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multitude of products, and some of them of the very sible of raw and manufactured goods, that they may be ported in different ages, and naturalized in our English e greatest utility, which cannot possibly be raised except in enabled to procure for themselves the conveniences and dens; and that they would all degenerate and fall away in particular situations. Were it 'not for commercial inter- luxuries of other climates; and the merchant, finding the the trash of our own country, if they were wholly nexistel course we should not be able to obtain the smallest supply wants and demands of his customers increase, will be en- by the planter, and left to the mercy of our sun and sal of tea, sugar, raw cotton, raw silk, gold bullion, and a couraged to import a larger quantity of the products of Nor has traffic more enriched our vegetable world, thai thousand other equally useful and valuable commodities, foreign countries. Thus, by gratifying the vanity and am- has improved the whole face of nature among us. Our skip Providence, by giving different soils, climates, and natural bition of his customers, he cherishes that taste for foreign are laden with the harvest of every climate. Our table in productions, to different countries, has evidently provided commodities

which some shallow moralists have been ig- stored with spices, and oils, and wines. Our rooms are filiere for their mutual intercourse and civilization. By permit- norant enough to condemn, but which, nevertheless, con- with pyramids of China, and adorned with the working

ting the people of each to employ their capital and labour tribute more, perhaps, than any thing else, to advance the ship of Japan. Our morning's draught comes to us from • in those departments in which their geographical situation, glory and prosperity

of a nation. The acquired wants

of the reinotest

corners of the earth. We repair our bodies by the physical capacities of their soil, their national character a people are much more insatiable than their physical ne- the drugs of America, and repose ourselves under Indiane and habits fit them to excel, foreign commerce has a won cessities ; and the passion for foreign luxuries and conve- nopies. The vineyards of France are our gardens; tbe spiete derful effect in multiplying the productions of art and in. niences, when once generated, is perfectly uncontrolable. islands our hot-beds; the Persians our şilk-wearers, and dustry. When the freedom of commerce is not restricted, You have, then, only to place these articles within the Chinese our potters. Nature indeed furnishes us with the each country necessarily devotes itself to such employments reach of mankind, and you will infallibly banish the apa. bare necessaries of life, but traffic gives us a great variety of as are most beneficial to each. This pursuit of individual thy and languor of savage life, and substitute in their what is useful, and at the same time supplies us with every advantage is admirably connected with the good of the stead, a spirit of activity and industry. Whatever Mr. thing that is convenient and ornamental. Nor is it the best whole. By stimulating industry, by rewarding ingenuity, Locke and his followers may say to the contrary, you may part of this our happiness, that whilst we enjoy the renkstest and by using most efficaciously the particular powers be depend upon it that no country can ever becomie wealthy, products of the north and south, we are free from those es stowed by nature, commerce distributes labour most effec- or industrious, or civilized, or inventive, without com

tremities of weather which give them birth; that oa eja tively and most economically; while, by increasing the merce to stimulate the exertions of its inhabitants.

are refreshed with the green fields of Britain, at the same general mass of necessary and useful products, it diffuses Dr. Paley had a very clear perception of this doctrine. time that our palates are feasted with fruits that rise between general opulence, and binds together the universal society": Flourishing cities," he says, “ have been established the tropics.

“For these reasons there are not more useful members in a of nations by the common and powerful ties of mutual in, through the manufacture of some single commodity, and terest and reciprocal obligation. Commerce has enabled populous towns have sprung

into existence through the commonwealth than merchants. They knit mankind tee each particular state to profit by the inventions and disco, effects of commerce. A watch is a very unnecessary appen

ther in a mutual intercourse of good offices, distribute the veries of every other state. new appetites, and it has also given us the means of gratis till the ground in order that he may be enabled to procure verts the tin of his own country into gold, and exchanges It has given us new tastes and dage to an agricultural labourer; but, if he is induced to gifts of nature, find work for the poor, add wealth to tber

and magnificence to the great. Our English merchant fying them. It has armed the patient hand of industry one, the purposes of commerce are answered : and when with

zeal to undertake, and perseverance to accomplish, the watchmaker is polishing the case, or filing the wheels wool for rubies. The Mahometans are clothed in our Price the most arduous and difficult

tasks. Commerce has either of his ingenious machine, he is contributing to the produc- manufacture, and the inhabitants of the frozen zone varnost entirely removed, or greatly weakened, a host of the most tion of corn, as efficaciously, though not quite so directly,

“When I have been upon the 'Change, I have often fanda unworthy prejudices. It has united the whole world into as the husbandman himself. Tobacco is acknowledged to regarded as the provinces; and the same beautiful train of is induced to ply his nets, and the mariner to bring home course of people with which that place is every day filed one vast empire, the different kingdoms of which may be be a useless article of consumption ; but, if the fisherman one of our

old kings standing in person where he is reais consequences which is produced in kingdoms by the opera- rice from Carolina or Hindostan, in the hopes that, by this case, how would he be surprised to hear all the langa tion of that territorial division of labour which has con- doing so, they may be enabled to procure it, this article, of Europe spoken in this little spot of his former domines ferred incalculable benefits on the human race, is observ. which has apparently no other use than that of gratifying and to see so many private men, who in his time would able in the world at large. a vitiated palate, becomes the means of supplying man

been the vassals of some powerful baron, Degoelating England, for example, from the quality of her wool, kind with two very useful articles of food.” Deprive us of princes for greater sums of money than were formeris to the

abundance of her coals, the skill of her workmen, and our foreign commerce, and reflect what a horror-striking met with in the royal treasury! Trade, without enlarca the excellence of her machinery, is enabled to manufacture diminution would be made from the sum total of our com- the British territories, has given us a kind of additional epih cloth much cheaper and better than can be done by Portuforts and enjoyments. Instead of breakfasting on the pro, It has multiplied the number of the rich, made our landed gal; while the Portuguese, from the facilities which the duce of China and the West Indies, we should be obliged estates inAnitely more valuable than they were forkerty, et mildness of their climate and the fertility of their soil afford to content ourselves with the humble porridge of our an added to them an accession of other estates as valakitu to the growth and cultivation of the grape, are enabled to cestors. When our crops exceeded the quantity required lands themselves.Targer quantities, than can be done by the English. Thus, would be useless; and, when they tell short of this quan all

the benefits

which commerce bestows upon us Cor produce wine with infinitely less expense, and in much for the consumption of the population, the redundancy

