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n D

more use.

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n D

D =


ME. Mrowix's LORD BYRON.


then the area of the two pistons = 11-7ths da, and the pres- with the same velocity as before, the weight must be eight I had been shut up in a At the time here alluded to, sure on both = 11-7ths pd.

times as great; for it will then draw the boat with only four utk street in London, writing Lord Byron lived at No. 13, While the piston moves through l, the carriage moves times the power. This is exactly the case of a steam-boat. think he said) the Siege of Piccadilly, looking into the through the semicircumference of the wheel which equals The piston oubt only to move with a certain velocity, and Coriata:—- 55.

Green Park. The conversa- 11-7ths D; but the power of traction is to the pressure on a certain pressure; and therefore, to produce twice the velo

tion writer calls this a DARK the piston, as the velocity of the latter to the velocity of the city, the steam area of the piston must be eight times as great. Mwis makes LORD By- street. former; or T: 11-7ths pda :: 1 : 11-7ths D.

To make the question still more clear, let us inquire what RON say,

is the greatest speed at which a locomotive engine can move "I was abused in the public Lord Byron was never hisg. Therefore T = pdü?

without any additional weight. For this purpose, we bave

Ints; made the common ed as he went to the House of
The rule expressed in words is as follows:

V= and D= p de?; therefore V = npda !

Let n = k of private companies; Lords; nor insulted in the Multiply the square of the diameter of the piston by the 28


28 T sed as I went to the House streets.

length of the stroke in feet, and by the effective pressure of 46, p=10lb. d=9 inches, l=2 feet, and T = 1001b; then Lords; insulted in the the steam in pounds upon each square inch, and divide by the V=


= 26 miles per hour nearly. A single wheel reete' &c. p. 62. diameter of the wheel in feet.

2800 (To be continued.)

Example. What is the power of traction of a locomotive could not be constructed of a sufficient size, but the speed

engine with two cylinders, of which the internal diameter is might be given by a cog-wheel and pinion. It is clear, thereScientific Becords.

ten inches; the length of the stroke being 2 feet, the pressure fure, that no finite steam power can give an infinite velocity,

of the steam 9ib. and the height of the wheel 3 feet ?—Answer, where the resistance is a constant force.—Yours, &c. 'omprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve- 6001b. nents in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin

A. B. T. The effective pressure is different from the real pressure; gular Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi; for the latter has to overcome the friction of the piston itself, losophical, Botanical, Metcorological, and Mineralogica! which is usually estimated at 31b. and the pressure of the of Arts, on Wednesday se'nnight, Dr. Fyfe took an op

Brown's Pneumatic Enginc.-At the Edinburgh School Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History; atmosphere, which is 151b. The whole pressure is therefore Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.; List of Patents;about 271b.

portunity of describing Brown's gas vacuuin engine. The to be continued in a series through the Volume.) It is of no practical utility to estimate the time in which object of this engine is to obtain power by means of a

the engine will obtain its uniform speed, as it is too short to vacuum created during the cumbustion of inflammable RAIL-ROADS, AND NEW MECHANICAL PARADOX. be of any importance. The following rules will be found of gas; for which purpose a gas-burner is lighted within the

cylinder, and allowed to consume the internal air, part of TO THE EDITOR. To find the speed of the piston in mlles per hour:

which being condensed into water, while another part is IR --As the nature of steam power does not yet ap

thrown off by the sudden combustion, the valve instantly v 2 n 1 X 60 minutes E to be fully understood even by so sensible a writer as

closes, and produces the vacuum. Dr. Fyfe gave a de

5280 feet r correspoudent A. B. C., it may perhaps be desirable to Rule.--Multiply the number of strokes in a minute by the sidered as one of the grandest combinations of chymical

cided opinion in favour of this new discovery. It is coner into a fuller explanation. It is true, that while the length of stroke in feet, and divide by 44. ma is so strong as to blow out at the safety-valve, it ex- Ex.-If the engine make 44 two-foot strokes in a minute. Several persons had condemned the engine as useless, but

and mechanical science ever introduced to public notice. can coastant force, similar to that of gravity, that is, it what is the speed of the piston per hour ?-Answ. Two miles those individuals seemed to be unacquainted with the Eaces equal increments of velocity in equal times; but an hour, which is a very good speed. a the piston has acquired a certain speed, the steam ceases To find the velocity of the carriage in miles per hour:

principle upon which the vacuum was produced. They ape, and every subsequent increase of the velocity diThe circumference of the wheel equal 22-7ths D;

argued and made their calculations upon the theory, that elses the power; in this, which is its ordinary mode of

corabustion is effected in a close vessel ; while the whole

n X 60 minutes a, te is no longer a constant force, but rather resembles therefore V=


principle of the engine is, that the combustion is carried power of the wind than the force of gravity. When a

5280 feet

on in an open one. In point of economy, other writers uis first put in motion, the wind acts upon the sails with

Rule.-Multiply the number of strokes in a minute by the have fallen into error by estimating the expense much too all force, and the resistance being very small, the motion height of the wheel in feet, and divide by 28.

high. By actual experiment, it had been ascertained, that Ex.-If the engine be making 42 strokes on a wheel of during the consumption of one foot of gas, 300 gallons of calerated; but as the velocity increases, not only the lanice increases, but the power also of the wind decreases, feet diameter, how fast is it going?—Answ. Six miles an hour. water would be raised to the height of about 20 feet--the Elast the two forces balance each other, and the motion

To find the horse-power of a locomotive engine with two cost of which must be trifling, compared to that of mainpes uniform. It still more nearly resembles a carriage

Rule.-Divide the square of the diameter of the piston In by Mr. Brown, the mercury gage stood at from 24 to 26

taining a steam-engine. In the engine already constructed on a rail-road, in which case the resistance would not se with the velocity, but the power only of the wind inches by 10.

inches--thus giving a pressure of from 12 to 13lbs. to the 14 he diminished. Such a carriage could never move so Ex. What is the horse-power of an engine with two ten

square inch, while the common steam-engice had not the wind, however long its impulse might be conti

inch cylinders ? Answ. A ten-horse power.
So two nine-inch cylinders are equal to eight horses, and ready been given for the patent for Scotland, and nine

more than 7 or 8lbs. Twenty thousand pounds had al. la like manner in a steam-engine, the fire, which is rime mover, can only produce steam of a limited power

two eleven-inch cylinders to twelve.
Velocity, beyond which the motion of the piston can adopted. For a single cylinder the divisor is 20.

