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10.

11. CARDINAL NUMBERS.

It had begun at half-past four: it was now five, and Plinus Fatidicus, a male and a female, which he kept overlooked. At the foot of these possessives relative, as lerably light. The ticking commenced again. I was alive in a box for several months; and could bring one of he heads the list, is added—" When the pronoun you 11 kneeling, and listening towards the floor of the apart. them to beat whenever he pleased, by imitating its beating.” follows the verb, it is rendered in Spanish by a vmd, ent. In this posture I ascertained clearly chat the noise The sound which the Death-watch makes is not owing to abbreviation of usted.” What has you to do with posreceeded from somewhere higher than my head, and it the voice of the insect, but to its beating on any hard sub-sessives relative ? You is a personal pronoun, and vmd speared to me to come in through the window. This stance with the shield, or forepart of its head; and in old is as frequently used before as after verbs in Spanish. 3 about two yards off the place where I sat when I first houses, where the insects are numerous, may be heard at Vmd, strictly speaking, is not you, because it governs the Led it. I therefore got gently up, crept slowly to the almost every hour of the day, especially if the weather be verb in the third person singular, and the nearest idea I »dov, and placed my head near it. The sound was warın."

can give of it is, that it answers to the Irish expression such more distinct; I seemed closer to it; and, for the

“your honour,” before a verb; as, your honour is very st time, I could now perceive a difference between it CRITIQUE ON MR. FERNANDEZ'S « SYNOPTIC TABLE good.” Vmd es muy bueno. Vmd in Spanish is a more d the beating of a watch. In the centre of each mys- OF THE SPANISH GRAMMAR, AND OF ALL THE DIF- respectful or polite way of speaking than tu, thou, or vohous, separate tiek, there was a sort of shrill quaver, FICULTIES WHICH THE SPANISH LANGUAGE PRE-sotros, you, which are used in addressing inferiors, equals, Fy rapid, but very perceptible. It was not the smart, SENTS. CONTINUED.]

or relatives; particularly tu, as in French. The proper stic, sonorous tick of a watch, though, to an indifferent,

mode of using these in Spanish would be difficult to an distant, or timid observer, precisely the same. I ex

NO. III.

Englishman, unless he derived more explanation on the ined minutely every part of the casement, and at

TO THE EDITOR.

subject than Mr. Fernandez's Table gives, for even that ngth observed a small chink betweer the wall and the Sir,-I now come to exercise my optics on section

little would lead him wrong. indow-sill I put my ear to it,-iwas the very fissure

“ OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.”

“DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS." hence issued the sound I had so long been in search of! This learned grammarian states “that the absolute

“ They are declined with the indefinite article.” We was just upon it; so I now took out my stop-watch possessive are always followed by the substantive, and have now another mention of the indefinite, which is still ain, drew my chair to the spot, and sat down to count accord with him in gender, number, and case. They are

as indefinite as ever, sceing that his definite articles turn Dumber of these ominous ticks in a minute. In this all declined with the indefinite article. The pronouns, out to be prepositions. re of the business a new and unexpected result sur possessive relatire, are those which, from the ralationship

Estas, these ; esas, these; aquellas, these." ed me I had placed my watch very near the chink in in which they stand with the object it, has just been | The first is right, the last two should be those; but this is wall, and whether the unseen object of my pursuit were spoken of, bring it to our mind; these, instead of being pretty well for Mr. Fernandez, to make only two blunders sed with jealousy, or cheered with company, I pretend followed by them, take their places, and follow the same in translating three words ! to know; but so it was ; the strokes were more fre- gender, number, and case. They are declined with the

"RELATIVE PRONOUNs." int and much longer continued. There was occasion definite article.” If the learned gentleman would conde

Some are declined with the definite article, others fa flagging in the middle of them; then again a quick scend to translate this sentence into English, it might with the indefinite.This distinction he has not condeasif emulous to out-rival its neighbour; and again become intelligible; for, in its present form, the pronouns

scended to exemplify. grew gradually fainter and fainter to the end. From are jumbled together in such a manner, that I am not in

“INDEFINITE PRONOUNS." at 16 they rose to 20, then up to 34 times without inter- possession of faculties sufficiently clear to decipher the

“Cualquira," " whatever,” I should write Cualquiera, sion in 12 seconds. From 34 they increased to 64 times, meaning of these possessives absolute and relative as he and explain its plural to be Cualesquiera ; and it might ich were accomplished in 30 seconds. From 64 they describes them. He states that the former are to be de have been as well to state, that many words now spek -00 to 450, which were completed in 1 minute and 40 clined with the indefinite and the latter with the definite with cu were formerly written qu. nds. And, finally, they ascended as high as 600, when article. He has favoured us with his definition of the st my computation of time, and they ceased altogether. definite articles “de, of or from, and à, to," stating in

“ Trcce" (13) should be trece. $was at half past five o'clock.

the sixth section that " the other persons have no article." Daylight was now fast advancing. I waited patiently What persons or who does the author allude to that have

“ Nonogesimo,” ninetieth, should be no nonagesimo. eral minutes, but all was hushed, so I took out my no articles? This is beyond the grasp of my finite com

“Unadocena," a dozen, should be separated, the una fe to examine the interstice in the wall, cleared it of prehension. If he allude to he, him, her, they, and them, from docena. surrounding paper, and found the opening little more to whom the author seems kindly to grant an article, why

12. “LIST OF ADJECTIVES," I wide enough to admit the blade. I scraped about it should I or thou, she or you, or we be excluded from the which, when joined to a substantive, loose their last voweh some time, without discovering any thing, and at last boon ? And others may ask—“What is the reason that Por loose read lose; and for the author's information, I will up the search, wondering what sort of an animal it no article is assigned to thee, or me, or to us? is he not observe, that there is the same difference between them Very soon afterwards I happened to turn my eyes a selfish man ?" If the objection can be raised against

as between desatar and perder. Examples of the rule : 1. that way, and I saw a small, compact, brown- nominatives, there can be none against the genitives, “San Juan instead of Santo Juan.” if my optics serve Bred insect scampering from the spot, as fast as six datives, and ablatives, to which these prepositions (erro me, san has lost the last consonant as well as the vowel,