But, great as these advantages are, even they are if England were to confine herself to the manufacture of tity, we should be reduced to the extremity of famine. cloth, for which she has natural advantages, and if Portu. Our maritime greatness would fall with our commerce, Addison beautifully expresses it, but it also distribe

merce not only distributes the gifts of nature

, as N gal were to employ herself exclusively in the cultivation of and, from occupying the very highest place in the first the gifts of science and of art. It enables

the inhabitan the grape, in which occupation the peculiar productive rank of nations, we should fall to the lowest place in the of each country to profit not only by the discoveries of powers of the soil enable her to excel, each country would fourth or fifth rank.

But, perhaps, the best summary any where to be met habitants of every other country. The machine interes

natives of its different provinces, but by those of the a and wine than if they were to engage in occupations in with, of the advantages of commerce, is to be found in by Mr. Samuel Hicks, of the United States, for separate which the advantage was on the side of another.

But, perhaps, the indirect advantages of foreign com. dison, and which derives additional interest from the cir- cotton wool from the pod, is not less beneficial to use merce, in rousing mankind from sloth and indolence, and cumstance of its being one of the

first essays which and

Arkwright, by reducing the cost of our manufacture in stimulating them to activity and industry, are even more appeared in support of the benefits resulting from trade has been productive of as great advantages to our fire important than its direct advantages, and yet they are so Nothing can be better conceived, or better expressed, and customers as to ourselves. The effect of commerer often overlooked that I hope to be excused for dwelling on it is rather extraordinary that it has not attracted the at- this respect is, indeed, surprising, inasmuch that a them. tention of any of our commercial writers.

cess discovered in Calcutta, or New Orleans, will genere That man is naturally inactive and indolent no one will “Nature (says Mr. Addison) seems to have taken a particular be found to be adopted, a few months afterwards attempt to deny. The highest luxury of which savage life care to disseminate her blessings among the different re. Rouen or Manchester. seenis to be susceptible is, to have nothing to do. The mem- gions of the world, with an eye to mutual intercourse and bers of uncivilized communities confine their labour to traffic among mankind, that the natives of the several parts like mistaken ideas of religion,

have frequently

It must be confessed that mistaken views of coure merely supplying themselves with the coarsest materials of of the globe might have a kind of dependence upon one anofood, and providing themselves with clumsy defences ther, and be united together by their common interest. Al

wars and bloodshed. But when the principles of against

the inclemency of the weather. Their industry is most every degree produces something peculiar to it. The merce come to be rightly understood, it will be sent only in proportion to the extent of the necessities which food often grows in one country, and the sauce in another. no commercial war can ever attain its end. The prompt it, and those nations which experience the greatest The fruits of Portugal are corrected by the products of Bar: may, indeed, extend a dominion over a barren and difficulty in supplying their necessities

are in general the badoes, and the infusion of a China plant is sweetened with country, or over reluctant and rebellious subjects most industrious.' Mr. Hume, Sir William Temple, and the pith of an Indian cane. The Phillipic

islands give a fla- Providence has declared that it is by industry akate other inquirers into the progress of society, have observed, vour to our European bowls. The single dress of a woman individuals, and, consequently, nations can become a that the inhabitants of those countries which possess the of quality is often the product of an hundred climates. The thy, powerful, or refined. greatest natural disadvantages are always the most active muff and the fan come together from the different ends of When Mr. Pitt, in 1786, laid before the Hour de and industrious ; and, in conformity to the principle now the earth. The scarf is sent from the torrid zone, and the mons the commercial treaty which he had entered laid down, we should expect this to be the case. But tippet from beneath the pole. The brocade petticoat rises out with France, for the purpose of removing the existen in civilized societies, when commerce begins to extend it of the mines of Peru, and the diamond necklace out of the restrictions on the trade between the two countries, self, however great may be the natural advantages of the bowels of Indostan.

delivered his sentiments in a speech country, the inhabitants are never contented with the pro. “ If we consider our own country in its natural prospect, point and eloquence as for the sound, manly, and ductions of their own soil and climate, but they eagerly without any of the benefits and advantages of commerce, stitutional principles which it enforced. In repis to grasp at those foreign commodities and luxuries which what a barren uncomfortable spot of earth falls to our share argument inculcating constant jealousy of France

, commerce brings within their reach. If an individual Natural historians tell us, that no fruit grows originally Pitt inquired, whether, by the term " jealousy," has obtained a sufficient quantity of corn, cloth, and among us, besides hips and haws, acorns and pig-nuts, with meant that species of jealousy which was either mad beer, and if these are the only commodities which his in other delicacies of the like nature; that our climate of itself, | blind, which would either madly throw away the dustry can procure for him, he will cease to labour; but, and without the assistance of art, can make no further advantages within its reach, or blindly grasp at state when the productions of other countries are placed within vances towards a plum than to a sloe, and carries an apple

to could never obtain, and which, if obtained, would his reach, he will increase his exertions that he may be no greater a perfection than a crab: that our melons, our in their total ruin Was the necessity of a contised enabled to obtain them. The agriculturist and manufac- peaches, our figs, our apricots and cherries (and Mr. Addison war

with France so evident and pressing, or was a pacar turer will endeavour to produce as great a quantity as pose' might bave added, our potatoes) are strangers among us, Ina, intercourse with that couatry so odious, that se **

as remarkable for

forego all the commercial advantages which would result | Bruges, in the Netherlands, where manufactures were nal festal scenes. The neighbouring gentry not at all from a friendly and amicable treaty? To say that two established and commerce carried on. Here the Lom- liking the appellation of " mutum et turpe pecus," concountries must, from their nature, for ever remain at bards brought the spices and delicacies of the East,

and ceive that there may have been a conspiracy for any. enmity, was a libel on the constitution of nations, and exchanged them for the coarser but not less useful comsupposed diabolical malice in the constitution of man. modities of the North.