This is a very useful rule,
and ought to be generally to the propelling of private carriages and carts in England.

thousand pounds for the right of applying this discovery be accelerated. o correspondent principally combats a doctrine that To find the power of traction a carriage will require:

The patent had also been sold for the West Indies; and . Find the proportion between the welght and the friction yidual, not a citizen of the United States, in whose favour

it is a remarkable fact, that Mr. Brown is the only indi. as advanced. À crank does not the mode of action, of a power; and the mean resulting in one instance by experiment, and it will be nearly the same the American government had ever granted a patent.-

for . On of the original power. ül be either constant or variable, according to the na Newcastle rail-roads the friction is said to be the 170th part / Should this new invention answer, it will completely

In a recent publication, it is cously supposed, that when a power aets through the of the weight. To the friction so found, add the weight

di- supersede the steam-engine, and will be especially useful ion of a crank, the effect is as the sum of the slnes.

vided by the inclination in going up hill, and subtract in in propelling vehicles on railways, which it will of course mistake arises from the omission to take into con

traverse without leaving behind it a column of smoke. going down. llon the times during which the several forces act. Ex.-What power will it require to draw 31,000lb. up a

Leeds Mercury brees will be as the sines, and the times as the ares Newcastle rail-road, where the inclination is one in three bed. Now the sines and the ineremental ares are as hundred?

Correspondence. dias and the incremental versed sines; whence the


61,000 300, and

170. Answer, 4701b. betical reader will easily deduce the true result that 170

DANIEL DE FOE. crements of velocity are as the spaces described by the Down the same hill It would only require 1301b. 3 which conclusion is confirmed by the consideration, To find the best inclination, where more goods go in one

TO THE EDITOR Rexpenditure of steam is in the same proportion. The direction than the other :

SIR,- In the Kaleidoscope of Dec. 7, 1824, is a paratherefore, does not form an exception to the general Rule.--As the sum of the weights is to the difference, 80 is

graph concerning De Foe, the author of Robinson Crusoe. hich applies to all mechanical powers, namely, that the frietion to the required inclination. In equilibrium, they are inversely as their velocities Ex.—What should be the inclination, where the descending The following extract from Watson's History of Halifax

may interest some of your readers :-“ Daniel De Poe dalsion of in the same passage of the publication weights are three times as great as the ascending?

Answ. 4 : 2 ::
the inclination required.

being forced to abscond, on account of his political writings, Ito is quite erroneous, and therefore the tables deduced

170 340

resided some time at Halifax, in Yorkshire, at the sign of he expressions are wholly incorrect. The principle To resume the consideration of the expression T=Pd8% the Rose and Crown, in the Back-lane ; being known to prong, it is unnecessary, and would be invidious, to ut errors in detail.

It appears that where the pressure and the steam cylinder Dr. Nettleton, the Physician, and the Rev. Mr. Priestley, ocomotive engine, as constructed by Mr. Stephenson, remain the same, the power of traction is inversely as the Dissenting Minister. He here employed himself in writing steam cylinders, which drive the wheels round by diameter of the wheel; or, in other words, the weight

must his De Jure Divino, among other things ; but in parif pins fixed to the spokes. The wheels are connected be diminished in proportion to the speed. This is consonant ticular he is here said to have composed the Adventures a manner, that when one piston is at the top of its with all experience; and any expression which does not pro- of Robinson Crusoe ; the subject of which was taken from the other is in the middle To find the power of trac- duce this consequence must necessarily be erroneous. The the papers of Alexander Selkirk, who had been left some uch an engine, = the effective pressure in pounds upon each square when the moving power is a weight; because, however fast time on an uninhabited island of Juan de Fernandez, and inch;

the weight be falling, the force of gravity will still produce had given his memoirs to De Poe to methodise, who, - the diameter of the pistons in inches;

equal accelerations in equal times. Hence it is, that four instead of doing as desired, struck out this entertaining the length of the stroke in feet; the number of double strokes in a minute; water; but as the weight itself will move twice as fast, its novel; depriving Selkirk of making advantage of his the diameter of the wheel in feet;

momentum will be eight times as great. if by any mechani- adventures."—Watson, p. 470. the power of traction required ; cal contrivance, as by a double pulley, It be made to move

Yours, &c.






After which the Farce of

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We shall not fall to

swers to the queries of an Amateur of Newry, contained

Just published, Price 58.
in your Kaleidoscope of the 18th instant.

WILD. ROSES.—By THOMAS FENBY, of Lives SIR,-As the musical queries contained in the last num cords," I answer yes; and in support of the assertion, I

To the first query, “Can there be a succession of dis. To be had of all the Booksellers. ber but one of the Kaleidoscope remain unanswered, I pre- refer your correspondent to the well known sequences of 7

Cheatre-Royal, Liberpool

. sume to send you a few opinions on the subject, which events and 2, with all their modifications and inversions


ON , , of sufficient

of the Managers, and licensed by the LORD CHAIN importance. Yours, &c.