“ El buen vino nunc es caro,” legs could carry it. It had two tremulous feelers in neously called articles) may be prefixed. Having premised and ciento does the same. to explore its way. I secured the harmless stranger, thus much concerning the excellence of this newly-disco

good wine is never dear,"—he has nunca in the line lodged him in a little box, with a supply of sugar and vered definite article, let us next inquire after the indefinite, above, and therefore this error will be carried off to the

Enrrique primero, Henry the naceti

. Before I had an opportunity of hearing him with which the author informs us the absolute possessives typographical debit. his strokes, the box got accidentally crushed, and, are to be declined. As this is the first time he mentions First," I should write with one r instead of two; because sorry to say, the poor little creature was stifled; but such an article, he leaves us completely in the dark to the rule of the Royal Spanish Academy, treating of double Ep his dead body by me, and mean to take him to guess the definition he attaches to it; he has wisely ab- consonants, states, that r should never be doubled after a pool, for the inspection of such as are curious in the stained from saying any thing about it, and, if he had consonant; but perhaps this Tablarian scholar will in. ledge of insects. It is little more than the size of a said less of the definite, he would have fared the better.

form us that his ipse dixit is a higher authority. fica, and very much resembles those insects which

13. "OF CONJUNCTIONS." “ DECLINATION OF POSSESSIVE RELATIVE ound in West India sugar, and which we sometimes

PRONOUNS."

The Tablarian has (par contumace) extablated a host of wimming on a cup of tea.

These are introduced to our notice by remarking that my industrious little school-fellows of this class: and, or, From thy respectful Friend, B. “these persons, having no other difference than the article, bul, either, neither, if, nor, whether, yet, &c. have no anchester, 9th 10th month, 1824.

we shall only give the first of either.” Here is confusion station in his stately collection; and instead of these use5.On mentioning the circumstances related above, yet he writes of persons ; he has divided possessives into out some very smart Spanish conjunctions, that he brought

again; he is not now treating of personal pronouns, and ful acquaintances and playmates of mine, he has dressed well informed young females, in Manchester, they absolute and relative, and yet he now huddles together over with him from the Continent. Allow me to introsht me " Taylor's Anecdotes of remarkable Insects.” conjunctive and personal, absolute and relative possessive, duce a few of them to your respectful notice; Donde is it appears, the insect which I have, is not the Pli. without any distinction.

quiera que, in whatever place.” Ha! one of his inter'alidicus, or “real Death-watch of the vulgar, em. ally so called.” This makes a noise like “hat lute, otherwise it is a personal or conjunctive, as me, tu, Ex.: mi, me ; if my be intended, it is a possessive absojections I think would sound well either before or after.

Cualquiera que, whoever may;" Fuego! Zounds!" u may be made by beating moderately hard with a thou; if thy be intended, it is a possessive absolute, other another of the interjections as an accompaniment. Cum na table” (and which beating " is no other than the wise thou is a personal. "His, her, our, your, their, are aiquiern persona que, any person who may.” “Malhaya! e signal by which the male and female are led to each possessives absolute, and mine, thine, his, bers, ours, the deuce!" another interjection of his... To which I will sanalagous to the call of birds”), but the other be yours, theirs, are relative possessive pronouns: still he add two of my own,-“What spelling!what fine conito a totally different order, and is the Termes Pul- mixes them all up like the ingredients of a plam-pudding, junctions !" Eum of Linnæus,” “Dr. Durham had two of the without the least classification ; and the neuter its is wholly

OBSERVATOR.

ORDINAL NUMBERS.

TO THE EDITOR

TO THE EDITOR.

correctness.

THE HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM.
vinegar," of which no man ever heard but himself..

BY BATHOS.
Your obedient servant,
JAMES HAMILTON.

16. He is a marjoram (mar-jorum.)

17. It is full of dove-tails. SIR,—As your correspondent, Verbeiensis, appears only

18. He is in the habit of turning the hair (hare.) to have intended to amuse your readers, he will not expect

LIBRARY AT THE INFIRMARY.

19. Because she is a looking lass ( looking glass

. ) that I should enter into a serious argument with him

20. If our correspondent, Bathos, did not blush oben

he wrote this conundrum, he must, indeed, be irrecoverably relative to the justice of the principles on which the Ha.

SIR,--A few days since I had occasion to visit our new gone. His solution is thus worded by himself miltonian System is founded. The result of these prin- Infirmary, the arrangements of which are, doubtless, ge. animal sometimes goes mad, and bites people, who ote ciples, demonstrated in above 1500 instances in the last nerally well adapted to promote the comfort of its unfor recover ; but there is a plant which is MADDER, eighteen months, puts an end to all controversy in their tunate inmates. On one subject, however, permit me to which people die (dye) although they are not bitted. A few words on each of the points on which make a remark. On looking into one of two

of the wards,

* A plant used in dyeing, which appeared completely occupied, I was struck with your correspondent thinks this system vulnerable will, the appearance of the total absence of any thing in the I hope, suffice. And, first, I have not inentioned “ the way either of amusement or employment, which might

NEW RECREATIONS AND CONUNDRUMS. superiority of being taught over the present absurd method tend to dissipate the gloominess of the scene, or divert the

21. Why does a young girl, before she has learned of learning,” but the superiority of being taught over the attention of the patients from the objects immediately sew, like Hamlet ? absurd and dishonest mode of ordering to learn. Was it idleness, as if so many human beings had been immured refuses a challenge through fear ? around them. All was listless indifference, and complete