thing they know against wit and learning; or it might Those nations which enjoyed the most extensive com- The commerce of England increased with the increase have been a question, whether philosophy and dancing merce have always been found to make the most rapid of the commerce of her neighbours. It is remarkable are consistent; or perhaps there exists in the minds. progress in wealth and civilization. Dr. Smith has that there is a clause in Magna Charta which stipulates of some a fear lest something should be introduced hrewdly remarked, that the learning and riches of ancient that foreign merchants shall have full liberty to come into the ball-room quite irrelevant to the customary purse between the different districts of the country, wherever they shull think proper. In the reign of Ed- rules of education; or that some encroachment might afforded by the navigation of the Nile ;-and the same ward III, a law was passed, abolishing the disgraceful be made upon theit very language, and either Greek, great authority has observed that the comparative civili- practice, which had formerly existed, of making one alien Latin, or French spouted instead of good old Engzation of the nations bordering on the Red Sea and the liable for the debt of another. But the reign of Edward lish; this, however, is certain, though the secrets of Mediterranean was owing to their maritime situation. III. is chiefly memorable froin its being the period of the the committee-room are not known, that where a gentleThe prophet Ezekiel has left a beautiful and splendid introduction of the woollen manufacture inio England. escription of the wealth and commerce of the Tyrians. In 1831, Edward, taking advantage of the discontents man possesses, and at all times attends to the very essence This people took advantage of their situation at the east which prevailed amongst the Flemish, invited a number of Chesterfield's politeness, and, as Observator says, pays

the Mediterranean to purchase from the Idumeans, of the inhabitants of Flanders to come over and settle in his subscription up, he is undoubtedly an acquisition to od the other nations inhabiting the shores of the Red Sea England. These people accepted Edward's invitation, and any ball-room, provided he can dance as well as philosoed the Persian Gulf, tea, raw coffee, raw silk, and other it was by them that the English were initiated in the art phize;

but, mind you, let the “galld jade wince,” if any ative productions, which they afterwards disposed of toof manufacturing wool. Since this period, the commerce ne Greeks and Gauls, and the nations on the north and of England has advanced with rapid strides, accompanied, such scholar, philosopher, or dancer, finds an amiable rerest of the Mediterranean. This they were the more hand in hand, by wealth, civilization, and power. ception in the card-room, asily enabled to do from the circumstance of the Medi. Brief and imperfect as this sketch of the early history The Ashtonienses cannot but participate with the feela waves except such as were caused by the influence of noticing the discovery of the mariner's compass, --an that their brethren, the Ashtonians, are a stubborn race, arranean and Red Seas having no tides, and consequently of commerce must necessarily be, I cannot close it without ing of the spes gregis on this occasion, for they are aware e wind, which, in times when the compass was un event which has contributed more, perhaps, than any own, and when navigators were unwilling to venture other to increase the comforts, conveniences, and luxuries having a good deal of the Gothic in their composifrom the land, must have facilitated their commerce of mankind. The Italians claim the merit of its discovery tion, and not so familiar as the spes gregis with the I wonderful degree.

for Flavia Gioio, a citizen of Amalphi, who, they say, Grecian and Roman graces; and we, the neiglıbouring But commerce not only diffused over Gaul and Italy a made the discovery somewhere about the middle of the Gentiles and scribes, agree perfectly with the spes grcte for foreign commodities, but it dispelled, in a great fourteenth century. Dr. Robertson has adopted this view asure, the darkness and ignorance which had hitherto of the subject ; büt passages are to be found in French sis, in his exhibiting the head and front of his served undisturbed the sovereignty of the dominion of writers, nearly two centuries before the above period, offending," considering the character of a gentleman nd in Europe. The Phenicians instructed the in which speak of the polarity of the magnet in the most an interesting subject of discussion, disclaiming all party retors of western Europe, and it is to them that we are unequivocal terms. But to whomsoever the merit may feeling. If the said spes gregis has attained the “ne lebted for the most valuable of all discoveries, the gift be due, it must be acknowledged that the era of the dis. plus ultrar of perfection in the fashionable, as well leiters. Those nations which enjoyed an extensive covery of the compass is the most important period in the amerce were enabled to found colonies in different history of commerce and navigation. It has extended as the philosophic world, he is an object of the greatest sitions, wbich added much to the importance and mag- the former to the most distant shores of the habitable commiseration if he is not allowed to show such war. licence of their mother countries, insomuch that Car- globe, and has multiplied its operations to an extent which rantable qualifications in the ball, room, at least if not

de, the most powerful of these colonies, eclipsed even had never been contemplated by preceding ages. It has in the card-room, of these most select and accomplished o years to wage a bloody and doubtful war with Rome by enabling the navigator to launch boldly out into the assembliez Ashtonian, however, will not forget that the

deep, without fear of rocks or shoals. It was by its as old adage, “ Amantium iræ," &c. is in danger of being When Tyre was destroyed by Alexander of Macedon, sistance, that, in 1987, the Portuguese, under Vasco de applicable in this case.-Yours, &c. TRIPTALIS.

traffic which she had carried on was transferred to Gama, were enabled to double the Cape of Good Hope Stayley Bridge, December 15, 1824.
lexandria, which, from her situation on the shore of the and arrive at the East Indies, and that the persevering
lediterranean, and near the head of the Red Sea, soon and enterprising spirit of Columbus was rewarded by the
came the grand emporiun: for the interchange of Eu- discovery of a new world. It has united all mankind