To the second query,

Can F* be used for Gb," IN, will be performed a New Comedy in Five Aets, vreau AN AMATEUR.-Liverpool. also answer yes; because, taking itgra for nted that your FOR THE BENEFIT OF MR. RYLEY,

correspondent is correct in assigning “ Bt" as the fundaThe first is, “ Can there, in any composition, be a suc- mental bass of the passage quoted, "Gb A and C” form

THE IRISH GIRL. cession of discords ?" an appoggiatural chord, resolving itself respectively into

THE PROLOGUE TO BE SPOKEN BY MR. ATLET, Most certainly; and I trust immediately to prove this

, "F At and D” of the chord succeeding, where, if «G+". if any proof be necessary. For this purpose, I have selec- be the appoggiatural note proper to “F,” it follows, that

BON TON; ted a passage from Bishop's ballad, "He is all the world to Btt (not Ab) is the appoggiatural note proper to “Atti"

OR, HIGH LIFE ABOVE STAIRS me," which, with respect to the points in question, very but, if A (on account of its less remote affinity to the key closely resembles the example given : and, to show this of E+) may be taken as the appoggiatural note to “At"No 10, e Basnet-street, corner of Williams are

The Part of Sir John Trotly, by We Rezer. resemblance more clearly, I have transposed it into the it follows that F* may be taken also as the appoggiatural Waterloo Hotel, York Hotel, Saddle Inn, Tur Tavern, Bab same key. It is as follows: note to “F,” as the relations between themselves and speare Tavern, and Red Lion, Mersey-street

. I plan of the

Boxes may be seen at Mrs. Goore's, Straw-bonnet Step, CETTE to

the passages they form are parallel. Besides, as • FX" of Williamson-square.
had been used in the chord next but one preceding that
in which the “Gh” occurs, and in the same part of the To Correspondents.
harmony, I should prefer its use to that of “Gb," be-
cause the eye and the ear are thus prepared for the note, RESERVE COMMUNICATIONS.—The following are in tempe
which must, for effect, be the same in pitch, however it

our next :-A Musical Piece_Letter II. from a

Devotee, on Capital Punishment_Letter IL on the may be written,

tonian System-Letter on the newly-advanced mereka I am of opinion that the FUNDAMENTAL BASS of paradox, connected with locomotive machines, and the two chords quoted is formed of f dominant of Bb, graving, the communication of T. H. T. of Pairdet succeeded by Bb dominant of the key-note; and

translation of Eruditionis Amator-Notices of Liverp The only essential difference in these two examples is; that Bh, which ought, for the sake of correctness in

former times—Lines by Cestriensis, of Chester-L that, in that by Bishop, the B in the bass is continued until writing, to have continued throughout the bar, is merely

Y.Z.-Lines by Medicius-Lines by J. and the oth

nication of R. of Newry. the final close on the tonic, thereby making the chord of a PEDAL BASS. With this view then of the bass, there ERRATUM-- In the lines on “Heaven” in the last wete the dominant complete; while in the other example, is no doubt of Gt being the correct note; but I am not

leidoscope, page 248, fifth stanza, line sixth, in the want of this, renders the harmony weak and inaccu- sure that such writers as Haydn would not use rate. Should Amateur still entertain any doubts as to the its substitute, for the reasons given in the preceding para.

Fx" as

blindly, &c. read “Man" blindly, &c.

MUSIC.In consequence of our intimation in a la propriety of using successive discords, it is hoped the au- graph, or for that which led Haydn to write Ax and Bt

we have been favoured from several quarters with thority of Hadyn will remove them. The following is an in the same chord, in different parts of his score of “ The

a copy of the song, "When I heard the roaring ost" extract from his celebrated canzonet “ Lubin is away.”

We feel obliged to the gentlemen who have the expa heavens are telling the glory of God."

their readiness to oblige us. Yours, &c.

J. M. X.. selves in due time of their politeness; although we may Liverpool, Jan. 29, 1825.

immediately call upon them to furnish us with a copy have several musical pieces in reserve, which claim

of insertion. The song which we inquired after Vive la Sagatelle.

good, and as it is out of print, it appears to u to belin

that class of musical pieces which we can revire In order to employ one part of this life in serions and important

vantage to our musical readers, without injury to the occupations, it is necessary to spend another in mere amuse

ers in printed music, with whose fair profits we are There is a time to laugh and a time to weep."-SOLOMON.

tention to interfere. There are very many beautiful

and other pieces which, although they are out of it SOLUTIONS TO THE CONUNDRUMS, &c. IN OUR LAST. infinitely superior in merit to many of the popular 25. It would be a great bore.

of the day. Some of these it is our intention to the 26. It is a warm retort.

and the song to which we have alluded is one of the 27. To a Scotch parish in Ayr-shire ( Air shire.)

28. When boots are bought, of course they are sold 7. F. of Gloucester-street, will please to accept our than (soled) and when they are thoroughly mended they are

the loan of some books. also soled (sold.)

The Swiss Music is pleasing; but we understand ta 29. It is Pallas (Palace.)

original contains more parts, which we bope to see 30. Because he is a quadrangular (quod wrangler) that M. N. of Stoke Newington, London, is informed the is, a wrangler in quod or prison !!!

shall insert the proffered communication, if we can (Since we published the solution to the 22d conundrum

in deciphering the whole of the manuscript in the last Kaleidoscope, we have been favoured with another

we have, however, some doubts at present, es solution, which is much better, although the author we criss-cross passage.

suspect is a wag. The question asked – Why is a lady MUSICAL CORRESPONDENTS. We had prepared Amateur then says, “ There is a succession of discords curling her hair like a housebreaker ?"-to wbich our here, as B is the fundamental bass note.” The latter new correspondent replies, “ Because she disturbs the

Newry, explaining our views respecting the would certainly have become a discord, by having B for inmates."]

music which we shall introduce into the Kaleidauty

NEW CONUNDRUMS. . its bass; but the other a discord independently, admit

arrangements have rendered it neeessary to wäbise ting of B, not as a fundamental, but as a pedal bass. 81. Why is a crooked nail, driven fast into a wall, like the letter of Detector, on Mr. Greaves's report, respectiva

note; but we shall next week resume the subject He next asks,“ Could the author have substituted one of our excellent public charities ?

roads, will be given in the Mercury. F* for Gb?” This is a point on which I think theorists 32. Why are prisoners working in the tread-wheel like disinterested patriots ?

