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Ms. MwIx'LORD BYRON.

THE FACT

then the area of the two pistons = 11-7ths da, and the pres with the same velocity as before, the weight must be eight "I had been shut up in a At the time here alluded to, sure on both = 11-7ths pd.

times as great; for it will then draw the boat with only four utk street in London, writing Lord Byron lived at No. 13, While the piston moves through 1, the carriage moves times the power. This is exactly the case of a steam-boat. think he said) the Siege of Piecarlilly, looking into the through the semicircumference of the wheel which equals The piston ou ht only to move with a certain velocity, and Sonia -- 55.

Green Park. The conversa- | 11-7ths D; but the power of traction is to the pressure on a certain pressure; and therefore, to produce twice the velotion writer calls this a DARK) the piston, as the velocity of the latter to the velocity of the

of the latter to the velocity of the city, the steam area of the piston must be eight times as great. Is Mwis makes LORD By- street. former; or T: 11-7ths p da :: 1: 11-7ths D.

To make the question still more clear, let us inquire what RON say,

is the greatest speed at which a locomotive engine can move Therefore T = pdi? "I was abused in the public Lord Byron was never hisg.

without any additional weight. For this purpose, we bave Ints: made the common ed as he went to the House of The rule expressed in words is as follows:

npdal
DS
: therefore V= "

P

L

Let n = k of private companies; Lords; nor insulted in the Multiply the square of the diameter of the piston by the

T

28 T sed as I went to the House streets.

length of the stroke in feet, and by the effective pressure of 45, p=10lb. d=9 inches, l=2 feet, and T = 1001b; then Lords; insulted in the the steam in pounds upon each square inch, and divide by the lv - 72900 = 28 miles per

= 26 miles per hour nearly. A single wheel reet,' p. 62. diameter of the wheel in feet.

2800 [To be continued.]

Example.- What is the power of traction of a locomotive could not be constructed of a sufficient size, but the speed

engine with two cylinders, of which the internal diameter is might be given by a cog-wheel and pinion. It is clear, thereScientific Becords.

ten inches; the length of the stroke being 2 feet, the pressure fore, that no finite steam power can give an infinite velocity.

of the steam 9lb. and the height of the wheel 3 feet-Answer, where the resistance is a constant force.-Yours, &c. omprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve6001b.

A. B. T. nents in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin.

The effective pressure is different from the real pressure; gular Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi.

for the latter has to overcome the friction of the piston itself, losophical. Botanical. Meteorological. and Mineralogical which is

Brown's Pneumatic Engine.---At the Edinburgh School which is usually estimated at 31b. and the pressure of the Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History ;

of Arts, on Wednesday se'nnight, Dr. Fyfe took an op| atmosphere, which is 15lb. The whole pressure is therefore Vegetation, &c; Antiquities, &c.; List of Patents

portunity of describing Brown's gas vacuum engine. The about 271b. to be continued in a series through the Volume.)

object of this engine is to obtain power by means of a It is of no practical utility to estimate the time in which the engine will obtain its uniform speed, as it is too short to

vacuum created during the cumbustion of inflammable

opas: for which purpose a gas-burner is lighted within the RAIL-ROADS, AND NEW MECHANICAL PARADOX. be of any importance. The following rules will be found of

cylinder, and allowed to consume the internal air, part of more use. TO THE EDITOR.

which being condensed into water, while another part is To find the speed of the piston in miles per hour: IRAs the nature of steam power does not yet ap

thrown off by the sudden combustion, the valve instantly to be fully understood even by so sensible & writer as

closes, and produces the vacuum. Dr. Fyfe gave a de

5280 feet correspondent A.B.C., it may perhaps be desirable to

cided opinion in favour of this new discovery. It is conRule.-Multiply the number of strokes in a minute by er into a fuller explanation. It is true, that while the

esidered as one of the grandest combinations of chymical the length of stroke in feet, and divide by 44. wn is so strong as to blow out at the safety-valve, it ex

and mechanical science ever introduced to public notice. Ex.-If the engine make 44 two-foot strokes in & minute, constant force, similar to that of gravity, that is, it

Several persons bad condemned the engine as useless, but what is the speed of the piston per hour /Answ. Two miles aces equal increments of velocity in equal times;. but

those individuals seemed to be unacquainted with the an hour, which is a very good speed. the piston has acquired a certain speed, the steam ceases

principle upon which the vacuum was produced. To find the velocity of the carriage in miles per hour:

They ope, and every subsequent increase of the veloeity di

argued and made their calculations upon the theory, that The circumference of the wheel equal 22-7ths D; ses the power: in this, which is its ordinary mode of

combustion is effected in a close vessel ; while the whole Jed therefore V-N60 minutes 22 n D , it is no longer a constant force, but rather resembles therefore V=

principle of the engine is, that the combustion is carried 5280 feet

28 power of the wind than the force of gravity. When a

on in an open one. In point of economy, other writers Rule.--Multiply the number of strokes in a minute by the have fallen into error by estimating the expense much too Alls first put in motion, the wind acts upon the sails with all force, and the resistance being very small, the motion height of the wheel in feet, and divide by 28.

high. By actual experiment, it had been ascertained, that Ex.-If the engine be making 42 strokes on' a wheel of 4 | during the consumption of one foot of gas, 300 gallons of ederated; but as the velocity increases, not only the

feet diameter, how fast is it going? Answ. Six miles an hour. increases, but the power also of the wind decreases,

water would be raised to the height of about 20 feet--the To find the horse-power of a locomotive engine with two E last the two forces balance each other, and the motion

cost of which must be trifling, compared to that of maincylinders: nes uniform. It still more nearly resembles a carriage

taining a steam-engine. In the engine already constructed 10 on a rail-road, in which case the resistance would not Rule.- Divide the square of the diameter of the piston in

by Mr. Brown, the mercury gage stood at from 24 to 26 ve with the velocity, but the power only of the wind

inches by 10.
Ex-What is the horse-power of an engine with two ten-

inches--thus giving a pressure of from 12 to 13lbs. to the ld be diminished. Such a carriage could never move so

square inch, while the common steam-engice had not the wlod, however long its impulse might be conti| inch cylinders l_Answ. A ten-horse power.

more than 7 or 8lbs. Twenty thousand pounds had al. In like manner in a steam-engine, the fire, which is So two nine-inch cylinders are equal to eight hories, and

ready been given for the patent for Scotland, and nine two eleven-inch cylinders to twelve. rime mover, can only produce steam of a limited power Velocity, beyond which the motion of the piston can This is

thousand pounds for the right of applying this discovery very useful rule, and ought to be generally adopted. For a single cylinder the divisor is 20

to the propelling of private carriages and carts in England. r be accelerated.