22. Why is a lady, curling her hair, like a housebreaker!

23. Why is a full-loaded merchant-ship like a man that want of sagacity, or want of candour, which prevented within the walls of a prison. Surely, I thought to my. your correspondent from perceiving the immense differ-self, some, at least, of these people can read, and there

BY ANONYMOUS. ence ? must be intervals of freedom from pain, when they would

24. Say why a good joke, repartee, or bon esta 2ndly. The simple sounds of all languages are the gladly seize on any mode of relaxation and amusement. The sight of ab exquisite, dandy, or bean,

Like effects should produce (and 'tis litrely true) same. This is correct. The reason why the German and How many individuals can recollect the pleasure they Frenchman pronounce “dis," "dat,” and “ tạoder,” is have received, whilst lying on the bed of confinement, As a fight pugilistic, when death doth enste! that they are not taught; besides, this,” that,” and from converse with books, io relieve the lingering hours; " the other," are not simple but compound sounds. Cato and how many have derived instruction on a variety of

ORIGINAL CHARADES. and Cicero never saw a grammar: first, because none ex: visitation, would probably never have thought on them at subjects, religious or otherwise, who, but for this afflictive My first in every inn you see

My next most men pursue ; are not the place in which they would have studied it all, to say nothing of the tendency that occupation of the To get my whole you'll all agree. With respect to Valerius Probus, Pausanias, Apollonius mind must often have to promote recorery. But on no My second is your view.

ST. Dyscolus, and about fifty other grammarians and lexi. side could I perceive a book of any kind. Without inter

My first you'll own myself to be, fering unnecessarily in the province of others, I beg ear. cographers, Greek and Roman, not one of these was a

My next was never yet behind, grammarian or lexicographer, in the sense in which these pestly to suggest the expediency of forming within the

My third is used in husbandry, words are now used. "Grammarians were then a very dif- Infirmary a small library, of useful and amusing books,

My whole a noted work you'll find. ferent set of men from those who

are now called by that for those of the patients who may request the use of them, name; they taught elocution, correct and elegant speaking, establishment. This

is a subject on which I merely throw

to be placed under the care of some individual of that rbetoric, philosophy our grammarians teach nothing, and order their pupils to learn, by heart, the veriest trash. out a hint, leaving it to others to mature and carry into

To Correspondents. operation, only observing that my donation shall be forth. 3dly. If a word have but one meaning, and a diction. coming whenever the scheme is attempted. Nor is this GRATUITOUS SUPPLEMENT TO THE KALEIDOSCOPI... ary gives it two, both equally deceive, and, with regard to of a formidable nature, when it is recollected how

much

next week, present our readers with a supplement, the Inquirer, both are false, though it be possible that one is accomplished, if even a hundred well-selected yolumes

to bring up some arrears, and to compensate gone may be right. I apprehend I gave this explanation of only are contributed, as a vast fund of instruction and

readers for the music and occasional advertisemena

duced into our columns. my meaning in my lecture. amusement would be thereby provided, without being a

This supplement will cual Athly. As an example of analytical translation your tax on any one.

A. B.

to introdnce several communications, including the correspondent gives this phrase"Ily a ici un petit gar. Liverpool, January, 1825.

Jerry_Lines supposed to have been written in the Disa

T. H. Ti's favour, dated Fairfield, near Manchester çon qui a cing pains d'orge et deux petits poissons-mais

short letter concerning De Foe-Two pieces of 0.qu'est ce de cela pour tant de gens ?” which he thus Englishes, “ He there has a little boy, who has five breads

lines to Sunset-Ra's letter, dated Newry--predator

Vive la Bagatelle. of barley and two little fishes; but what is this of that

LATIN VERSES AND TRANSLATIONS—We have been fare

In order to employ one part of this life in serious and important for so much of peoples ?". Now, Sir, if these English

with a copy of original Latin verses by Aliquit

, on occupations, it is necessary to spend another in mere amusewords were really a translation of each of the French

Spring, which we shall insert in our next, as an eset words, and that the grammar of the phrase and idiom of There is a time to laugh and a time to weep."-SOLOMON.

to some of our translating correspondents. We takel the French language had been pointed out by that transla.

occasion, however, to say, that we do not wish to del tion, they would, undoubtedly, be the only proper litera! SOLUTIONS TO THE CONUNDRUMS, &c. IN OUR LAST.

much of our publication to Latin compositions, third and analytical translation-every other would be false and

uninteresting to the great majority of readers of anya wrong. But Verbeiensis demonstrates a singular igno.

laneous publication.--Connected with this subject, we rance of this language, an ignorance which ought surely While the glass is held in one hand, nothing can be

inform some of our correspondents who have favour to render him more cautious. Il y a” are not three simpler than to remove it with the other hand, and drink it ;

with metrical translations of the Latin lines on Winter, words, but three constituent parts of one impersonal verb, and it is obvious that it is of no consequence how many

we have two more versions in reserve for our next sa

mental number. and must, therefore, be rendered, there is,” and not persons hold the arm, while the hand in which the glass is

"he there has;" the word "pain" means bread, but held is at perfect liberty. This trick was once played off Dorothea Ramsbottom's letter to John Bull is prepared for "pains," in the plural, means loaves. The phrase with great effect, by M. Vogel, the celebrated flute-player, next Kaleidoscope. It is not often we can select ar « Qu'est ce de cela,” is not French, but nonsense: the who, upon the occasion of a concert for his benefit, an- from the John Bull, unmixed with obscenity or per error is not of the compositor, but of Verbeiensis, who trannounced that, after playing his concerto, he would hold

a ribaldry; but this whimsical letter is an exception, slates nonsense by equivalent nonsense. The phrase glass of wine in his lett hand, and drink it off