SHAKSPEARE AND LORD BYRON.—The interesting artie will be found to differ, some considering it allowable, and

specting the original editor of Shakspeare; and that others, denying that it can be done. That Gb is better, 33. My first runs at you,

the Westminster Review, respecting

Lord Byron, bares will hardly, I humbly.conceive, be doubted; for, as such,

My second runs into you,

us to withdraw several communications we had prel it may appear as part of the chord of the subdominant,

My whole runs through you.

and which shall appear next week. and, consequently, bear a much nearer affinity to the key 34. My first is equality,

The Song by S. S. of Manchester, is very acceptable. than it otherwise would. This, I am aware is not the only

My second inferiority,

SAYINGS AND Doings. We may probably, in our light in which it may be considered as G b; it may retain

My whole superiority.

some extracts from, and remarks upon this work 35. My first is an insect,

FIRE._We shall next week lay before our readers the the same character if we call the chord F.

My second a wild beast,

suggestion of c. on this important subject. My whole is nothing at all!

The verses of Jerry shall not be deferred beyond next w 36. My first is a star, TO THE EDITOR

My second a fish,

Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, SIR, May I trouble you to insert the following, as an.

My whole is a bird.

E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord-street, Liverpool




note, addressed to S. N.-W.SS. S.-G.SE/


BY W, W. C. C.


Literary and Scientific Mirror.



Infamiliar Miscellany, from which religiousand politicalmatters are excluded, containsa varietyof originaland selected Articles; comvrehending Literature, Criticism, Men and Manners Amusement, Elegant Extracts, Poetry, Anecdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Arts and Sciences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c. &c. forming a handsome Annua Volume, with an Index and Title-page.--Its circulation renders it a most eligible medium for Literary and Fashionable Advertisements.--Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents.

0.241.- VOL. V.




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part of the town, it would have occasioned great destruc- the height of the walls; in some places, they had even ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE. tion among the common houses. But its fury being ap- passed over them. The first night of our arrival, a new cur

peased, on the 4th of May, it continued to flow only in rent of fire issued from among some sciarri, upon which

small currents, which were principally directed towards we had been walking an hour or two before, and which La legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, me the sea. It has demolished, in the upper country, about were level with the height of the walls; it flowed into the spre que des ruines. Paris: printed, 1824.

fourteen towns and villages, some of which were not in- town, forming a small stream of fire, about three feet

considerable, and contained three or four thousand in broad, and nine feet long, and consolidating itself into translated expressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French habitants: it has also extended to a pleasant and fertile scarri at' its extremities. This current was extinct the Work.]

country, never before laid waste by an eruption. No next morning, although it had covered with sciarri a wide LETTER VL-CONTINUATION OF VOLCANOES.

traces remain of the existence of these towns, except a space before vacant. The following evening, a much

church and a steeple, which stood upon a small eminence, stronger current was discovered, precipitating itself from ERUPTION OF ETNA IN 1669. separate from the other buildings.

another part of the wall into the ditch of the castle. We

The matter, thrown out in this eruption, is composed learned that this stream continued to flow during several articuları given by some English merchants, extracted of different species of minerals, liquified in the entrails of days after our departure. There were, at the same time, from the Philosophical Transactions.) the earth, by the action of the fire ; it bubbles and foams other currents of lava, which bent their course towards

like the source of a great river. When the liquid mass the sea. The sky appeared black during eighteen days before has flowed over the space of a stone-throw or more, its Having passed two days near Catana, we returned toeruption; there were frequent concussions of the extremity begins to grow solid, and to be covered with a wards the crater, where there was no longer any danger

accompanied by thunder and lightning, of which crust, which when it is cold, forms those hard and porous to be apprehended from the fire, or ashes ; we thence most alarming accounts were diffused by the people. stones, called by the inhabitants, sciarri. It then assumes clearly discovered the ancient and new channels of lava, re not, however, heard that these shocks overturned the form of a collection of enormous burning coals, slowly and the enormous heap of ashes which had been dis

edifice, except a small village called Nicolasi, situated rolled over one another; when it meets any obstacle, it charged in the course of the eruption. We saw a trian. bout half a mile's distance from the new crater, and a ascends by collecting itself in a heap, overturning by its gular space, of about two leagues in extent, which apStrall houses in the villages to which the fire after weight, edifices of an ordinary size, and consuming all peared to be the ancient bed or channel of fire ; the botas extended. It had been remarked that the ancient combustible enbstances. The torrent generally moved tom of it was covered with sciarri, and the surface in. er, on the summit of Etna, had discharged more flames forwards, without deviating from a direct line; but it also crustated with sulphur; it was bordered on each side by a usual during the three or four preceding months; extended laterally, as water does, when it flows over level a large bank of ashes, and the new summit rose behind se emitted at Volcan and Stromboli, two burning ground, and formed different branches, or tongues, as they it. It seems that the fire had passed between these two nds, situated to the west of Etna, had also been ob- are called in this country.

banks. In the upper corner, upon a small elevation of ed considerably to augment, and it was perceived that We ascended, at two or three o'clock in the afternoon, sciarri, there was a hole, about six feet broad, whence it summit of Etna had sunk into its ancient crater. In to a high tower, at Catana, which commanded a view of is probable that the fire issued; there must have been all who have before seen this mountain, agree that the crater of the volcano: the mass of fire issuing from it was several of these holes, which have since been incrustated Leration is much diminished at this period.