The patent had also been sold for the West Indies; and or correspondent principally combats a doctrine that To find the power of traction & carriage will require:

it is a remarkable fact, that Mr. Brown is the only indi. 1. Find the proportion between the weight and the friction was advanced. A crank does not alter the nature, but

yidual, not a citizen of the United States, in whose favour he mode of action, of a power; and the mean resulting

in one instance by experiment, and it will be nearly the same
for all other weights under similar circumstances. On the

the American government had ever granted a patent. Dl be either constant or variable, according to the na Newcastle rail-roads the friction is said to be the 170th part

Should this new invention answer, it will completely of the original power. In a recent publication, it is

supersede the steam-engine, and will be especially useful of the weight. To the friction so found, add the weight dicously supposed, that when a power aets through the vided by the inclination in going up hill, and subtract in

in propelling vehicles on railways, which it will of course in of a crank, the effect is as the sum of the slnes.

traverse without leaving behind it a column of smoke.-going down. mistake arises from the omission to take into conEx.-What power will it require to draw 31,000lb. up a

Leeds Mercury. Bon the times during which the several forces act.

Newcastle rail-road, where the inclination is one in three orees will be as the sines, and the times as the ares

hundred bed. Now the sines and the ineremental arcs are as diax and the incremental versed sines; whence the

$1,000 = 300, and $1,000 = 170. Answer, 4701b. Detical render will easily deduce the true result that

170
300

DANIEL DE FOE.
crements of velocity are as the spaces described by the Down the same hill it would only require 1301b.
which conclusion is confirmed by the consideration. To find the best inclination, where more goods go in one

TO THE EDITOR expenditure of steam is in the same proportion. The proportion. The direction than the other :

1 SIR,- In the Kaleidoscope of Dec. 7, 1824, is a paratherefore, does not form an exception to the general | Rule.--As the sum of the weights is to the difference, 80 is

graph concerning De Foe, the author of Robinson Crusoe. Thich applies to all mechanical powers, namely, that the friction to the required inclination.

The following extract from Watson's History of Halifax In equilibrium, they are inversely as their velocities. Ex.-What should be the inclination, where the descending weights are three times as great as the ascending?

may interest some of your readers :-" Daniel De Poe dainon of in the same passage of the publication

Answ. 4 : 2 :: -i t he inclination required. being forced to abscond, on account of his political writings, Ito is quite erroneous, and therefore the tables deduced

* 170340

resided some time at Halifax, in Yorkshire, at the sign of be expressions are wholly incorrect. The principle

To resume the consideration of the expression T=pds the Rose and Crown, in the Back-lane; being known to Vronsit is unnecessary, and would be invidious, to

Dr. Nettleton, the Physician, and the Rev. Mr. Priestley, ut errors in detail.

it appears that where the pressure and the steam cylinder acomotiye engine, as constructed by Mr. Stephenson, remain the same, the power of traction is inversely as the

Dissenting Minister. He here employed himself in writing steam cylinders, which drive the wheels round by diameter of the wheel; or, in other words, the weight must

weight must his De Jure Divino, among other things; but in parof pins fixed to the spokes. The wheels are connected be diminished in proportion to the speed. This is consonant ticular he is here said to have composed the Adventures i n ner. that when one piston is at the top of its with all experience; and any expression which does not pro- l of Robinson Crusoe : the subject of which was taken from the other is in the middle To find the power of traoduce this consequence must necessarily be erroneous. The uch an engine,

Observations of the writer in the Scotsman are quite true. the papers of Alexander Selkirk, who had been left some the effective pressure in pounds wpon each square when the moving power is a weight; because, however fast time on an uninhabited island of Juan de Fernandez, and inch;

the weight be falling, the force of gravity will still produce had given his memoirs to De Foe to methodise, who, the diameter of the pistons In inches;

equal accelerations in equal times. Hence it is, that four instead of doing as desired, struck out this entertaining the length of the stroke in feet;

times the weight will move a boat twice as fast through

fast through novel; depriving Selkirk of making advantage of his the number of double strokes in a minute:

water; but as the weight itself will move twice as fast, its the diameter of the wheel in feet:

momentum will be eight times as great. if by any mechani- adventures."-WATSON, p. 470. the power of traction required; contrivance, as by a double pulley, It be made to move

Yours, &c.

ANON.

Correspondence.

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MUSICAL CRITICISM.
swers to the queries of an Amateur of Newry, contained |

Just published, Price 5s,

W in your Kaleidoscope of the 18th instant.

ILD ROSES.-By THOMAS FENBY, of Lies TO THE EDITOR.

pool. | To the first query, “Can there be a succession of dis. To be had of all the Booksellers. SIR,-As the musical queries contained in the last num.

cords," I answer yes; and in support of the assertion, I ber but one of the Kaleidoscope remain unanswered, I prerefer your correspondent to the well known sequences of 7

Theatre-Royal, Liberpool. sume to send you a few opinions on the subject, which you and ., with all their modifications and inversions.

NN SATURDAY NEXT, the 5th inst. by permised are at liberty to use, should you consider them of sufficient

of the Managers, and licensed by the LORD CHA importance. Yours, &c. To the second query, “Can FX be used for Gb," I LAIN, will be performed a New Comedy in Five Acts. Write

by, and AN AMATEUR.-Liverpool. also answer yes; because, taking itgra for nted that your FOR THE BENEFIT OF MR. RYLEY, correspondent is correct in assigning “ Bt" as the funda

CALLED The first is, “ Can there, in any composition, be a suc. mental bass of the passage quoted, “Gb A and C” form

THE IRISH GIRL. cession of discords?” an appoggiatural chord, resolving itself respectively into

THE PROLOGUE TO BE SPOKEN BY MR. ATLET. Most certainly; and I trust immediately to prove this, FAt and D" of the chord succeeding, where, if Gt"!