A COMMON ENEMY. pean and Asiatic commodities.

into one vast commercial commonwealth, and has enabled All the period of the decline of the Roman Empire, each separate state to profit by the discoveries and invenas the different provinces of Italy became a prey to the tious of the whole. It has brought individuals together ursins of the Goths and Vandals, commerce was from the most distant corners of the world ;-it has made

SIR,_If, after the last war, of nearly thirty years' con. lost wholly suppresed. A number of individuals from mankind friends instead of enemies ;-it has obliterated tinuance, it were required, for the good of mankind, to alphi and the neighbouring districts, fleeing from the ancient prejudices, and has contributed to the advancement designate, in terms the least liable to objection, what. may and oppression of these barbarians, took refuge in Of wealth, literature, and refinement.

formidable foe still stalks abroad; and, disregarding the uster of small islands near the head of the Adriatic

" Hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvæ;

decrees of monarchs, the recurrence of seasons, hurricanes, 6. It was here that Venice, rising from the surface

Arborei fætus alibi, atque injussa virescunt he deep, beheld, undisturbed, for many centuries, the Gramina.--Nonne vides, croceos ut Tinolus odores,

or earthquakes, with resistless operation, in these regions, and fall of empires, the revolutions of states, the

India mittit ebur, molles sua tura Sabæi ?

rendersi human existence distressing in its course, and nial of tyrants, and the change of dynasties ;-till,

At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus

short in its duration ;-it might be replied, catarrh, or ngth, this last surviving witness of antiquity, and the

Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epirus equarum?

common cold. Colds, certainly, are the heralds of indufemaining link which connected ancient and modern

Continuo bas leges æternaque fædera certis ope, is herself experiencing the decline to which all

merous diseases ; and it is impossible to state the extent of

Imposuit natura locis."-George. kre is subject, and is fast sinking into the bosom of

their destructive effects; but I wish, at this period, to waves whence she rose.

have it recorded, that the only, total, and exclusive cause fter che decline of commerce in the middle ages, the

Correspondence.

of their having such effects, is, ignorance the animal tof commercial enterprise was first awakened in the

economy, and consequent exterior filth. cities of Italy. During the twelfth and thirteenth

ASHTON ASSEMBLIES.

What medicine, forced into the stomach, would remove buries, the commerce of Europe was almost exclu. ly in the hands of the Italians, better known by the

either one or the other of those causes, it is useless to in

Jacob, the scourge of grammar, mark with awe, be of Lombards. Numbers of them were established

quire; but it is twenty-five years since I was in that man.

Nor less revere him, blunderbuss of law. every country,-the greatest facilities were given to

Pope's Dunciad, b. 3, 150.

ner afflicted; and the dreadful sufferings I underwent, operations, and the ancient laws against foreigners

Cogite consilium et pacem laudate sedentes.

during twenty years antecedent to that period, and the repealed with regard to them. ut the spirit of commercial industry, which was thus

Virgil

care and security, in those respects I have since experienced, led in the south of Europe, was not long of commu

are contrasts not to be regarded with indifference: deing itself to the north. In 1241, the free city of

TO THE EDITOR.

siring, therefore, to make myself amenable to the tribunal entered into a confederacy with the neighbouring SIR, Your correspondent Observator, of Chorley, has of public observation, I hereby declare and determine, for mutual protection against the pirates who in- not, in his notice of Ashtonian's letter, quite extricated that, though my avocations impose upor me close conderation, so that in a short time eighty of the

most dilemma in which the Ashtonians and Ashtonienses have state and transition of the atmosphere, I will not, during manifested itself

, and other cities acceded to the the spem gregis of the Ashton assembly from the woful finement to small rooms, and alternate exposure to every lerable cities, between the Baltic and Lyons-on-the placed an elegant scholar and philosopher. However, as the remainder of my existence, be troubled with catarrh le, joined in the famous Hanseatic League, which * Gravissima est proti hominis iracundia” the Ashtoni- or cold.

I am, Sir, mity dreaded, by the most powerful Princes in Eu- enses,“ iram deponere," notwithstanding feel a little cha

Your humble servant, Their commercial operations were regulated by grined that their brethren do not attempt “servare gregis," passed in a common assembly of that body;

and cer- and collect together the “clegantes elegantiorum” of the 14, Concert-street, Liverpool, JAS. OGDEN. towns were fixed upon, the principal of which was town, to trip the light fantastic toe, and adorn their hiber- 8th December, 1824.

TO THE EDITOR.

Tive la Bagatelle.

show how it may be transferred to the parlour, or nursery. The Beauties of Chess.

The annexed figure represents the pockets of a billiard" In order to employ one part of this life in serious and important table; near the mouth of which are two dark balls. “ Ludimus effigiem belli”.......... VIDA.

occupations, it is necessary to spend another in mere amusements."

(a) represents a white ball; and the puzzle is how the There is a time to laugh and a time to weep."-SOLOMON. ball a, may, by one stroke of the cue, be made to pocket

SOLUTION TO GAME XXV. both the other balls; or, in other language, drive them White.

Black. RECREATION I. into the pockets.