a terrible spectacle. The following morning we wished over, or filled up with ashes. The fire was seen to flow at first eruption took place on the 11th of March, to visit this crater; but we dared not approach nearer the bottom of this hole ; and, lower down we discovered, two hours before sunset, on the south eastern de- than to the distance of a furlong from it, lest by a change through a cleft in the bed of sciarri, the burning metal

of the mountain, about twenty miles below the of wind we should be enveloped in some portion of the flowing beneath it. The surface of this current appeared at crater, and ten miles from Catana. It was at immense column of ashes, which rose from it, and to be about a fathom broad, though it was probably eported, that the current of burning lava traversed which appeared to us, twice as thick as the steeple broader below, as the channel was widened towards the miles in twenty-four hours; but having, on the 5th of St. Paul's, in London, and of an infinitely greater bottom. We could not measure its breadth, because it pril, visited a place within a mile's distance from height. The atmosphere around was entirely filled with was impenetrable to instruments of iron. We were de

we perceived that it advanced hardly a furlong the most subtile parts of these ashes ; and, from the sirous of procuring some of this matter at the source, but ay : it continued to move with the same degree of beginning of the eruption to the end (during fifty-four it was impossible to make any incision in it: perhaps there ty during fifteen or twenty days, passing near the days) neither sun nor stars were visible, in any part of the were soncurrents, consisting of a softer substance. A of Catana, and penetrating to a considerable dis- country, adjacent to the mountain.

sulphurous smoke, by which some persons of our company into the sea. But, towards the end of this month, A quantity of stones, of moderate size, fell from the narrowly escaped being suffocated, issued from this chanat the beginning of May, whether it was, that the sides of this column ; we could not distinguish whether or nel, particularly from the large hole above. A column isted the further progress of the matter, or that the not they were burning, neither was it possible for us to of smoke or ashes arose, every quarter of an hour, from no discharged a larger quantity of it, it turned its see the source of the torrent of fire, on account of a large the centre of the new summit; but it was, by no means, I towards the town; and, having been heaped up to bank of ashes immediately in front of us.' A noise, like equal in magnitude to that already mentioned. ight of the walls, formed a passage over them, in distant thunder, or like the roaring of the waves when The last time that we were at Catana, the inhabitants i places. Its fury fell chiefly upon a very pretty they are dashed against the rocks, proceeded from the were occupied in barricading certain streets and passages, it of Bernardino, ornamented with spacious gardens, orifice, whence issued the fire and ashes. This sound has, through which it was presumed that the fire would pass : her grounds, between the house and the wall of the more than once, reached me when I have been at Messina, they demolished for that purpose the old houses in the

The burning lava, having filled up this space, di- which is sixty miles distant, and situated at the foot of a neighbourhood, and heaped up the dry loose stones in the all its force against the edifice; it experienced a re- chain of high mountains. "It has even been heard a hun- form of a wall, supposing that they resisted the fire better 3 which it caused to ascend very high, a consequence dred miles north of the volcano, in Calabria, where ashes when there was no lime amongst them. ways ensued, whenever its passage was interrupted have also been seen to fall. Some of our seamen have It is said that the lava has advanced a mile into the sca,

obstacle. Some parts of the building entirely gave related, that the decks of their vessels were covered with and that it is at least a mile in breadth at its extremity : od sunk nearly a foot, as it appeared by the pro- them, although, probably, the layer was not very thick. it was much less extensive when we were there. The sca. of the bricks towards the middle of the wall, and Towards the middle of May, we returned to Catana. shore declines with a gradual slope ; the water is about bending of the pieces of iron fastened across it. It The appearance of things was then much changed : five fathoms in depth at the extremity of the sciarri, which in, thai if this torrent had fallen upon any other sciarri were amassed round three-fourths of the town, to rise about two fathoms and a half above it.

The surface of the water was so warm at the distance of dern Greek gamma and chi. Perhaps they are lalent in It would be heresy to question Mr. H.'s perfect acquaist

. more than twenty feet from these currents of fire, that it other sounds, like fire in flint, or aqua-fortis in saltpetre; ance with ancient classical literature ; but it seems there was impossible to hold the hand in it; it was, however, or they may, possibly, have been congealed in some great are many things relating to it which he does not kura much cooler lower down. The sciarri preserved their frost, like the conversation of Sir John Mandeville's crew In return for what he has taught me, I will communiste heat under the water, as we perceived at the ebb of the at Nova Zembla. However, if Mr. Hamilton can make a little piece of news to him, namely, that many grammar tide.

out English representatives for those aliens, and about as and lexicons, written by the authors to whom I alluded, at The general appearance of these sciarri is like that pre- many more with which I can furnish biin from the He- still extant, and well known to the critics. When Mr. H. sented by Aakes of ice amassed upon a river, during a brew, Arabic, and Persian, I for one shall rejoice at his next goes to examine bis Cambridge classes, be may find i hard frost: in some places they resemble a rugged heap success, for I am very partial to my native tongue, and the college libraries a Greek grammar by!A pollonius Dy of flocks of wool; but their colour is quite different : they shall be truly happy to learn that it is possessed of powers colus, a whole collection of ancient Latin ones edited by are, for the most part, of a deep blue, and in close large and comprehensiveness which I never dreamt of. It would Putschius, a Lexicon Homericun of Apollonius, another stones and rocks, which are closely united with them. be frivolous and unprofitable to debate whether our th is lexicon by Julius Pollux-cum multus aliis, which I would