After which the Farce of if any proof be necessary. For this purpose, I have selec- be the appoggiatural note proper to " F,” it follows, that

BON TON; ted a passage from Bishop's ballad, “He is all the world to Btto (not Ab) is the appoggiatural note proper to “At;"

OR, HIGH LIFE ABOVE STAIRS. me,” which, with respect to the points in question, very but, if A (on account of its less remote affinity to the key

The Part of Sir John Trotly, by Me REEST. closely resembles the example given : and, to show this of Et) may be taken as the appoggiatural note to "At,"|

Tickets to be had of Mr. Ryley, at Mt. Goste's Loddres. resemblance more clearly, I have transposed it into the it follows that F* may be taken also as the appoggiatural | Waterloo Hotel, York Hotel, Saddle Inn, Turi Teters, Stab

No. 10, Basnet-street, corner of Williamso-at the same key. It is as follows: note to “F,” as the relations between themselves and speare Tavern, and Red Lion, Mersey-street. & plan the

Boxes may be seen at Mrs. Goore's, Straw-bonnet Saun. Cered the passages they form are parallel. Besides, as “ FX" of Williamson-square. had been used in the chord next but one preceding that in which the “Gh" occurs, and in the same part of the

To Correspondents. harmony, I should prefer its use to that of “Gb,” because the eye and the ear are thus prepared for the note,

RESERVE COMNUNICATIONS.— The following are in terme which must, for effect, be the same in pitch, however it

our next :-A Musical Piece Letter II. from

Devotee, on Capital Punishment-Letter IL on the may be written.

tonian System-Letter on the newly-advanced me b-to-FE

I am of opinion that the FUNDAMENTAL BASS of paradox, connected with locomotive machines, and a the two chords quoted is formed of f dominant of B bil graving, the communication of T. H. T. of Fairtel-1 succeeded by Bb dominant of the key-note; and

translation of Eruditionis Amator-Notices of Liverged • The only essential difference in these two examples is,

former times—Lines by Cestriensis, of Chester-Lex that Bb, which ought, for the sake of correctness in

Y.Z.-Lines by Medicius-Lines by J.

L and theat that, in that by Bishop, the B in the bass is continued until

writing, to have continued throughout the bar, is merely nication of R. of Newry. the final close on the tonic, thereby making the chord of

Ta PEDAL BA3S. With this view then of the bass, there ERRATUM. In the lines on “Heaven," in the last wette the dominant complete; while in the other example, licno

is no doubt of Gt being the correct note; but I am not leidoscope, page 248, fifth stanza, line sixth, it" the want of this, renders the harmony weak and inaccusure that such writers as Haydn would not use “ Fy" as

blindly, &c. read “Man" blindly, &c. rate. Should Amateur still entertain any doubts as to the its substitute, for the reasons given in the preceding para.

MUSIC. In consequence of our intimation in a lot propriety of using successive discords, it is hoped the au. graph, or for that which led Haydn to write Ay and Bts

we have been favoured from several quarters with ote thority of Hadyn will remove them. The following is an

a copy of the song, "When I heard the roaring OSI in the same chord, in different parts of his score of “ The

We feel obliged to the gentlemen who have thu extract from his celebrated canzonet “ Lubin is away.” heavens are telling the glory of God."

their readiness to oblige us. We shall not fall to Yours, &c.

J. M. X.

selves in due time of their politeness; although we Liverpool, Jan. 29, 1825.

immediately call upon them to furnish us with a cap have several musical pieces in reserve, which claim y of insertion. The song which we inquired after good, and as it is out of print, it appears to us to be

that class of musical pieces which we can revive " In order to employ one part of this life in serious and important

vantage to our musical readers, without injury to be occupations, it is necessary to spend another in mere amusements."

JOHN LOCKE.

ers in printed music, with whose fair profits we hart There is a time to laugh and a time to weep."-SOLOMON.

tention to interfere. There are very many beautuu

ther pieces which, although they are out of free SOLUTIONS TO THE CONUNDRUMS, &c. IN OUR LAST. infinitely superior in merit to many of the popust 25. It would be a great bore.

of the day. Some of these it is our intention to all 26. It is a warm retort.

and the song to which we have alluded is one of the 27. To a Scotch parish in Ayr-shire ( Air shire.)

ber. 28. When boots are bought, of course they are sold T. F. of Gloucester-street, will please to accept our than |(soled) and when they are thoroughly mended they are the loan of some books. also soled (sold.)

The Swiss Music is pleasing ; but we understand 29. It is Pallas ( Palace.)

original contains more parts, which we hope to on 30. Because he is a quadrangular (quod wrangler) that M. N. of Stoke Newington, London, is informed is, a wrangler in quod or prison !!!

shall insert the proffered communication, if we (Since we published the solution to the 22d conundrum in deciphering the whole of the manuscript in the last Kaleidoscope, we have been favoured with anotherwe have, however, some doubts at present, espace solution, which is much better, although the author we criss-cross passage. suspect is a wag. The question asked “Why is a lady

| MUSICAL CORRESPONDENTS.-We had prepared and Amateur then says, “ There is a succession of discords curling her hair like a housebreaker ?"-to which our

note, addressed to S. N. W.S S. S.-G.SE here, • . as B is the fundamental bass note.” The latter new correspondent replies, “ Because she disturbs the

Newry, explaining our views respecting the 16 would certainly have become a discord, by having B for inmates.")

music which we shall introduce into the Kalci

NEW CONUNDRUMS. . its bass; but the other is a discord independently, admit

arrangements have rendered it neeessary to withst BY BATHOS.

note; but we shall next week resume the subject ting of B, not as a fundamental, but as a pedal bass. | 31. Why is a crooked nail, driven fast into a wall, like

The letter of Detector, on Mr. Greaves's report, respecte . He next asks, “Could the author have substituted one of our excellent public charities?

roads, will be given in the Mercury FX for Gh?" This is a point on which I think theorists . 32. Why are prisoners working in the tread-wheel like U disinterested patriots ?