1 Queen....D_6+

1 Pawn.......D-B We lately introduced to our readers a singular experiAs this is billiard phraseology, we shall endeavour to

2 Castle ....F-4 2 Pawn ......D-5 ment, to prove that it is difficult, if not impossible, by render it intelligible to our young friends, who may wish

3 Knight .. E-4+ 3 Pawn...E-4 forçe, to separate the two hands of any person holding to amuse themselves with the experiment, after the table

4 Bisbop ..E-3

4 Pawn......F-3 them in a particular manner ; which will be best under-cloth is withdrawn. This they may very easily do, by

5 Knight ..F-2

5 Pawn.......6-24 stood, by referring to the Kaleidoscope of September 28.

MATE, attending to the following directions : The following recreation, though less difficult of expla

[No. XXVI.] For a billiard-table, nation, will surprise those who have never seen it tried : substitute a book : at

The white to give checkmate in six mores.
each of the two corners
of which (1, 2) place a
marble; at the other

Black.
extremity of the book
must be placed another

у я р а а а он
marble (a), which being
flirted by the finger, shall force both the marbles (1, 2) off

the book.-Yours, &c. Let the two clenched hands be placed in contact with each other (as shown in the figure) with the two thumbs

7

CONUNDRUMS. together, the nails upwards, and the fingers pressed as We would not attach more value to mere bagatelles closely together as possible. When in this position, than they merit, but we may be permitted to say, that the two hands may be easily separated, by means which the various puzzles and original conundrums which have appear altogether incompetent to effect such a purpose. appeared from time to time in the Kaleidoscope, have not The person whose hands are joined, as in the sketch, we been deemed unworthy of the patronage of the metropoli

民 shall call A, and the other, who undertakes to seperate tan caterers for the public. We have now before us sevethem, B. B stands opposite A (vis-a-vis) B with the fore- ral recently published works, which are greatly extolled

O finger of his right hand gives a smart stroke on the upper in the newspapers ; in which we recognize many of our side of the knuckle of the forefinger of A's left hand; at old Kaleidoscope friends, adopted without any

acknowledgthe same moment, B with the forefinger of his left hand, ment. In imitation of such examples, we shall in future strikes the under side of A's right hand. This simple appropriate whatever we find in this way, without cere. stroke of the two forefingers of B made at the same moment mony. We shall commence our collection, however, with will drive A.'s hands asunder, the right hand flying up- a few originals, by our old correspondent Bathos, who wards, and his left downwards. A child, by this means, appears to be as incorrigible as ever. may separate the clenched hands of a grown-up person. 1. Why is it dangerous to admit a butcher into a cutler's shop?

A B C D E F G H RECREATION IT.

2. Why does modesty resemble a Miss in her teens ? Place a wafer or a piece of paper on the ceiling of a 3. Why is an auctioneer always pleased to see sour

WHITE. room; or if there be any mark upon the ceiling, it will looking people at his sale ? answer the same purpose. Then keeping your eye fixed

By Anonymous.

The Literary Souvenir.-In our next we shall appe upon such mark, turn round several times, pointing with 4. My first marks time; my second wastes it ; and my priate some article from this elegant little work your finger to the mark; and after making three or four whole tells it. revolutions, find your way out of the door, if you can. 5. My first denies ; my second laments; and my whole was a man saved from drowning.

To Correspondents. NO. III.-A PUZZLE.

6. My first is under my whole; and my whole is under A farmer sent his three daughters to market-one with my second. ten eggs, the second with thirty, and the third with fifty

CHRISTMAS DAY.-The intervention of this welcome day, eggs: they all sold their eggs at the same price, and each (INSERTED AT THE REQUEST OP A FRIEND.]

this week made some change in our arrangements; and brought home the same money. At what price and in

the present Kaleidoscope is not found to contain some what proportion were they sold?

ON LANGUAGES.

variety as usual, our readers will be so indulgent as to

in mind, that on the Saturday, which is usually the NO. IV. [FROM THE LONDON MAGAZINE.)

for arranging our subjects, all our printers were sine TO THE EDITOR.

"Holly and Joy," and thinking of any thing except wa As a depository for the current accumulations of know- The anticipation of Christmas Day induced us, early in Six,—My correspondence being referred to you by the ledge, German literature far exceeds all others for vast week, to prepare two articles of more than usual lesse editors of the Mercury, I take the liberty of submitting, compass, variety, and extent. The mere number of books viz. the report of Mr. M'Culloch's Lecture on Commer as an imprimis to the communication of my bagatelles, published annually in Germany," compared with the an- and the singular article from the Scotsman, on what the following: nual product of France and England, is alone a satisfac- the new mechanical paradox. They are both, hower

valuable documents, for which we hope no apologe The price or rate per 120 being given in pounds to find tory evidence of this assertion. With relation to France

,

necessary to any class of our readers. The reason wel the price or rate of one, multiply that price by 2, and the activity of Germany is not intensely accumulated in one

just assigned, will, we trust, be a satisfactory apala product will be the answer in pence. Thus, suppose 120 great capital, as it is in Paris; but whilst it is here and our merely stating, that we have been favoured with the to be £3, the price of one will be twice 3, that is sixpence; there conveyed intensely enough for all useful purposes communications from the following correspondent

-N.-W. P.-A Constant Reader -Scepticus-11 and, having the price of one in pence to find that of 120, (as at Berlin, Leipsic, Königsberg, Dresden, Vienna,

trum-X. 1.-W.P.-A. A.W. divide it by two, and the quotient will be the answer in the whole territory. There is not a sixth-rate town in DEATH WATCHES-We shall attend to the inquiry of den pounds. How is this rule found ?-I am, Sir, very re- Protestant Germany which does not annually contribute

seriber, probably next week; and shall take an early oppa spectfully, yours, &e. its quota of books: intellectual culture has manured the

tunity of publishing a paper on this subject, which ARCHIMEDES, JUNIOR. whole soil ; not a district but it has penetrated

have had in reserve for some time.
Like spring,

Which leaves no corner of the land untouch'd. The communication of J. H. Jun. of Lichfield the Esser
TO THE EDITOR.
A third advantage on the side of Germany (an advan-

the lines of A. S. on Madame Riegom. R's lines on a

vourite Dog, and his essay on Animal Appetite and SIR, -As this is the season when the holiday folk visit tage for this purpose) is its division into a great number

essay of L. L. shall on no account be delayed beyond met their friends, I shall suspend, for the present, any further the benefit of an internal rivalship amongst its several of independent states. From this circumstance, it derives

week. Their present insertion has been rendered impos description of exploits which may endanger their young members, over and above that external rivalship which it

ble, by the length of the article on the Mechanical Parada

and Mr. M'Culloch's Lecture. necks; and shall furnish you with a few simple recreations maintains with other nations. But the most conspicuous which may be performed at their fire sides.