But, notwithstanding their roughness, and the fire that a simple sound or not. I think it would rather surprise a civilly request him to examine, and then to faveur y We saw shining through the clefts, we ventured to cross a Spaniard to hear that his soft c and z are not simple, but with his opinion of their contents. I fear he would diseoLarge part of them. It is said that this has often been compound sounds. These are, however, in most provinces, ver that the authors were totally ignorant of the merits of done during the greatest violence of the eruption; for pronounced exactly like our th, and I could tell Mr. Hac the Hamiltonian system, and that their pralections are whilst the burning and moving part of these sciarri, or milton of six or seven other languages wherein this sound not a whit better than the “trash” which is cranned currents of fire, is so hard and impenetrable that they sup is expressed by a single letter of the alphabet. I do not down our throats by their successors of the pressi dağ. port the greatest weights, their surface is so cold, that clearly understand what is meant by saying, that the

4. If I rightly understand Mr. H.'s czylanatia of the when it is touched, the fire within is not perceptible, un. French and Germans do not pronounce the above sounds, dishonesty and deceit of giving a word two meaning less, indeed, the intervening part be not sufficiently thick. " because they are not taught.” It is not surprising that of which is right-it seems to shew that a thing ray be It was curious to observe the slow motion of this great their mothers and nurses do not teach them, seeing that true and falsc at the same moment; and that if a man river: when it approached a house, there was time not they cannot utter it themselves ; but how comes it that we who owes me a shilling pays me two, one good and the only to carry away the furniture, but even to remove the Englishmen find it so difficult to help them over this other bad, I ought indignantly to reject them back. That tiles, beams, and all other moveable parts of the building. stumbling-block ? Perhaps it is because we do not set any one deficient in " sagacity or candour" should be I shall add, that all the country, to the distance of about it on Hamiltonian principles.

startled at this doctrine (which to me is at least a darn twenty miles from Catana, is covered with the sciarri 2. “Cato and Cicero never saw a grammar; first, be that " il y a" are not thrce words, but one), we wil e ejected in former eruptions, though no one remembers cause none existed, and secondly, because if they did ex- to confirm it by a familiar illustration :-Suppose the any eruption so violent as the last, or which took place ist, grammars are not the place in which they would have Mr. H.'s Liverpool pupils were to set out for Warringa in so low a part of the mountain. Notwithstanding that, studied it.” (what?). We may here observe, that Mr. and to find, after passing through Prescot, two rode the country is well cultivated, and very populous, whether Hamilton says nothing about glossaries or vocabularies. to the right, and another the left-he might, acord it be that time has softened the old sciarri, or that they If no such things existed in Cato's time, I suppose he was to this new system of logic, reason thus," Only have been covered by a lighter soil. There still remain enabled to talk of them, and call them by their names by these can be the proper road to Warrington, team many districts which, most probably, will never be made a spirit of prophecy, or some faculty analogous to the sc. both equally deceive; for though one may park productive.

emd sight of the Highlanders. Whether Cicero ever saw right, yet, with regard to my proposed journey, The current of burning lava is now nearly seventeen any thing constructed like our Eton and Westminster to be so, because there is another adjoining to it miles in length, and about three miles in breadth.

grammars, or not, is a point that I will not contend for; wrong. I will, therefore, carefully avoid bith,

but I think it may be proved that he saw, read, and ap- back to Liverpool.” A conclusioa truly Hanílucaise Literature, Criticism, &C.

proved of certain gran matical treatises of nearly the same and if our traveller acted upon it, it is clear that he tendency. In my former letter I alluded to two books, get to the end of his journey as infallibly, as he

" de Analogia,” written by Julius Cæsar (we are not in acquire a perfect knowledge of Greek, in fifty ON THE HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM.

formed whether he was Grard Master of the Templars or an hour each.
not.) Now, as Mr. Hamilton undertakes to make his

5. As Mr. Hamilton seems mightily out of but SIR -Allow me, through the medium of your valuable pupils perfect in Latin, it would be absurd to suppose with the French sentence about the leaves and I miscellany, to thank Mr. Hamilton for condescending to that he himself has not repeatedly read over all the Latin (which 1 fancied to be things quite to his fast? notice my humble tribute to the merits of his system. As authors. As, however, their works are pretty voluminous, happy to inform him that it is not of my own mang from some marks of spleen displayed in his letter, I fear it may possibly have escaped his recollection that Cicero, ture, but copied, verbatim et literate, from a Frezed

Brutus," mentions the above cament, printed at Geneva in the year 1653. ! cao that he regards me as nothing becter than an enemy in in his dialogue entitled ** disguise, I hasten to correct this unfavourable impression, work of Cæsar with great distinction, and, moreover, in.

over assure him, that he may find numerous instag by the assurance that I look upon him as a gentleman not forms us,

that it was dedicated or addressed to himself. the obnoxious phrase qu'est ce de cela” in old og of common sagacity and attainments, and his method of Many fragments of this work are still

extant, and I do noi especially those of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuri deed, gratified' my curiosity on all points, particularly | Hamilton's breast, when he is informed, that the illus- pose we must take his word for it,-Rabelais, Men teaching as a most extraordinary system. He has not, in. know whether pity or disdain will predominate in Mi. Mr. Hamilton, however, says it is not French, and about the Monks, whom he now seems somewhat shy of trious author took the frivolous pains to teach his readers and all their contemporaries, to the contrary, introducing. This I rather regret, for the truly dramatic how to decline pollen, polinis, Sannis, Samnitis, &c: in standing.—I think itis pretty obvious, that my representation which he gave us of the manner in which short, that it actually consisted of rules for declensions, the passage was not meant to be good sense, as those worthy gentlemen were led to invent vocabularies genders, and conjugations, or, in other words, was com lish, but only according to Hamiltonian priejos and grammars, was certainly one of the most striking

fea- posed of much the same materials as our Accidence, Pro- was, in fact, made in humble imitation of Miller tures of his lecture, and I should be sorry if any thing pria quæ maribus, and As in præsenti! Shame upon rendering of " les ténébres ne l'ont point reçue;" that I'have said should induce him to omit it for the fu. Cæsar for writing, and on Cicero and Quintilian for one of bis papers is translated, “the darkness lure. However, though he maintains an oracular silence commending, such “ trash" as this !