, although thank Amicus for directing our attention to it. should be Qu'est ce que cela,” where the verb "est" his arm should be held by six of the strongest men present. Ashtonian must not be offended if we decline is understood to close the sense. The phrase then is The curiosity to see this feat filled the house; and, after

a correspondence, which is utterly devoid of “What is that that that is ;" a singular phrase, but which M. Vogel had concluded his concerto, he filled a glass with ninety-nine out of every hundred of our rekin points out the precise and peculiar idiom of the French lan- wine, and, holding it at arm's

length, challenged six of the have received sundry hints from various parts guage, which should be the intention of every translation company to prevent him, by holding his arm, from drink- try, protesting against the continuance of the in the mouth of a teacher. The word “gens” means ing off the wine. Immediately half-a dozen gentlemen, people or persons, but not." peoples.". Has Verbeiensis including the mayor of the place, advanced from the boxes

bickerings. Let Ashtonian employ his pen upon med

better than such petty skirmishes. He has tales yet to learn that people" is plural ?-_“gens” is no to the stage, and laid firmly hold of the operator's arm, something higher; but he ought to bestow a little w

straining every muscle, and looking most ludicrously care upon his hand-writing, which is equally appallis After this sample of your correspondent's French cri- grave. Vogel then, in broken English said, “ Jantemen, the editor and printers. ticism, it will not be expected that I should follow him are you all ready?"—to which they answered in the affir. We have also received the communications of 0.P.into the kitchen and the larder to examine whether the mative, when the operator, with great dignity, advanced

of Glasgow-A Sonnet, by T. N. S.-J. L.- Constanta elegant technicalities of French cooks and scullions are to his right arm with a grand sweep, until it came into con. -W.W.M.-0.P.-J. S.-Solomon Nightingal. be rendered by corresponding technicalities into English. tact with the glass, which he applied to his mouth, saying, Music-We shall, next week, publish the original Mare

S. of Manchester. that was approachable by the Honorary Secretary of the healths. This produced such a roar of laughter, that

the ERRATUM-In a part of the impression of our last we Metropolitan Society, who, seeing in his dictionary coup mayor and his athletic companions retired with the utmost

publication, the New Conundrums were erroneously de feu, coup de pied, coup d'æil, &c. triumphantly asks precipitancy.

bered:-13, 14, 15, 16, 17, instead of 16, 17, 18, 1 " Has coup but one meaning ?" No more. The French

RECREATION VIII. have no words in their language to express a kick, a All you have to do, in order to accomplish this wonder,

Those of our readers who may be in possession of the in

rect copies, will please to correct the error with a pen. plance, a shot; they are, therefore, obliged to use a cir- after having swallowed the pieces of apple or cake, is, to cumlocution---a blow of fire, a blow of foot, a blow of eye, take the hat fixed upon by the company, and put it upon &c. &c. Your correspondent will apply this to his “filet,” your head; when it is obvious that all the pieces will be printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAT, which he translates thread," and to bis “ thread of under one hat.

E. Smith & Co. 75, Lord-street, Liverpool

ments."

JOHN LOCKE.

RECREATION VII.

more.

OR,

Literary and Scientific Mirror.

* UTILE DULCI."

$famfilar Miscellany, from which rellglousand politicalmatters are excluded, contains a variety of originalandselected Articles; comprehending Literature, Criticism, Men and Manders, movement, Elegant Extracts, Poetry, Anecdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Arts and Sciences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c. &c. forming a handsome Annual lolame, with an Index and Title-page.--Its circulationrenders it a most eligible mediuin for Literary and Fashionable Advertisements-Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents.

0.239.– Vol. V.

TUESDAY, JANUARY 25, 1825.

Price 3d

LETTERS

JY M. ALI

Natural History. tity of materials used. This explosion differed, however, period, have covered it with a layer of ten or twelve feet

in its nature from that which takes place in volcanic moun in thickness. As Herculaneum was situated much nearer tains. At first Emery put into the hole, iron in the me- the volcano than Pompeia, the lava has been accuinulated

tallic state, although it is well krown, that a single atom over it in still greater quantities ; it is now covered with a DX TBR REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE.

of pure iron is never found in the interior of the earth : bed of volcanic productions, from 70 to 100, or even 112

that metal is always combined with other substances, and feet in thickness. het begere would do wie, grad Neurit à la surface du globe, ne can be procured only by means of a succession of artificial A knowledge of all these facts will easily make you unmique du roints.

operations. Then, even if we admit, in contradiction to derstand, Madam, how absurd it would be to consider as Paris: printed, 1824

all that we have been taught by experience, the possible the mere product of the wrecks of Vesuvius and Etna, a meleted repressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French existence of a sufficient quantity of native iron to produce tract of land, much exceeding in extent the bulk of these Work.]

volcanoes, the hypothesis of Emery does not account for mountains; so far, indeed, are they from being the source LETTER IV.-OF VOLCANOES.

the most remarkable phenomena attending eruptions. It, whence the matter ejected from them has been derived,

in fact, explains only the first eruption, and the ejection of that they are proved to have been themselves formed by the short account I have already given you of the matter occasioned by it; since, when the infamed gas had eruptions. Vesuvius was, in the time of the Romans, te of volcanoes, you must have been led to consider once formed for itself a passage to the surface of the earth, much less bulky than it now is; and, according to the , 18s vast apertures in the earth, through which some the eruption would coneist only of the continued disen- descriptions left us by Strabo, Dion, and Vitruvius, it of the liquid burning matter, forming the internal gagement of that gas, and volcanoes would, after the first appears that, in their time, the mountain now called his violenuly ejected and diffused over the surface of explosion, have the appearance merely of immense lamps, Somma constituted the whole mass of Vesuvius ; that ibe wl. This explanation of the cause of volcanic erup- that would serve to light the country round, 'until they eruption which took place in the time of Pliny overturned appears to me more satisfactory than any other that should become extinct.