SHAKSPEARE AND LORD BYRON.-The interesting arta will be found to differ, some considering it allowable, and

BY W. w. c. c.

specting the original editor of Shakspeare; and others, denying that it can be done. That Gb is better,

33. My first runs at you,

the Westminster Review, respecting Lord Byron, barto will hardly, I humbly conceive, be doubted; for, as such,

My second runs into you,

us to withdraw several communications we had pro

and which shall appear next week. it may appear as part of the chord of the subdominant,

My whole runs through you. and, consequently, bear a much nearer affinity to the key

34. My first is equality,

The Song by S. S. of Manchester, is very acceptable. than it otherwise would. This, I am aware is not the only

My second inferiority,

SAYINGS AND DOINGS-We may probably, in our EU My whole superiority.

some extracts from, and remarks upon this work. light in which it may be considered as G b; it may retain

35. My first is an insect,

FIRE.--We shall next week lay before our readers the the same character if we call the chord F.

My second a wild beast,

suggestion of C. on this important subject. My whole is nothing at all!

The verses of Jerry shall not be deferred beyond nert 36. My first is a star, TO THE EDITOR

My second a fish,

Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAT: SIR,-May I trouble you to insert the following, as an.

My whole is a bird.

E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord-street, Liverpool.

II

Jive la Sagatelle.

INIU

· 144

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UN

1

Literary and scicntific mirror.

" UTILE DULCI."

la familiar Miscellany, from which religious and politicalmiatters are excluded, containsa variety of originalandselected Articles; comvrehending Literature, Criticism, Men and Manners Amusement, Elegant Extracts, Poetry, Anecdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Arts and Sciences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c. &c. forming a handsome Annua Volime, with an Index and Title-page.--Its circulation renders it a most eligible medium for Literary and Fashionable Advertisements.--Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents.

10. 201- Vol. V.
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 8. 1825.

PRICE 311
MORE
LETTERS

part of the town, it would have occasioned great destruc- the height of the walls; in some places, they had even ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE. tion among the common houses. But its fury being ap- passed over them. The first night of our arrival, a new curBY M. ALEX. B.

peased, on the 4th of May, it continued to flow only in rent of fire issued from among some sciarri, upon which

small currents, which were principally directed towards we had been walking an hour or two before, and which Ia legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne

the sea. It has demolished, in the upper country, about' were level with the height of the walls; it flowed into the more que des ruines. Paris: printed, 1824.

fourteen towns and villages, some of which were not in town, forming a small stream of fire, about three feet

considerable, and contained three or four thousand in. broad, and nine feet long, and consolidating itself into Translated expressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French | habitants: it has also extended to a pleasant and fertile sciarri at its extremities. This current was extinct the Work.)

country, never before laid waste by an eruption. No next morning, although it had covered with sciarri a wide LETTER VL. CONTINUATION OF VOLCANOES.

traces remain of the existence of these towns, except a space before vacant. The following evening, a much

church and a steeple, which stood upon a small eminence, stronger current was discovered, precipitating itself from ERUPTION OF ETNA IN 1669. separate from the other buildings.

another part of the wall into the ditch of the castle. We The matter, thrown out in this eruption, is composed learned that this stream continued to flow during several ticulars given by some English merchants, extracted of different species of minerals, liquified in the entrails of days after our departure. There were, at the same time. from the Philosophical Transactions. )

the earth, by the action of the fire ; it bubbles and foams other currents of lava, which bent their course towards

like the source of a great river. When the liquid mass the sea. The sky appeared black during eighteen days before has flowed over the space of a stone-throw or more, its Having passed two days near Catana, we returned to

eruption; there were frequent concussions of the extremity begins to grow solid, and to be covered with a wards the crater, where there was no longer any danger h, accompanied by thunder and lightning, of which crust, which when it is cold, forms those hard and porous to be apprehended from the fire, or ashes; we thence most alarming accounts were diffused by the people. stones, called by the inhabitants, sciarri. It then assumes clearly discovered the ancient and new channels of lava, we not, however, heard that these shocks overturned the form of a collection of enormous burning coals, slowly and the enormous heap of ashes which had been dis

edifice, except a small village called Nicolasi, situated rolled over one another; when it meets any obstacle, it charged in the course of the eruption. We saw a trian. bout half a mile's distance from the new crater, and a ascends by collecting itself in a heap, overturning by its gular space, of about two leagues in extent, which apsmiall houses in the villages to which the fire after. weight, edifices of an ordinary size, and consuming all peared to be the ancient bed or channel of fire; the bote is extended. It had been remarked that the ancient combustible enbstances. The torrent generally moved tom of it was covered with sciarri, and the surface in. er, on the summit of Etna, had discharged more flames forwards, without deviating from a direct line; but it also crustated with sulphur; it was bordered on each side by n usual during the three or four preceding months; extended laterally, as water does, when it flows over level a large bank of ashes, and the new summit rose behind se emitted at Volcan and Stromboli, two burning ground, and formed different branches, or tongues, as they it. It seems that the fire had passed between these two nds, situated to the west of Etna, had also been ob are called in this country.

banks. In the upper corner, upon a small elevation of ed considerably to augment, and it was perceived that We ascended, at two or three o'clock in the afternoon, sciarri, there was a hole, about six feet broad, whence it summit of Etna had sunk into its ancient crater. In to a high tower, at Catana, which commanded a view of is probable that the fire issued; there must have been all who have before seen this mountain, agree that the crater of the volcano: the mass of fire issuing from it was several of these holes, which have since been incrustated Levation is much diminished at this period.