advantage of the German literature is the great originality TAE HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM.We have just been favour * The following puzzle belongs rather to the billiard. and boldness of speculation, and the character of mascu

with a very humorous letter on this subject, from aay room than to the drawing-room; but it may be trans- labours by the researches of the native philosophers. line austerity and precision impressed upon its scientific

telligent and witty correspondent, at Blackburn ferred to the latter, merely substituting a few marbles for

perusal will make even Mr. Hamilton himself laugh billiard-balls. I shall first describe the problem, as if it * This statement has lately been communicated, by Mr. were to be performed on the billiard-table, and afterwards mere het een de Philosophical society in this town, and Isnow Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, 6 in the hands , Mr.

E. SMITH & Co, 75, Lord-street, Liverpool.

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BY M. ALEX B.

At

Natural History.

The southern side of the Pyrenean mountains is liable flamed gas often escaped from the fissures produced by

to concussions, so frequent that M. Ramond has enume- the shocks; but the truth of this fact is not confirmed by LETTERS ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE.

rated sixty earthquakes that have taken place at Bagneres any observation in the accounts of those that have taken di Bigorre. Very evident traces of volcanic eruprions, place more recently. The violent conflagrations by which

some of which are not supposed to have happened earlier earthquakes have sometimes been attended, as was the La égère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne than the fourteenth century, are remarked in all parts of case in that of Lisbon, have been occasioned by domestic te gee des ruines. Parls: printed, 1824.

these mountains. Besides, it must not be forgotten that fires, as this has never happened except in inhabited places.

thermal springs invariably abound in countries subject to You will easily understand, Madam, that the phenomena Prandatud expressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French earthquakes, where there are no volcanoes.

of which I have just been speaking to you, must be the Work.) LETTER III.-OF EARTHQUAKES.

The shocks of earthquakes differ, in duration, from some result of the great inequalities produced in the soil by the

seconds to more than two minutes ; neither are they less shocks of earthquakes. As the foci of all volcanoes appear to be situated at various in their nature ; sometimes they give to the earth If, in fact, one part of the bed of a river is raised, it

y considerable depths, and even beneath the primitive a motion that may be compared to the rocking of a vessel will necessarily remain dry, and there will be formed a Bi, it may be presumed that the cause which produces upon the waves; sometimes they seem to be the result of new declivity in a contrary direction to that, favourable to eir eruptions is very near the internal mass, if it be not a violent percussion, proceeding perpendicularly from the the course of the river, which must thence return towards le internal mass itself, as there is every reason to believe. interior of the earth to the exterior ; very frequently the its source, within a certain space. This retrograde motion

I ought now, in pursuance of the order which I have soil affected by them appears to move in a circular direc. occasions an accumulation of water, and consequent inun. escribed for myself, to speak to you of volcanoes ; but, tion, so perceptibly as to occasion giddiness.

dations near the point of division between the new and the these eruptions are so frequently accompanied by The intensity of the shocks is not less variable than old declivity. The obstructions which produce these inrthquakes, I shall first give you some account of the their duration and their nature ; they are sometimes so undations, are for the most part formed by the overthrow ature of those phenomena, although, perhaps, I have weak, that even when they happen in the middle of the of some neighbouring mountains, whose wrecks, falling ttle to say on the subject that will be new to you. night, they are rendered perceptible only, by the rattling into the bed of the river, suddenly arrest its course. Earthquakes do not take place only upon land; they of moveable furniture, and by the ringing of bells, (set in the time of the terrible earthquake, which took place at tea agitate the bottom of the sea, and the whole mass motion by the agitation of the walls which support them. Jamaica in 1792, two mountains, by their fall into the its raters, so violently that the shock is communicated In other cases, and unfortunately too often, earthquakes Sixteen-mile-walk river, so completely changed its course, vessels sailing upon its surface. When Captain Osmen are terrible phenomena, which occasion incalculable dis- that during several days, the whole mass of its waters

in 1660, navigating the South Sea, his vessel received asters, and entirely ruin the countries where they take seemed to have been precipitated into the earth. The Tal concussions, which occasioned great terror to the place. Such was that which, in 1755, destroyed more dead fish which remained in the bed of the river, proved, " It was found, upon throwing out the anchor, that than forty thousand persons at Lisbon and in the neigh. it is said, a source of great relief to the wretched inhabivessel was in very deep water. Lemaire experienced bourbood; such also was that which ravaged Sicily in tants, threatened with famine. lar concussions in the strait which bears his name. 1693, and whose effects were felt in so frightful a manner Inundations of the sea are occasioned by the sudden famous earthquake which destroyed Lisbon, on the in Jamaica. You must have read, Madam, lately in the elevation of some part of its bed, in consequence of which of November, 1755, appears to have extended to an public journals, accounts of the earthquakes which have it is abundantly poured down upon the coasts; and any ense distance; and the same day, an extraordinary just destroyed Aleppo, and compelled the wretched sur- apparent decrease of its waters is caused by the sudden de. ition of the waters, unaccompanied by any perceptible viving inhabitants to abandon their town, and seek safety pression of some part of the soil which it covers, at a on of the land, was observed in different parts of under tents, in the midst of the desert.

greater or less distance from the coast. land.