the portion of the cone nearest the sea, and gave to that been proposed. All other hypotheses, in fact, refer The production of lavas must remain quite inexplicable, part of the mountain its present dimensions and form. tions to causes merely local, and afford no means of if we adhere to the opinions of Emery; neither does he As for Vesuvius, such as we now behold it, it is formed isting for the singular resemblance existing between give any reason for the existence of those earthquakes of the amassed matter thrown out in subsequent eruptione. nic productions, ejected in parts of the globe, at the whose effects extend to great distances. In general, every A description of the crater of Vesuvius, given by remote distances from each other.

hypothesis, by which lavas are considered as the mere re- Bracini, who descended into it a short time before the ma geologists, in endeavouring to assign reasons for sult of the fusion of metallic substances accidentally de- eruption of 1631, proves that, since that time, the mounforonation of volcanoes, have been contented with supposited in the interior of the mineral crust, is, on that very tain has undergone very considerable changes." ng, that the inflammable matter, inclosed in the bo- account, inadmissible ; as fire is not communicated to Although the origin of many volcanic mountains cannot, of the earth, took fire spontaneously; but they did mineral substances with the facility necessary to produce on account of their great antiquity, and for want of sufefect that the intervention of air would be necessary, this effect. A heat of 143° of the pyrometer (that is, a ficiently exact relations, be satisfactorily proved, there are der that the combustion should take place, and that heat capable of melting iron) may be preserved, during some, whose formation' having been more recent, is known, impossible for the air to penetrate to the immense several years, in the same place, without affecting sur-Ito us with certainty. Thus, we learn from two relations S at which the foci of volcanoes are situated. Be rounding bodies at the distance of a few feet from it. of ocular witnesses

, that Monte Nuovo was formed during this supposition is proved to be founded on entirely How then can we conceive it possible that the fires of a violent explosion, on the 29th of September, 1538, in a grounds, by the fact, that, whenever mines are acci. volcanoes should be communicated to sufficiently great place formerly occupied by thermal springs. Flsmes were lly set on fire, the conflagration does not extend be- distances, to melt the enormous masses of lava ejected by perceived to burst forth towards one o'clock in the mornthe parts where the works are carried on, that is, be- them. Besides, I repeat, that if lavas are merely the re-ing; when these bad considerably increased, the eruption

those places, to which the air has obtained access, sult of the fusion of mineral substances, deposited near the commenced, and continued, without interruption, during ans of the apertures, communicating with the sur- inflamed focus, why do they not differ according to the two days and two nights. These frightful phenomena If the soil.

nature of the soil where that focus is situated ? Why do having ceased, a mountain, three miles in circumference as been supposed that volcanoes are produced by the they so exactly resemble each other, that, however dis was distinctly seen in the valley, where the baths of minemation of the salifiable bases of earths. I shall tant the volcanoes from which they proceed, however re- ral water forinerly stood. Its base covered a part of those owever, develop the grounds upon which this sup- mote the periods of time when they were ejected, they can baths, and a castle, whose ruins our descendants will perin is founded ; neither shall I endeavour to refute no more be distinguished than as if they issued from the haps, one day, be surprised to find. This new mountain, as an attempt to do so would necessarily lead me same focus, in two consecutive eruptions,

whose position is accurately described, has, till this day, etails, which could not be understood without some The quantity of matter ejected presents another difficulty preserved the name of Monte Nuovo ; it is very near ledge of the principles of chymistry.

not less insurmountable. Etna, Vesuvius, and many other Monte Barbaro, which probably had a similar origin,' just not, however, pass over in silence an hypothesis, volcanoes have thrown out, at different periods, more burn- although of anterior date. There is every reason to believe,

was at first received with great applause, and was, ing matter of every kind, in lava, cinders, and gas, than that the island of Ischia must have arisen from the bottom ? a long time, adopted without contradiction. We would be necessary to form their whole mass. These sub of the sea, in consequence of a submarine eruption. His. lepted for it to Emery, a celebrated natural philoso- stances cannot, therefore, have been detached from the tory informs us that the islands of Lipara were formed in who thought he had discovered a method of making sides of the mountains; still less from any place' near the al volcanoes. The following are the means which summit of the mountain, as Buffon supposed. All the • The crater was five miles in circumference, and about a pted to effect this purpose :

land around Naples, to the distance of several leagues, thousand paces in depth. Its sides were covered with shrubs, ring dog a hole in the earth, he deposited, at the has evidently been produced by different volcanic

erup- and there was at the bottom of it a plain, where cattle were 1 of it, a quantity of sulphur, which be afterwards tions, and beds of lava are found, even below the level of the middle of the plain there was a narrow winding path, ned. This process, which is quite similar to that the sea. The pavement of the streets of Pompeia was about a mile in length, descending into another plain, more med to effect the disengagement of the hydrogen formed of this matter ; of which also, a very thick layer spacious than the former, and covered with ashes. In this low # generally used to light the streets of Paris, is found under the foundations of that toen. This proves, there were three small ponds, placed in the form of a triangler oned, first, the disengagement of a considerable quan- beyond a doubtthat thete vere eruptions of Vesuvius bitter and corrosive; 'another, towards the west, with water

that fluid ; secondly, the production of a very in anterior to that of 79. The volcanic matter amassed upon more salt than that of the sea; the third contained warne heat ; thirdly, an explosion proportioned to the quan. the town, by eruptions that have taken place since that water, which had no peculiar taste.