a terrible spectacle. The following morning we wished over, or filled up with ashes. The fire was seen to flow at he first eruption took place on the 11th of March, to visit this crater ; but we dared not approach nearer the bottom of this hole; and, lower down we discovered,

two hours before sunset, on the south eastern de- than to the distance of a furlong from it, lest by a change through a cleft in the bed of sciarri, the burning metal

of the mountain, about twenty miles below the of wind we should be enveloped in some portion of the flowing beneath it. The surface of this current appeared nt crater, and ten miles from Catana. It was at immense column of ashes, which rose from it, and to be about a fathom broad, though it was probably reported, that the current of burning lava traversed which appeared to us, twice as thick as the steeple broader below, as the channel was widened towards the miles in twenty-four hours; but having, on the 5th of St. Paul's, in London, and of an infinitely greater bottom. We could not measure its breadth, because it pril, visited a place within a mile's distance from height. The atmosphere around was entirely filled with was impenetrable to instruments of iron. We were deJa, we perceived that it advanced hardly a furlong the most subtile parts of these ashes; and, from the sirous of procuring some of this matter at the source, but lay: it continued to move with the same degree of beginning of the eruption to the end (during fifty-four it was impossible to make any incision in it: perhaps there Is during fifteen or twenty days, passing near the days) neither sun nor stars were visible, in any part of the were soncurrents, consisting of a softer substance. A of Catana, and penetrating to a considerable dis- country, adjacent to the mountain.

sulphurous smoke, by which some persons of our company into the sea. But, towards the end of this month, A quantity of stones, of moderate size, fell from the narrowly escaped being suffocated, issued from this chanat the beginning of May, whether it was, that the sides of this column ; we could not distinguish whether or nel, particularly from the large hole above. A column

isted the further progress of the matter, or that the not they were burning, neither was it possible for us to of smoke or ashes arose, every quarter of an hour, from no discharged a larger quantity of it, it turned its see the source of the torrent of fire, on account of a large the centre of the new summit; but it was, by no means. Towards the town; and, having been heaped up to bank of ashes immediately in front of us.' A noise, like equal in magnitude to that already mentioned. ight of the walls, formed a passage over them, in distant thunder, or like the roaring of the waves when The last time that we were at Catana, the inhabitants I places. Its fury fell chiefly upon a very pretty they are dashed against the rocks, proceeded from the were occupied in barricading certain streets and passages, It of Bernardino, ornamented with spacious gardens, orifice, whence issued the fire and ashes. This sound has, through which it was presumed that the fire would pass : her grounds, between the house and the wall of the more than once, reached me when I have been at Messina, they demolished for that purpose the old houses in the

The burning lava, having filled up this space, di- which is sisty miles distant, and situated at the foot of a neighbourhood, and heaped up the dry loose stones in the all its force against the edifice; it experienced a re- chain of high mountains. "It has even been heard a hun- form of a wall, supposing that they resisted the fire better

which it caused to ascend very high, a consequence dred miles north of the volcano, in Calabria, where ashes when there was no lime amongst them. ways ensued, whenever its passage was interrupted have also been seen to fall. Some of our seamen have. It is said that the lava has advanced a mile into the sea,

obstacle. Some parts of the building entirely gave related, that the decks of their vessels were covered with and that it is at least a mile in breadth at its extremity : od sunk nearly a foot, as it appeared by the pro-them, although, probably, the layer was not very thick. it was much less extensive when we were there. The sca

of the bricks towards the middle of the wall, and Towards the middle of May, we returned to Catana. shore declines with a gradual slope ; the water is about bending of the pieces of iron fastened across it. It The appearance of things was then much changed : five fathoms in depth at the extremity of the sciarri, which in, that if this torrent had fallen upon any other sciarri were amassed round three-fourths of the town, to rise about two fathoms and a half above it.

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· The surface of the water was so warm at the distance of dern Greek gamma and chi. Perhaps they are lalent in | It would be heresy to question Mr. H.'s perfect semaine more than twenty feet from these currents of fire, that it other sounds, like fire in flint, or aqua.fortis in saltpetre; ance with ancient classical literature; but it seems the was impossible to hold the hand in it; it was, however, or they may, possibly, have been congealed in some great are many things relating to it which he does not know much cooler lower down. The sciarri preserved their frost, like the conversation of Sir John Mandeville's crew | In return for what he has taught me, I will communion heat under the water, as we perceived at the ebb of the at Nova Zembla. However, if Mr. Hamilton can make a little piece of news to him, namely, that many gramman Lide.

out English representatives for those aliens, and about as and lexicons, written by the authors to whom I alluded. The general appearance of these sciarri is like that pre- many more with which I can furnish hiin from the He- still extant, and well known to the critics. When MB sented by fakes of ice amassed upon a river, during a brew, Arabic, and Persian, I for one shall rejoice at his next goes to examine bis Cambridge classes, he may findi hard frost : in some places they resemble a rugged heap success, for I am very partial to my native tongue, and the college libraries a Greek grammar by Apollonius D of flocks of wool; but their colour is quite different: they shall be truly happy to learn that it is possessed of powers colus, a whole collection of ancient Latin ones edited in are, for the most part, of a deep blue, and in close large and comprehensiveness which I never dreamt of. It would Putschius, a Lexicon Homericun of Apollonius, another stones and rocks, which are closely united with them. be frivolous and unprofitable to debate whether our th is lexicon by Julius Polluxcum multus aliis, which I would

But, notwithstanding their roughness, and the fire that a simple sound or not. I think it would rather surprise a civilly request him to exainine, and then to famour We saw shining through the clefts, we ventured to cross a Spaniard to hear that his soft c and z are not simple, but with his opinion of their contents. I fear he would then large part of them. It is said that this has often been compound sounds. These are, however, in most provinces, ver that the authors were totally ignorant of the marite is done during the greatest violence of the eruption; for pronounced exactly like our th, and I could tell Mr. Ha- the Hamiltonian system, and that their prodottons whilst the burning and tnoving part of these sciarri, or milton of six or seven other languages wherein this sound not a whit better than the “ trash" which is commal currents of fire, is so hard and impenetrable that they sup- ( is expressed by a single letter of the alphabet. I do not down our throats by their successors of the meseri dan port the greatest weights, their surface is so cold, that clearly understand what is meant by saying, that the 4. If I rightly understand Mr. H.'s cxplanation of the when it is touched, the fire within is not perceptible, un. French and Germans do not pronounce the above sounds, dishonesty and deceit of ois

word ti less, indeed, the intervening part be not sufficiently thick. “ because they are not taught.” It is not surprising that of which is righi_it seems

ems to shew ti It was curious to observe the slow motion of this great their mothers and nurses do not teach them, seeing that true and false at the same moment

true and falsc at the same moment; and that if a man river: when it approached a house, there was time not they cannot utter it themselves; but how comes it that we who owes me a shilling pays me troo, one good and the only to carry away the furniture, but even to remove the Englishmen find it so difficult to help them over this

other bad, I ought indignantly to reject them both less tiles, beams, and all other moveable parts of the building. stumbling-block? Perhaps it is because we do not set

any one deficient in “ sagacity or candour" should be · I shall add, that all the country, to the distance of about it on Hamiltonian principles.

