as the eyles of iron were introduced, so as to traverse the chamber found in a German abbey. They have probably been evolutions, which give
motion to another lever of singe Their ends, outside of the wall, were furnished with thick buried there since the last Saxon Princes.
construction, and to which a chisel is attached for cute iron disks, firmly screwed on. These were sufficient to retain the walls in their actual position ; but, to bring them
REMARKABLE GOOSEBERRY PLANT.
the figure. Nothing in the whole circle of the arts nearer together, would have surpassed every effort of Mr. Thomas Ayres, of Duffield, near Derby, communi. pears to present such a formidable obstacle to forget buman strength. All the alternate bars of the series were cated to the meeting, on the 27th of August, 1821, a de- and we are assured, that no two machines of this deer
tion can ever produce the same work. heated at once, by lamps, in consequence of which they scription of a remarkably large gooseberry plant, growing were elongated. The exterior disks being thus freed from at Duffield, and of two others in the garden at Överton English Antiquities. The relics of a number of the contact of the walls, they could be advanced farther on Hall. That at Duffield is in the garden of Mr. William riors, in complete armour, have been found in s the screwed ends of the bars. On the bars projecting on Bates, a market gardener. It is planted on the east side of piece of ground near Biggleswade. An examite the outside of the walls, from the elongation, the disks a steep hill, the substratum of the soil being a hard grit the armour will readily ascertain the period about were screwed up: on removing the lamps, the bars cooled, stone. It is ascertained to have been planted at least forty- this party were (as it appears accidentally, or by a contracted, and drew in the walls. The other bars he six years: the branches extend to (welve yards in circum- gem, and not in battle) inhumed. came, in consequence, loose, and were then also screwed ference; and have produced several pecks of fruit annually up. The first series of bars being again heated, the pro- for these last thirty years. It is usually manured with Substitute for Tallow.–We are informed that I cess was repeated; and, by several repetitions, the walls soap-suds and the drainings from the dunghill. The two O'Neill, of Comber, has discovered a chemical proces were restored to their original position. The gallery still others, in the garden at Overton Hall, near Chesterfield, which hog’s-lard can be converted into an article for ! exists, with its bars, to attest the ingenuity of its preserver, the seat of the late Sir Joseph Banks, are both nearly of ping and moulding candles, superior to Russian tai M. Molard.Chemist.
the same size. The younger plant is trained to a build- without any additional expense.' When prepared acte
ing, the north and west sides of which it has entirely co- ing to his plan, it is equal to white war or sperma Theory of Bodij and Soul.—The Chevalier d'Angos, a vered. It was planted thirty years ago. It measures fifty- The candles made of it burn with a superior light, learned astronomer, carefully observed, for several days
, a three feet four inches, from one extremity to the other; sembling in flame the purest gas. They are alege Lizard with two heads, and assured himself that this lizard and yields, on an average, from four to five pecks of fruit void of the offensive smell and greasy touch of other had two wills
, independent of each other, and possessing annually. The other, whose age is not ascertained, is dles, and when burning in the closest apartment hare a piece of bread was presented to the animal, in such a and is now beginning to decay. The soil in which these longer than any other candle of the same weight, and manner that it could sce it with one head only, that head grow is a brown or hazel-coloured light loam. Mr. Ayres a change of process only in preparing, they can be eil wished to go towards the bread, while the other head was not able to ascertain the name of the variety in the of a beautiful golden yellow, or of a snow-white cold wished the body to remain still.-- Voltaire's Philosophical garden at Duffield : those at Overton are said to be the which the effects of light of time cannot alter.-Dictionary, vol. 6.
Champagne.-Trans. of Hortic. Soc. vol. V. p. 490. Farmer and Mechanic.