Not only do these terrible earthquakes destroy men and The formation of fissures is easily accounted for; they se effects of earthquakes are sometimes confined to their habitations, but they are sometimes so violent as en- are the necessary result of great concussions of the soil, narrow limits; they are sometimes felt at very con- tirely to change the face of the countries affected by them. by which the equality of its surface is destroyed, and conable distances; some have been known to agitate the They precipitate enormous masses of rock from the sum siderable parts of it amassed in irregular heaps. 02 an extent of several hundred leagues, and, in this mits of the highest mountains; they even overturn whole In order to form a just idea of earthquakes, it is im. they have never failed to be followed by volcanic mountains, when their upper layers are placed in a move-portant to remember, that they hardly ever consist merely tions.

able soil, and cover with their wrecks the surrounding of one shock, more or less prolonged, but that all the con le countries which border upon burning volcanoes plains. The course of rivers is often suspended by earth- cussions which happen during the course of several days ncontestably the most exposed to earthquakes ; yet quakes, and lakes are suddenly dried up, whilst considerare attributed to the same phenomenon, even where their are some regions, as, for instance, the coast of Bar. able springs of water gush out in new places. They some- number amounts to several hundreds. Some earthquakes and the country of Morocco, which are agitated by times cause the sea rapidly to retire, and leave its shores have lasted for several months, and even for whole years; ent concussions, although not subject to the ravages dry, or occasion so unusual a swell of its waters as to in those which have taken place in South America have been canoes. One remarkable circumstance, however, is, undate the wretched countries around, for whose destruc- particularly remarkable for the length of their duration. in the countries where this phenomenon is remarked, tion all nature seems conspired. In 1586, an earthquake, Earthquakes, consisting only of a single shock, are mere are found indubitable traces of extinguished vol, which agitated the country near Lima to the extent of a local phenomena of little importance. Those on the conB. This seems to me, Madam, to prove clearly hundred and sixty-two leagues, caused the sea to rise four. trary, whose effects are widely extended, produce very per. h, that the cause of earthquakes is always analagous teen fathoms. The island of Formosa was, during twelve ceptible modifications in the composition of the mineral & which produces eruptions; and that, when they hours, entirely covered by the sea, in consequence of an crust of the globe: the shocks are, in this case, very raIt without being accompanied or followed by those earthquake; and immediately after the first shock of that pidly communicated from one place to another, and they tena, it is because the inflamed matter in the in- which took place at Lisbon, the city was inundated by a sometimes traverse the space of a hundred leagues in less of the earth does not explode with sufficient violence sudden rise of the'waters of the Tagus.

than half an hour; their progress, however, is, for the -ak the mineral crust.

In the earthquakes of former times, it appears that in- most part, much slower.

The direction in which the shocks are continued gene- respondent; but so long as I cannot come to a good under

It is not for me to say what Quotator intended to en rally depends upon the disposition of the soil, and may, standing with him, I would rather not meet him at the merate amongst our inducements to quote; it was his des in most cases, be accurately ascertained ; but, if other social board.

siness to state it; for, since the point is to be argued, in proofs were wanting, the knowledge of the time at which He advises me to read poets in his own way; but I can not enough that he should himself understand what ke the shocks are felt at different places would remove all not oblige him in that. If I had wished to select a pas means ; he must also convince others of his being core doubts upon this point. The noise produced upon these sage from Virgil, it should certainly not have been that in his views:-(Scire suum nihil est, nisi cum scire Pue rigt occasions has always been compared to that which would which he was pleased to choose; the less so, as there is one alter.) He does not admire either the philosophy or the proceed from a number of heavily laden waggons, drawn of the same author which expresses the same idea in a morals of the ancients; but what does he admire ? is it rapidly along a paved road.

much more delicate manner than the turpe dictum which perhaps, their mythology? We really cannot know You, perhaps, imagine, Madam, that thunder and he has brought forward :-to extract gold from, is without his deigning to tell us. One thing seems to be lightning are the natural accompaniments of these terrible neither more natural nor more poetical than--to produce certain, and that is an essential one, namely, the Greeks phenomena ; this, however, is not the case. The most grapes from briars:-(Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus became clever, not only without using quotations, but violent concussions generally happen during the calmest uva.)-Eclogue 4.

even without any inducements to use them. weather, and do not appear to have any influence upon The gentleman then tells me, that he will always be Quototor says that he does not hold me very reverendis, the state of the atmosphere. The rapid and irregular ready to oppose me, whenever I shall attack any of his and this I shall bear with considerable fortitude; because variations of the magnetic needle, known by the name of favourite positions; and, in consequence of this resolu- there are people (and such I know) who like nobody but affolements, within the period of their duration, are tion, he now chooses the Drinking of Healths as bis chief themselves :-(Dantur quibus nemo præter ipus placeat. ) merely a mechanical result of the shock.

object; and he displays an energy on the occasion which If the gentleman wishes to convince me, that it is easier The return of earthquakes is not periodical in any clearly proves him to be greatly attached to that good old to compose a good sentence in our own language, tar to country, and they bear no relation to the tides.

custom: he seems to have made a slight alteration from introduce an apt quotation, he must learn to correct bis The frequency of earthquakes is very considerable. If Juvenal, and to have taken for his motto, “ Drinking pro- own style, which, for the present, approaches very near to we reflect upon the numerous accounts of these pheno- motes the welfare of body and soul:"-(Bibendum est, ut what the French call le style ténébreur. When a man das mena, which have been handed down to us within the last sit mens sana in corpore sano.) If I were inclined to throw spent the greatest part of his life in reading and studpeg fifteen or twenty centuries; on the still greater number of away much labour on this favourite position of his, I the ancient authors, his memory must, indeed, be neng those which took place at more remote periods, and of might, perhaps, find records in which the custom would weak, if it will not furnish him with quotations : bai which no historical records remain to us; if, besides, we be traced much further back than to the invasion of the would rather have every one to think for himself, and consider that several of these earthquakes have extended Danes: but I do not like to give importance to trifles, express bimself in his own manner :-(Sua cuique sit egi over a large part of our continents, we shall be convinced (nugis addere pondus,) and he is extremely welcome to tatio, colorque privus.) that there is no part of the mineral crust of our globe laugh at my deplorable ignorance in drinking matters. I do not understand what Quotator means by a which has not, several times, been convulsed and shattered in the meantime, the habit of letting one man drink be- former communications; and I am also at a loss to fa by these terrible phenomena. This consideration will fore another, (to show that the wine has not been poi- out the aptness of his allusion to the fox. He certain serve to explain to us the sate in which we shall find the soned) or protecting a drinker against surprise, whilst he presumes when he fancies that it will come Rome : 5 most superficial part of the terrestrial spheroid.