not received it." I freely admit that Mr. H.S. on this topic, Í feel duly thankful for the novel and im

8. " Grammarians then taught elocution, correct and is, upon the whole, better than mine, because portant information he has furnished upon others. Some elegant speaking, rhetoric, philosophy.” So they fre. less of it. doubts still remain upon my mind, which I will propound quently did. But they also taught the inflexions, govern

In conclusion, I cannot but commend Mr. B.X in the order suggested by Mr. H.'s letter

, and I question ment, and construction of words, and were so far gramma. dence in keeping out of the kitchen, where he might not that he, or some of his friends, will be able to furnish rians in our sense of the term, just as an apothecary is not less an apothecary because he also practises as accoucheur justify his contempt of cookery 10 Dr. Kitchiner so

got into hot water, or burnt his fingers I leave a candid and satisfactory solution.

1, " The simple sounds of all languages are the same." and surgeon. Any body, who doubts whether they con editor of L'Almanac des Gourmands as well as be It follows, I suppose, from this, that all the simple sounds descended so far, may find ample proof of it in Quintilian, but I hope he will excuse my thinking, that ad of all other languages exist in our own. Now, I must and the Nocles Atticæ of Aulus Gellius. What Apol

lonius Dyscolus and his fisty brethren were, or were not, confess, that after all my researches, I cannot discover any

• Without meaning to vindicrte the elegance or English equivalents for at least half a score sounds in is not a point to be decided by Mr. H.'s assertions ness of the word peoples, I can satisfy Mr. H. that there other European languages, among which may be men. (though they

, undoubtedly go very fur* )--but by evidence. is a precedent for using it., Thou must pred again before many peoples." Compare chap. XFil

. 18 tioned, the French u, the Portuguese nasal n, and m, the

* Some captious people may perhaps think tbat they occa. Mr. H. produce equally respectable authority for 18 Spanish j and if, tbe German &, gutteral, apd the mo- sionally go rather too fas.




knowledge of the French terms of the art would be of MR. MEDWIN'S LORD BYRON.


TAB Fact. sotme little use to a traveller in France, who might other

‘My love for it (Scotland) The review on the Hours of • He (Mr. Hobhouse) was the conversation-writer after wise be in danger of getting boiled meat for roast, or a much shaken by the critique The Curse of Minerva was however was at one time Idleness appeared in 1808–9. present at my marriage.'--p. wards mentions, that Mr.

Hobhouse was with Lord Bymutton-chop instead of a beefsteak.• Should a debate here in the Edinburgh Review on the written and printed in 1812.

ron on the day alluded to. after arise between any Hamiltonian and his French Hours of Idleness, and I trans- The ocension of this poem was

And another on his send- Mr. Hobhouse Lever wrote cook, or restaurateur—the former maintaining that cimiet ferred a portion of my dislike the mutilation of the Parthe- ing me the congratulations of any such letter, nor Lord By.

non, which Lord Byron had the season, which ended in ron any such answer. neans only a crest, and the latter that it more properly to the country:

Mr. Medwin adds this note himself seen, and which, but some foolish way like this: denotes a rump, I recommend that rather than appeal to 'He wrote about this time not a dislike to Scotland, gave '" You may wish me returns the dictionary they should settle the matter by tossing up the Curse of, Minerva, in which birth to the Curse of Minerva.

of the season, for heads or tails. Mr. Hamilton triumphantly appeals he seems very closely to have

Let us prithee have none of

the day." '-p. 156. to the effects produced by his system, as a convincing followed Churchin. —p-77,78.

I afterwards established at This story was told in a "I might have claimed all Lord Byron could not ben proof of its excellence. Heaven forbid that I should the Abbey a new order. The magazine or newspaper of the the fortune

for my life, if I had claimed all Lord Wentworth's question their reality, particularly when so many respect members consisted of twelve, day, on some slight founda- chosen to have

done so,

but fortune for his life, at Lady able gentleman sigo testimonials, declaring that they are and I elected myself grand tion—but the details here put have agreed to leave the divi. Noel's death. He had before, perfectly satisfied with him and themselves. As I wish master, or abbot of the skull, into Lord Byron's mouth are sion of it to Lord Dacre and at his separation from Lady to part from a gentleman who has given me so many new

a grand heraldic title. A set all untrue. Lord Byron did Sir F. Burdett."-p 162. Byron, agreed to a division of of black gowns, mine distin- not establish the order, or

What was referred to Sir ideas on terms of perfect civility and good humour, 1 suished from the rest, was or- ever call himself abbot of the

F. Burdett and Lord Dacre, hope Mr. H. will allow me also to bear my humble tes- dered, and from time to time, skull—they were not twelve

was, how the property should

be divided. simony to the real merits of his system with this unequi- when a particular hard day or indeed any regularly-named Focal declaration (which I request you will put in capitals held; the crane was filled with dresses were sent from a mas- Mr. Medwin in his own person

The truth has been already for the sake of greater emphasis)that I believe every claret, and, in imitation of the querade warehouse, but not