startled at this doctrine (which to me is at least as cleare twenty miles from Catana, is covered with the sciarri 1 2. “Cato and Cicero never saw a grammar ; first, be- that " il y a" are not thrce words, but one), we will be ejected in former eruptions, though no one remembers cause none existed, and secondly, because if they did ex. to confirm it by a familiar illustration :-Suppose one any eruption so violent as the last, or which took place ist, grammars are not the place in which they would have Mr. H.'s Liverpool pupils were to set out for Warringta in so low a part of the mountain. Notwithstanding that, studied it.” (what?). We may here observe, that Mr. and to find, after passing through Prescot, two od the country is well cultivated, and very populous, whether Hamilton says nothing about glossaries or vocabularics. to the right, and another to the left-he might, acord it be that time has softened the old sciarri, or that they If no such things existed in Cato's time, I suppose he was to this new system of logic, reason thus," Online have been covered by a lighter soil. There still remain enabled to talk of them, and call them by the

enabled to talk of them, and call them by their names by these can be the proper road to Warrington, therehe many districts which, most probably, will never be made a spirit of prophecy, or some faculty analogous to the se. both equally deceive; for though one may puku productive.

cond sight of the Highlanders. Whether Cicero ever saw right, yet, with regard to my proposed journey, I The current of burning lava is now nearly seventeen any thing constructed like our Eton and Westminster to be so, because there is another adjoining to it wa miles in length, and about three miles in breadth.

grammars, or not, is a point that I will not contend for; | wrong. I will, therefore, carefully avoid beth, are

but I think it may be proved that he saw, read, and ap- back to Liverpool." A conclusion truly Hamiltonian Literature, Criticism, &c.

proved of certain granımatical treatises of nearly the same and if our traveller acted upon it, it is clear that her tendency. In my former letter I alluded to two books,

get to the end of his journey as infallibly, as be ON THE HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM.

de Analogia,” written by Julius Cæsar (we are not in acquire a perfect knowledge of Greek, in fifly lesson formed whether he was Grard Master of the Templars or an hour each.

not.) Now, as Mr. Hamilton undertakes to make his TO THÉ EDITOR

5. As Mr. Hamilton seems mightily out of hur m of your valuable pupils perfect in Latin, it would be absurd to suppose with the French sentence about the loaves and SIR.-Allow me, through the medium of your valuable pupils perfect in Latin, it would be absurd to suppose

that he himself has not repeatedly read over all the Latin (which I fancied to be things quite to his taste) miscellany, to thank Mr. Hamilton for condescending to

| authors. As, however, their works are pretiy voluminous, notice my humble tribute to the merits of his system. As

us, | happy to inform him that it is not of my own many

it may possibly have escaped his recollection that Cicero, li from some marks of spleen displayed in his letter, I fear

ture, but copied, verbatim et literate, from a Freneb in his dialogue entitled “ Brutus," mentions the above that he regards me as nothing better than an enemy in

tament, printed at Geneva in the year 1653. 1 6887 work of Cæsar with great distinction, and, moreover, in. disguise, I hasten to correct this unfavourable impression,

over assure him, that he may find numerous instand forms us, that it was dedicated or addressed to himself by the assurance that I look upon him as a gentleman not

the obnoxious phrase “ qu'est ce DE cela" in old vt Many fragments of this work are still extant, and I do noi of common sagacity and attainments, and his method of

especially those of the fifteenth and sixteenth centur teaching as a most extraordinary system. He has not, in. know whether pity or disdain will predominate in Mr.

Mr. Hamilton, however, says it is not French, and Hamilton's breast, when he is informed, that the illusdeed, gratified' my curiosity on all points, particularly

pose we must take his word for it,-Rabelais, Mam about the Monks, whom he now seems somewhat shy of trious author took the frivolous pains to teach his readers

and all their contemporaries, to the contrary, introducing. This I rather regret, for the truly dramatic how to decline pollen, pollinis, Saninis, Samuitis, &c.; in

| standing.--I think itis pretty obvious, that my pre short, that it actually consisted of rules for declensions, lih representation which he gave us of the manner in which

the passage was not meant to be good sense, ar those worthy gentlemen were led to invent vocabularies genders, and conjugations, or, in other words, was com.

lish, but only according to Hamiltonian prijs posed of much the same materials as our Accidence, Pro. and grammars, was certainly one of the most striking fea

was, in fact, made in humble imitation of My Baby pria quæ maribus, and As in præsexli! Shame upon tures of his lecture, and I should be sorry if any thing

rendering of " les ténébres ne l'ont point reçuci | Cæsar for writing, and on Cicero and Quintilian for that I'have said should induce him to omit it for the fu.

one of his papers is translated, “the darkrcises ture. However, though he maintains an oracular silence commending, such “ trash" as this!

not received it." I freely admit that Mr. HS on this topic, 'I feel duly thankful for the novel and im.

ovel and im. 3. “ Grammarians then taught elocution, correct and

3. “ Grammarians then taught elocution, correct and is, upon the whole, better than mine, because portant information he has furnished upon others. Some elegant speaking, rhetoric, philosophy.” So they freless of doubts still remain upon my mind, which I will propound quently did. But they also taught the inflexions, govern quently did. But they also taught the inflexions, govern- | In conclusion, I cannot but commend Mr. B.!