empties his goblet, may both have given origin to the even supposing that I had not enjoyed a classical I perceive, Madam, with regret, that the length of this drinking of healths : but Y. Z. had only spoken of the cation, what would that have to do with my argumes letter will not permit me to speak to you of volcanoes, of latter, and he had not said a word about pledging, when I I never said that a man was the worse for his being sd which I at first intended to give you some account. They told him, that the drinking of one man could do no good read in the ancients; and I highly respect those who mak will be the subject of my next letter, but to indemnify you to another, and that our good wishes, in that act, were a a good use of their acquirements. I only protest agaita for this omission, I send you the descriptions of two famous mere matter of form.

the affectation of pedants, who want to bror-beat etery earthquakes, written upon the spot by men who had the With regard to what he says about the testimony of one of whom they fancy that he has not had zrkat tin happiness to escape the general disaster. The particulars great men, I intended to make a long reply; but I find call a liberal education, although their superiority esist contained in them, for which we are indebted to the ob- that he has saved me that trouble by his postscript. Thus no where but in the imagination which they cherish :-1 servation of enlightened witnesses, will serve better to give qualified, and with that rider upon it, I admit the just- sibi somnia fingunt.) Yet, how many of these little * you an exact idea of these great calamities, than all that I ness of his statement on that point, and it would be un. do I not remember!-(Homunculi quanti sunt, cùng have been able to say to you.

liandsome not to do so; for there is really nothing to be cogito !) Quotator himself must have read & cera

said against it, and I perfectly agree with him, so far as prospectus, in which one of them advances that he mes Literature, Criticism, &c.

to unfold the composition and the idiomatical expresin What he means to say about translations will be, of of the French language, so little understood even by

course, as shall hereafter appear: but I hope that, in who profess to teach it. He does not state on DRINKING OF HEALTHS, AND OTHER MATTERS.

order to spare unnecessary labour, he will not forget grounds he makes such a sweeping assertion agains

the observation which I made in No. 224, namely, other professors, natives and foreigners; but he " Latè ferreus hastis Horret ager, campique armis sublimibus ardent." _Virgil.

“There may be, now and then, a passage that cannot be the most lamentable proofs of his being deficient

translated with the same brevity and neatness which it has the vernacular tongue. His prospectus is a comple “ Erected spears cover the plain with iron to a great dis tance, and the fields seem to be on fire with the splendour of in the original; but the meaning of it must be transferta- mass of faults, from the beginning to the end ; and! weapons." ble in some shape or other," and so on.

faults are all of such a nature that they cannot pe I shall be, at all events, very happy to hear from Y. Z. be excused. They are neither slips of the pen ner en TO THE EDITOR.

again; for he really improves upon nearer acquaintance; of the press ; for both can only occur in hasty and SIR,-When I look at the splendid muster of my ad- and it is but justice to acknowledge, that the more he is tions, which one has not the time to revise and to read versaries, whose productions cover nearly two pages of this hit, the more he shows his good qualities: striking at him consequently, the author must be possessed of no day's Kaleidoscope, my heart is almost ready to sink with. is like forcing sparks from a good fint:-(Silicis venis ab-gree of assurance when he pretends to teach in a in me; yet, when I consider, that even a defeat could not strusum excuděre ignem.)

language what he does not understand in bis own; be be disgraceful under such circumstances, I boldly advance With Mr. Quotator the case is very different; he shows may be that his long studies have done some injury * once more in the arena, confiding in the justice of my nothing but his vexation, which he vainly attempts to faculties, and that he is sometimes a little absent a s: cause, and the impartiality of a discerning public. I had conceal under over-strained politeness and affected jocu- compos mentis.) I should like to have Quotator's opini intended to withdraw, because I was afraid of wearing out larity. He, too, is palpably hit ; but we see no emission on the subject; for it certainly appears to me that the fl your patience ; but since you do not seem to wish for an of sparks from him. I had not set up for a second Daniel; man has lost the fruits of his precious education :-04 end of the contest, I have no objection to its continuance. I had only pointed out some of his numerous misconcep- et laborem perdidit.)

My first, most formidable, and most respectable anta- tions, and the ipse dixit of a writer is of no consequence I have often remarked that people who cannot man gonist, is Mr. Y.Z. to whom I owe an answer upon two when the affair is submitted to the public: the exceptions their own affairs are always the most forward in mint of his communications. In the first he tells me that he which I took belonged to my argument; because they their advice to others; and Mr. Quuolator exemplifies it, cannot invite me to a rump and a dozen,

and for this I am proved that Quotator had neglected the study of his own favouring me with his : but he quite forgets that the not sorry at all; because I am (thank God !) neither a language, whilst he pretended to be skilled in tongues noxious passage had been introduced by another pers glutton nor a drunkard, and mere eating and drinking which are not so indispensible. I do not sit in judgment and that I had protested against its propriety

. I nevy will never direct me in my visits. I even prefer good myself; I leave the decision to your readers ; and, unless ceive that both my antagonists insist on my having down company without wine, to wine without good company :- Professor Philotheorus should come forth in the cause, I in a witty manner; but I had not claimed that merit

: (Maio hominem qui vino egeat, quam vinum quod hominc, do not apprehend that there will be many dissenting know too well that self-praise is always unbecoming I do not mean this as a personal reflection on your cord! voices.

(Propria laus'sordet.)

that goes.

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