ON MERCANTILE EDUCATION AND PRINCIPLES.

the same manner. In 1707 a new island appeared in the The situation of about a hundred burning volcanoes is such society as will be most conducive to his improvement Archipelago. These facts afford a surprising confirmation certainly known; we nay reasonably suppose that the in other respects; although it must admitted, that to a of the details given us by Strabo, Pliny, Justin, and other number of those whose position is not yet determined is not yet so often the case as it ought to be. authors, respecting the formation of several islands in the hardly less considerable. At least, half the volcanoes with The principals of great houses generally keep ther. Archipelago, anciently called the Cyclades, which were which we are acquainted are found upon the islands of selves at too great a distance from their clerks; and, vek also raised from the bottom of the sea. According to the ocean, and most of those which compose the other half the exception of a few young gentlemen, whose prospects Pliny, in the fourth year of the 135th Olympiad, 237 years are situated upon the sea-shore, or at a short distance from are decidedly favourable, mercantile assistants are seldir before the time of Jesus Christ, the islands of Tera (now the coast. This circumstance has always been remarked treated with the familiarity of friendship by their ezcalled Santorini) and of Theresia, were formed by a sub- by naturalists, and considerable importance has, at all ployers, and the latter scarcely ever admit them to their marine explosion ; and 130 years later, the Island of Hiera times, been attached to it: it cannot, bowever, be ac- circles. This appears to me to be mistaken polies; for (now known by the name of the Great Kammeni) first counted for by any satisfactory reason. It is true, thiat, how is it likely, that men will take much interest in the made its appearance.

in several hypotheses, much has been said respecting the welfare of those who, evidently, care nothing about ther, The extinct volcanoes, of which, as it has been already communications supposed to exist between the sea and and by whom they feel themselves treated as beings of an observed, numerous traces are found in all countries, far volcanic foci, but it is not easy to explain in what manner inferior cast: they may, indeed, fulfil their duty

, in as far from having been less formidable than those at present in they are connected. Many volcanoes are situated at more as their own fate depends upon its performance; but they a state of activity, appear, in general, to have discharged than forty leagues' distance from the sea; what means of cannot possibly act with that warm-hea: tednase, thick a a still greater quantity of matter. The most extensive communication can be supposed to have so great an extent? personal attachment alone inspires. I know that, unda traces of these eruptions in France, are those found in le Every circumstance tends to prove, as I shall shortly have existing circumstances, the manners of some of the young Vivarais and le Velay.

occasion to show, that the filtrations of the sea do noi pene- men are not sufficiently polished for the higher classer; Faujas has discovered a tract of volcanic soil, nearly trate far into the land, and that the accounts given of them but this is only a consequence of the neglect which tbey thirty leagues in length, and four in breadth (upon an have been much exaggerated.

suffer: if they were more frequently looked upon a time average) which gives a surface of 104 square leagues.

I have so much enlarged upon the general causes of the bers of the family, their sentiments and their sareers Supposing this land to be only 60 feet in depth, the mass production of volcanoes, that I find myself obliged to re

would soon be in unison with those of their instructed composing it would be too considerable to have been pro- fer you to my next letter for the few details I have yet to I have known well-disposed and clever young men til duced by the fusion of the internal part of any of the add, respecting some of the particular phenomena to would not have disgraced any society, and whose item neighbouring mountains. which they are subject.

tions would certainly have led them to the best, if this It was, during some time, feared that the safety of

had but been able to get introductions, but who, far vai many parts of Paris was endangered by the small cavities under the foundations of that city, occasioned by digging

Political E!EINI!.

of opportunity or friendly aid, yielded to allurements día

worse description, and marred their fortunes for eret, $ out stone for building; if, then, we suppose that the enor

duced by bad company, they took to gaming and dritte, mous masses of matter, thrown out by volcanic eruptions (FRON THE GERMAN OF 1. L. EWALD, BY L. AAN, OF LIVERPOOL.)

spent their own substance, so long as they had either a in Italy, and many parts of France, constituted part of

or credit, and, finally, made free with whatever theran the mineral crust, how shall we be able to account for the

(Translated expressly for the Kaleidoscope.)

lay their hands on. Others took to novel-reading, fact, that the immense cavities, now necessarily existing under the soil, in consequence of the removal of so large than merchants.--Addison.

“There are not more useful members in a commonwealth relish for serious occupations, whereas they would

fantastic contrivances, to such a degree that they a' portion of it, have never produced any accident.

bably have become valuable members of society, if Does not this consideration, joined with all those that I

(Continued from our last.]

energies had been properly directed and judiciously a have before suggested to you, seem to confirm the opinion,

A house of moderate compass will be found more ad-couraged. that the internal mass of the earth is the origin of vol. vantageous to apprentices than a first-rate concern. Where

The cold indifference which is shown towards canic matter? the enormous quantity ejected no longer the affairs are not so very extensive, the master is in more assistants is also often the cause of their estabista appears astonishing; it becomes, indeed, almost imper- immediate connexion with his young men, and can better themselves much sooner, than they would thick of de ceptible, when we compare it with the immense mass overlook them; they are not so much left to themselves

, if less haughtiness were manifested towards them. whence it has been derived.

see more real business, and interest themselves more in it; wish for independence is, indeed, natural to the bus Although the hypothesis we have admitted, elucidates they endeaveur to obtain their employer's confidence, and breast, but it must become considerably more and this difficulty, although it so well explains the existence of they are more likely to succeed with one who is able to through the desire of escaping from that kind of quara earthquakes, whose effects extend to considerable distances, appreciate their good dispositions, by the daily intercourse tine and restriction of intercourse

, under which the the identity of the composition of lavas, from whatever in which he stands with them. It is also probable, that bour who have no establishinents of their own. Yolda volcanoes they proceed, their resemblance to the most their general habits will be more regular, when they know always fond of indulging in hopes of easy success, ancient minerals of the primitive soil, and their state of that their superior is likely to take notice of the manner flattering dreams of superior knowledge and acuzi incandescence; although it accounts for the heat of mi. in which they conduct themselves; and this is of great which need not the maturity of age. The late was da neral springs, and although, finally, it is confirmed by all importance at an age of which every spare hour ought to introduced a boldness of speculation which disdains the reasons we have to believe the ancient state of fluidity be employed to a useful purpose. The studies, which common rules of precaution, because it has ofta of the globe, truth compels me to confess that it does not have been begun at school, should not be neglected ; and favoured by circumstances which set experience at drie explain, with equal facility, the considerable developinent even the hours of recreation should be spent in a rational and upon which no human being could have cakruba of gaseous substances