Inimos in the order suggested by Mr. H.'s letter, and I question ment, and construction of words, and wcre so far grainma

| dence in keeping out of the kitchen, where he mugh pot that he, or some of his friends, will be able to furnish rians in our sense of the term, just as an apothecary is not

got into hot water, or burnt his fingers. I leave it a candid and satisfactory solution. | less an apothecary because he also practises as accoucheur

justify his contempt of cookery to Dr. Kitchiners 1, " The simple sounds of all languages are the same.” and surgeon. Any body, who doubts whether they con

editor of L'Almanac des Gourmands as well as me It follows, I suppose, from this, that all the simple sourids descended so far, may find ample proof of it in Quintilian,

but I hope he will excuse my thinking, that a and the Nocles Atticæ of Aulus Gellius. What Apolof all other languages exist in our own. Now, I must

lonius Dyscolus and his filty brethren were, or were not, confess, that after all my researches, I cannot discover any

* Without meaning to vindicrte the elegance or English equivalents for at least half a score sounds in is not a point to be decided by Mr. H.'s assertions

ness of the word peoples, I can satisfy Mr. H. that to

| is a precedent for using it., Rev. x. 11." Thou must pos othor European languages, among which may be men

again before many peoples. Compare chap. XTU. tioned, the French u, the Portuguese nasal 13, and m, the! Some captious people may perhaps think tbat they occa- Mr. H. produce equally respectable authority for Spanish j and it', the German g, gutteral, and the mo- sionally go rather too fas.

I nesses

MR. MEDWIN'S LORD BYROX. .THE FACT.

TAB FACT. knowledge of the French terms of the art would be of MR. MEDWIN'S LORD BYRON. some little use to a traveller in France, who might other-| “My love for it (Scotland) The review on the Hours of l 'He (Mr. Hobhouse) was the conversation-writer arter.

however was at one time Idleness appeared in 1808-9. present at my marriage.'--p. wards mentions, that Mr. Fise be in danger of getting boiled meat for roast, or a much shaken by the critique The Curse of Minerva was

416.

Hobhouse was with Lord By. mutton-chop instead of a beefsteak. Should a debate here in the Edinburgh Review on the written and printed in 1812.

ron on the day alluded to. after arise between any Hamiltonian and his French | Hours of Idleness, and I trans- The ocension of this poem was

And another on his send- Mr. Hobhouse never wroto cook, or restaurateur-the former maintaining that cimier ferred a portion of my dislike the mutilation of the Parthe-ing me the congratulations of any such letter, nor Lord By.

to the country'

non, which Lord Byron had the season, which ended in ron any such answer. neans only a crest, and the latter that it more properly |

Mr. Med win adds this note himself seen, and which, but some foolish way like this: denotes a rump, I recommend that rather than appeal to 'He wrote about this time not a dislike to Scotland, gave

cotland gave l'« You may wish me returns the dictionary they should settle the matter by tossing up the Curse of Minerva, in which birth to the Curse of Minerva.

of the season, for heads or tails. Mr. Hamilton triumphantly appeals he seems very closely to have

Let us prithee have none of p. 77, 78.

the day." - p. 156. w the effects produced by bis system. as a convincing | followed Churchill.'

I afterwards established at This story was told in a

I might have claimed all Lord Byron could not baro proof of its excellence. Heaven forbid that I should

the Abbey & new order. The magazine or newspaper of the the fortune for my lite, 11 I had claimed all Lord Wentworth's question their reality, particularly when so many respect

members consisted of twelve. day, on some slight founda-chosen to have done so, but fortune for his life. at lado able gentleman sigo testimonials, declaring that they are and I elected myself grand tion-but the details here put have agreed to leave the divi. Noel's death. He had before,

sion of it to Lord Daere and at his separation from Lady perfectly satisfied with him and themselves. As I wish master, or abbot of the skull, into Lord Byron's mouth are

a grand heraldic title. A set all untrue. Lord Byron did | Sir F. Burdett. p. 162. Byron, agreed to a division of to part from a gentleman who has given me so many neze of black gowns, mine distin- not establish the order, or

it. What was referred to Sir ideas on terms of perfect civility and good humour, Iguished from the rest, was or. ever call himself abbot of the

F. Burdett and Lord Dacre, hope Mr. H. will allow me also to bear my humble tes. dered, and from time to time, skull--they were not twelve

was, how the property sbould

be divided.
simony to the real merits of his system with this unequi. when a particular hard day or indeed any regularly-named
vocal declaration (which I request you will put in capitals

was expected, a chapter was members of any order-some
held; the crane was filled with dresses were sent from a mas-

Mr. MEDWIN in his own person.

The truth has been already for the sake of greater emphasis)--that I believe every claret, and, in imitation of the querade warehouse, but not

I afterwards had reason to discovered respecting this odo thing which has been said of its intrinsic excellence, cer- Goths of old, passed about to black-no chapter was held or

sued about to black no chapter was held or think that the ode was Lord on the death of Sir Jobn tainty, and wonderful effects, TO BE AS TRUE AS IF the gods of the consistory, talked of--the dresses were Byron's; that he was piqued Moore, and those who knew

at none of his own being men- Lord Byron will appreciate tbo MR. GULLIVER HIMSELF HAD SPOKEN IT.-I re-whilst mauy a prime joke was never put on more than once

cut at its expense. pp. 88, 89, or twice and many & prime

| tioned, and after he had praised vulgar speculation as to the main, Sir, yours, most respectfully,

joke was not cut at the ex

the verses so highly, could not reason of his concealing his Preston, January 24, 1825. VERBEIENSIS.

pense of the skull.

own them." pp. 167, 168. being the author of the power Those who knew Lord By.

ron will detect at once the Mr. MEDWIN'S LORD BYRON The uthlity of this knowledge may be Illustrated by the

vulgarising of the pretended

says, lowing story :-A friend of mine who was resident in Paris

conversation. The story, as

Murray published a letter to the year 1816, happened to meet with a fashionable young

dressed up for sale, is a fiction. I wrote to him from Venice. Englishman, who was making a short tour in France, in com

An order was issued at Za. A long circumstantial story | which might have seemed an any with his sister. The young gentleman being asked How he liked France," replied, “So well, that I shall be

nina by its sanguinary Rajah, is here told by the pretended idle display of vanity; but the

that, dep. 119. party glad to leave it.” “Perhaps (said my friend) you are

Lord Byron, which is detected object of my writing it was, ot familiar with the language." “ No, faith; nor shall I take

at once by one word. The real to contradict what Turner he trouble to learn it." “ But how do you manage to get