, which accompany and follow all manner. Where there is an inclination for music, or Hereby trade is often converted into a mere lotery, ed eruptions, and which cannot but be the result of the de- where a beginning has already been made in its study, it offers the same chance to every one who has see composition of the watery and earthy parts of the soil of ought to be cultivated; for it will not only assist in pass- sources to risk, and who is willing to do s volcanic mountains. But this reason is not sufficient to ing time agreeably, but a moderate proficiency in that ac- merly, young men endeavoured to enter contra induce us to reject an hypothesis so well established by the complishment will often serve as an introduction to sacie- were already established; and they and their tents concurrence of all other circumstances. No other than ties, which may have a mast beneficial influence on the quired carefully about the solidity and the probude py this affords any satisfactory answer to the inquiries sug- manners, and even on the prospects of a young man. fits of the party whom they intended to join ; they w gested by the consideration of the prodigious force neces. After having spent a few years in a well-directed ap- never have thought of engaging in a business with set sary to raise the lava from the foci of volcanoes to the prenticeship, the youth may derive much greater advan- they were not already acquainted, or in which they siimmit of the mountain. In the island of Teneriffe, the tage from his being placed in a larger establishment, than not previously worked themselves. But now-a-days crater of the volcano is elevated 6100 metres above the he could have hoped for, if he had been engaged in it precautions seem to be useless: people have noe metal ocean ; ;supposing the focus to be situated at no greater from the beginning: he is then much more likely to be to do but just to speculate ; and that is easy enough. I depth than the bottom of the sea, there must be a force trusted with matters of importance, and he will not treat of no consequence whether they do or do not know equal to the pressure of 1500 atmospheres to raise the them in a careless manner, after being once accustomed to the goods, houses, places, and circumstances, bf and lava to the surface of the earth. Now, as the atmosphere take an interest in what passes through liis hands; he will of which the affairs are to be carried on. If they al exercises upon us a pressure equal to that produced by a take pleasure in pactising on a large scale, what he has ceed, the speculation was a good ope; and, if not. column of 32 feet of water, it is evident that the impelling thoroughly learned on a small one; and if he should be all owing to misfortune. Hence the many failure. F1 force existing within the focus of the volcano of Teneriffe

, destined to be once himself the director of an extensive are often the more unexpected as they impart the first must be capable oferaising a mass of water of 48,000 feet, concern, he will find the necessary opportunities to acquire of there having been such an establishment : some fe or of three or four leagues in elevation, that is to say, a that quick discernment and that cool determination, which only get into notice by their being found upon the list force far exceeding any that can be supposed to proceed contribute so much to the success of great enterprises : he bankrupts

. This is not as it ought to be ; for every from the mineral crust.

will also have the further advantage of moving at once in perienced merchant knows that nothing is more della

Must love one another as cousins in blood :
The rise, too, must husband as well as the man,

Justitia

MARCH.

JAN.

FEB.

APRIL

AUGUST.

MAY.

JUNE

..300
... 100

..230
..120

600
....500
. 120

Total 2,890

JULY

SEPT.

ост.

NOV.

DEC.

York.
- Leviathan

of attainment than the knowledge which well-combined The Philanthropist.

It is well kuown that the control of the whole system respeculations require; and it is the very height of pre

ferred to is in the hands of the Home Secretary of State,

and is certainly well conducted. The gentleman upon sumption when a beginner runs risks of which he cannot

THE HULKS.

whom devolves the more immediate superintendence, is even form a conception : success itself can scarcely justify

Mr. Capper, who discharges the responsible and active dusuch imprudent enterprises, whilst the reverse will add The public have long been accustomed to hear of pri- ties of his office with a zeal, intelligence, and humanity, the loss of friends and reputation to the sacrifice of pro- soners being sent to work on board the hulks, but as, per. which could not be easily surpassed. perty which has been incurred.

haps, a very imperfect idea is generally entertained respectIt would be useless to fix the age at which merchants the subject. The hulks are large vessels without masts, ing them, a little information may not be unacceptabie on

The Wousewife. ought to establish themselves ; for much depends upon which have been line of battle-ships, or frigates, fitted up

Housekeeping and husbandry, if it be good, circumstances, and some men require less time to develope for the reception of male convicts sentenced to be transtheir faculties than others. Yet, generally speaking, they ported. These floating prisons are securely moored near

Or jurewel thy husbandry, do what thou can." strould not be much younger than thirty years when they a dock-yard or arsenal, so that the labour of the convicts

FISH TABLE. setile in business. Youth is naturally enterprising and may be applied to the public service. It will be scarcely

credited that there are usually about three thousand men improvident; and I am personally acquainted with re. in the country thus employed, which the following state. The following table shows the months in which the duced merchants, who are convinced that their misfortunes ment, supposed to be correct as to the average numbers, undermertioned fish are in or out of season : were chiefly caused by their having been too soon masters will exemplify :of their own actions, and in possession of great property.