Lord Byron could never have had asserted, about the imposlong without it?"

sibility of crossing the Helles.

talked of the Rajah of Zanina "Why, my sister Bess professes to act as

(Joannina.) In Hindostan a pont from the Abydos to the terpreter : but though she pretends to feel an enthusiastic

Sestos side, in consequence of

Rajah is a prince, in Euro Imiration for French literature, and talks a great deal about

Lord Byron did not do both xe besuties of Racine, I suspect that she does not know much

PERO Turkey a rayah is a tri- the tide. One is as easy as the he only swam from the Seston

butary subject. Those in wore about the matter than myself. We were dining the

other; we did both.'-pp. 168, to the Abydos side ther day at a restaurateur's, and I desired Bess to inquire 11

deed, acquainted with Lord | 169.
Byron's style of conversation,

We were to have underre could have a dish of rump stcakes; but the deuce a bit could

Lord Byron and Mr. Ekon hemake them comprebend about rump steaks except by par

would, without this silly blun. taken this feat some time be- head did undertake this feat der, defect the imposition at fore, but put it off in eonse- some time before they did once.

quence of the coldness of the not "put it oft" in consequence •When I was at Athens, This story immediately fold water.'--p. 170.

of the coldness of the water there was an edict in force "sl- lows the other, and is got up

they gave it up in eonsequenco (PAOM A MORNING PAPER) milar to that of Ali's, except with similar accuracy: no

of the coldness of the water, that the mode of punishment other contradiction is neces

when about hall over the . WBSTMINSTER REVIEW, NO. Y, AND was different; it was neces- sary than to mention, that the

strait.
CAPTAIN MEDWIN.
sary therefore that all love girl whose life Lord Byron

(To be concinded in our next.)
affairs should be carried on saved at Athens was not an I am corroborated in this vpinion lately by a lady, whose

with the greatest privacy. I object of his Lordship's attach-brother received them many years ago from Lord Byron, in [Continued from our last.]

was very fond at that time of a ment-but of that of his Lord.

hut of that of his Lord. his own hand-writing.

Turkish girl-ay, fond of her ship's Turkish servant. blowiX'S LORD BYROX.

The Fact.

as I have been of few women.' The Reamine was the The Examiner was not the pp. 121, 122.

Housekeeping and husbandry, if it be good, paper that dared way u only paper that defended Lord "The severest fever I ever Lord Byron left Fletcher at

Must love one another as cousins in blood : edia os defence. Byron. The Morning Chroni. I had was at Patras; I had left Athens, and not at Constanti

The trife, too, must husband as well as the man, cle was a zealous advocate of Fletcher at Constantinople, nople.

Or farewel thy husbandry, do what thou can." his Lordship; and Mr. Perry, convalscent, but unable to

Food and Physico-If you have a severe cold, and are the editor, had a personal alter move through weakness,' &c.

very hoarse, have some water-gruel prepared in the or cation with Sir R. Noel on the My real Vampyre I gave at The conversation said to

dinary way-(if you are ignorant how to make it, ask any subject.

the end of Mazeppa, some- have been held at Diodati is old woman) when nearly ready, slice in two or three The rory wife's portion to This Is altogether contrary | thing in the same way that I fictitous. With the exception

good onions; simmer it again for twenty minutes ; pour . and I was determined to the fact, as those who wit told it one night at Diodati, of Mr. Lewis, no one told & Add £10,000 more of my nessed the deed of separation when Monk Lewisand Shelley tale, and Mrs. Shelley never eat it (with bread if you are hungry) go to bed soon after,

it out; put in a lump of butter, with pepper and salt, and to it, wbleh i did'-p.84 between Lord and Lady Byron and his wife were present. saw the late Mr. Lewis in her

the next morning, if you are not quite well, you will be can testify.

| The latter sketched on that life. The Preface to FrankenTlout pay father when I was

no much improved, and willing to try a second dose, which Lord Byron was born in Ja- occasion the outline of her stein shows that that story will certainly effect a cure. Economist. o yen or ne-p: 72. Quary, 1788, and hisfather died | Pygmalion story, the modern was invented before Lord By

.

| Breakfast for Consumptive Patients.
In August, 1791; so that Lord | Prometheus. p. 149.
ron's and Mr. Shelley's tour on

Those of a spare
Byron was only three years

the Lake, and Mr. Lewis did | habit, and disposed towards affections of the lungs, should and a half old when his father

pot arrive at Diodatt till some breakfast on the following :-Boil & dessert gpoonful of dled.

time after.

ground coffee in a pint of milk, a quarter of an hour; I worery different fromMrs. Malaprop's words are The Italians think the Peter Count Gamba did no

then put into it a shaving or two of isinglass, and clear it: Maloprop's saying, "Ah, very different; and Lord Byron dropping of oil very unlucky. such thing.

let it boil a few minutes, and set it on the side of the fire a dear Mr. Malaprop, I was singularly accurate as well | Pietro (Count Gamba) dropt

to fine, sweetened with sugar. Se loved him on he was as apposite in his quotations. | some the night before his ex

Cure for Chilblains.-Prick the part affected, and squeeze The pretended conversation ile, and that of his family

out the blood at that period when the flesh is much in makes him nelther one nor the from Ravenna.'--p. 152.

flamed, and feels more solid than usual. It is necessary other.

'I will give you a specimen Mr. Hobhouse was with Lord to make an incission in every inch of the sore. Chilblains Bere cut three fortunet, Lord Byron's father did not of some epigrams I am in the Byron on his wedding-day: are first caused by the blood congealing, and, consequently, Kanwrted or ranway with run out three fortunes, nor habit of sending Hobhouse, to his Lordship could not write as soon as it is evacuated, a cure is effected. By this easy party or run away with threr whom I wrote on my Arst to him on that day. This ac- remedy, I have cured both my hands and feet when they

wedding day;'&cap. 165. doo l the more unlucky, as have been much swollen.comCorrespondent.

The Housewife.

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