At Sheerness, the Retribution containing 600

Bellerophon Beginning without much capital of one's own is still more Chatham, Dolphin

Woolwich, dangerous; for there are not many opportunities to lay

Deptford, Ganymedo
money out safely, and yet so profitably that it will pro. Portsmouth-
duce a handsome surplus for the manager of a concern

Bret
A small ship

in in /in in in in in in Joue out in in who has to pay interest, and, possibly, to bear losses, be. fore he can call any thing his own. The resources, which pital for the sick : each hulk is under the superintendence

At every station there is a ship which is used as an hos. Brit in in in in in fout out out out in in in depend merely upon credit, are very precarious ; the of a captain and a certaiu number of inferior officers, also Cod slightest alteration in the aspect of affairs may stop them; a chaplain and main surger be assizes or sessions, the keepers Cole Fish in in in in in in out out out out in in

in in in in in in our fout out in in in 01 an unforeseen event may take them entirely away, and give a death blow to concerns which have no real foun. of the various gaols throughout the kingdom are required dation. In order to avoid this fatal catastrophe, an up-ment, a list of the convicts who have received sentence of

to transmit to the Secretary of State for the Home Depart-Cockles ... in in in in out our out fout in in in in pearance of much business is often assumed, and stu- transportation, and an order is then forwarded, directing Crabs...in in in in in in in Jout out in in in disasly kept up: goods are bought and sold on mere to which of the hulks they are to be conveyed. On their speculation ; that is to say, at random, and with a vague arrival, they are impiediately stripped and washed, clothed Dabs ..... in in in in in in in in fout out out out expectation of deriving

advantage from passing events, un one of the legs, to which degradation every one must Flounders out in in in in in in in in out out out which may, perhaps, prove favourable in some shape or subunit, let his previous rank have been what it may. atber, provided the precarious establishment be but kept They are then sent out, in gangs of a certain number, to Gunels ... out fout fout out' in in in in in fout lout lout tanding, and the evil day put off until such events occur. work on shore, guarded by soldiers. A strict account is This is not doing business, it is neither more nor less kept

of the labour of each gang, there being a scale by Haddock in in Jout fout out out put out out in in in thaa gambling; and it is generally accompanied with the government by the convict, he is entitled Piecei petony; Herrings out out out in in in infinin fout out out itself, and partly by the wish of making others believe one third part weekly, the remainder being left to accu Lobsters in in in in in in out out in in in in that all is well; so that even a fortunate turn in the affairs mulate unul the espiration of the term which he is doomed does not often tend to afford substantial relief, because to serve; thus it sometimes happens that a man who has Ling in in in in /in in in fou out out in in

been six or seven years on board the hulks, on his discharge the house is already too much involved to recover, and is put in possession of ten or twelve pounds, and is also sup- Mackarel out out sout out in in in in fout out fout out its master has already become too callous to think of any plied with an additional sum of money to defray his travel. thing but just of keeping it up so long as it will last. ling expenses home. The strictest discipline is maintained; Muscles... in in in in Jout out out out in in in in

Too great eagerness for gain, does also sometimes pro- daily allowed is a pound and a quarter of bread; a quart Oysters duce the most pernicious consequences, not only upon the of thick gruel, morning and evening; on four days of the

in in in in our out out fout in in in in fortones, but even upon the morals of the infatuated indi-week, a piece of meat weighing fourteen ounces before it Plaice in in /in in /in in in in in fout out in riduals who give way to it. They will often risk the is cooked and, on the other three days, in lieu of meat, a which if successful, is to enrich them at once, but which borious is required, a portion of strong beer is served out. Soles whole of their property and credit on a single undertaking, gero etanod, a ne da ih centers, when avos apelianty od Salmon .. in in jin in /in im in in Jout out in in may also prove their ruin, if it should fail. They will even No where does good behaviour meet its reward more than

out out out in in in in in in out out fout enture to make considerable shipments without insn. at the hulks á correct chronicle is kept of flie desta pt Shrimps in in in in in

| in out fout out in in out in maginary profits ; so that they have no resource left, lain, has the privilege of recommending, annually, a cer- Sturgeon out out in in taip number, as fit objects for a mitigation of punishment,

ein in in in in in our out out out re, indeed, some instances, in which chance may favour years' transportation serves only three and a half or four

, Skate... in in | in infinin in fore purposes in in auch adventurers, but the final effect is seldom a good years. There are also other inducements to orderly con- Sprats..... in in out out out out lout foutout out out in ne: the more they prosper, the more they hazard; they duct, such as having the irons lightened, and being proscribe their good luck to their superior management

, maped to little appointments

, which relieve from severer Seal Smlts out in in in our output our out out put out and look with contempt upon more prudent competitors, who have not the spirit to act in a similar manner : their transportation in this country, thousands are every year

Besides those who are retained to serve out their term of Thornbck in in in in outout out out out in in in Errogance will be offensive, so long as they prosper, and it sent to New South Wales : four ships, containing about Turbot ... out out in in in in in in Jout out fout out une. Such swindlers have, indeed, no claims on the in. Amongst others who are actually transported beyond the Whiting in in in Jout out out out four fou in in in Enigence of their creditors, and they ought not to enjoy offenders, and those who appear to be incorrigible. It Cong. Eel out out) in / in in in /in in ) in / in sout lout he privileges which were only intended for those who should be observed, that one ship, the Bellerophon, is ap. re unfortunate, without having positively misbehaved. propriated exclusively to the reception of boys not exceed. Germon Moue of Curing Hams. In Westphalia, hams lumanity and justice speak in favour of the latter, and ing sixteen years of age, most of whom are not expatriated, are cured between November and March. The Germans he noble principle of treating olhers as we would reish to but are taught varions trades, such as shoemaking, tailors pile them up in deep tubs. covering them with layers of e treated will best define how we should act towards linquents, some of whom are not more than ten years old, situation they let them renain about four or five days;

work, bookbinding, &c. The morals of these youthful de- salt, saltpetre, and a small quantity of bay-leaves. In this isk of other people's property, the law ought to have table fact, that, notwithstanding the severe lessons taught which they cover them completely; and at the expiration $ Course; for such proceedings undermine public con- by the discipline of the hulks, very many instances occur of three weeks, they take them out of pickle,

soak them dence, and are a disgrace to the country which allows of convicts who have been discharged, again returning to twelve hours in clean well-water, and hang them up for eta to remain unpunished.

habits of dishonesty, and again incurring the penalty of three weeks longer in a smoke made from the juniper

transportation : such characters are always banished the bushes, which in that country are abundantly met with.(To be continued.) country.

| Elurumist.

......

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