• I afterwards had reason to discovered respecting this odo thing which has been said of its intrinsic excellence, cer- Goths of old, passed about to black-no chapter was held or think that the ode was Lord on the death of Sir Jobn tainty, and wonderful effects, TO BE AS TRUE AS IF the gods of the consistory, talked of the dresses were Byron's; that he was piqued Moore, and those who knew Ma. GULLIVER HIMSELF HAD SPOKEN IT.-I re

whilst mauy a prime joke was never put on more than once at none of his own being men- Lord Byron will appreciate the nain, Sir, yours, most respectfully,

cut at its expense.--pp. 88, 89. or twice--and many a prime tioned, and after he had praised vulgar speculation as to the

joke was not cut at the ex- the verses so highly, could not reason of his concealing hala Preston, January 24, 1825. VERBEIENSIS.

pense of the skull.

own them," pp. 167, 168. being the author of the power

Those who knew Lord By. The utnity of this knowledge may be Illustrated by the

ton will detect at once the Mr. MEDWIN'S LORD BYRON edoving story:-A friend of mine who was resident in Paris

vulgarisins of the pretended

says, In the year 1816, happened to meet with a fashionable young

conversation. The story, as • Murray published a letter Englishman, who was making a short tour in France, in com

dressed up for sale, is a fiction. I wrote to him from Venice, any with his sister. The young gentleman being asked

*An order was issued at Za- A long circumstantial story which might have seemed an How he liked France," replied, “So well, that I shall be nina by its sanguinary Rajah, is here told by the pretended idle display of vanity; but the martily glad to leave it.” “Perhaps (said my friend) you are

that, &c. p. 119.

Lord Byron, which is detected object of my writing it was, ot famillar with the language.” “No, faith; nor shall I take

at once by one word. The real to contradict what Turner he trouble to learn it." “But how do you manage to get

Lord Byron could never have had asserted, about the impos long without it?" "Why, my sister Bess professes to act as

talked of the Rajah of Zanina sibility of crossing the Helles. terpreter; but though she pretends to feel an enthusiastic

(Joannina.) In Hindostan a pont from the Abydos to the Imiration for French literature, and talks a great deal about

Rajah is a prince, in Euro Sestos side, in consequence of Lord Byron did not do both se besuties of Racine, I suspect that she does not know much

pean Turkey a rayah is a tri- che tide. One is as easy as the he only swam from the Seston vore about the matter than myself. We were dining the

butary subject. Those in other; we did both.'--Pp. 168, to the Abydos side. ther day at a restaurateur's, and I desired Bess to inquire if

deed, acquainted with Lord 169.
Byron's style of conversation,

• We were to have under. re could have a dish of rump steaks; but the device a bit could

Lord Byron and Mr. Ekce hemake them comprebend about rump steaks-except by pam

would, without this silly blun. taken this feat some time be head did undertake this feat der, defect the imposition at fore, but put it off in conse- some time before they did

quence of the coldness of the not "put it oft" in consequenca When I was at Athens, This story immediately fol-water.'-p. 170.

of the coldness of the water (VAOM A MORNING PAPER) there was an edict in force si- lows the other, and is got up

they gave it up in eonsequence milar to that of Ali's, except with similar accuracy;

of the coldness of the water, that the mode of punishment other contradiction is neces

when about half over the WBSTMINSTER REVIEW, NO. V. AND was different; it was neces- sary than to mention, that the

sary therefore that all love girl whose life Lord Byron

(To be concinded in our next.)
affairs should be carried on saved at Athens was not an I am corroborated in this vpinion lately by a lady, whose
[Continued from our last.]

with the greatest privacy. I object of his Lordship’s attach- brother received them many years ago from Lord Byron, in was very fond at that time of a ment-but of that of his Lord. his own hand-writing.

Turkish girl_ay, fond of her ship's Turkish servant.

The Fact.
as I have been of few women.'

The Housewife.
The Reaminer was the The Examiner was not the pp. 121, 122.
y paper that dared way a only paper that defended Lord "The severest fever I ever Lord Byron left Fletcher at

Housekeeping and husbandry, if it be good,

Must love one another as cousins in blood : la soy'defence.

Byron. The Morning Chroni. had was at Patras; I had left Athens, and not at Constanti- The trife, too, must husband as well as the man, cle was a zealous advocate of Fletcher at Constantinople, nople.

Or farewel thy husbandry, do what thou can." his Lordship; and Mr. Perry, convalscent, but unable to

Food and Physico-If you have a severe cold, and are the editor, had a personal alter-move through weakness,' &c.

very hoarse, have some water-gruel prepared in the or. cation with Sir R. Noel on the My real Vampyre I gave at The conversation said. to dinary way--(if you are ignorant how to make it, ask any subject.

the end of Mazeppa, some have been held at Diodati is old woman)when nearly ready, slice in two or three tona moj ulie's portion to This is altogether contrary thing in the same way that I fictitous. With the exception good onions; simmer it again for twenty minutes; pour and I was determined to the fact, as those who wit- told it one night at Diodati, of Mr. Lewis, no one told a

it out; put in a lump of butter, with pepper and salt, and M £10,000 more of my nessed the deed of separation when Monk Lewisand Shelley tale, and Mrs. Shelley never mto it, wbleh I did'-p. 64 between Lord and Lady Byron and his wife were present. saw the late Mr. Lewis in her the next morning, if you are not quite well, you will be

eat it (with bread if you are hungry) go to bed soon after : can testify.

The latter sketched on that life. The Preface to Franken. much improved, and willing to try a second dose, which Tlout my father when I was Lord Byron was born in Ja- occasion the outline of her stein shows that that story will certainly effect a cure.-Economist. 1 years of age' p. 72. quary, 1788, and hisfather died Pygmalion story, the modern was invented before Lord By. In August, 1791; so that Lord Prometheus.'-p. 149. ron's and Mr. Shelley's tour on

Breakfast for Consumptive Patients. Those of a spare Byron was only three years

the Lake, and Mr. Lewis did habit, and disposed towards affections of the lungs, should and a half old when his father

not arrive at Diodati till some breakfast on the following: -Boil a dessert spoonful of dled.

time after.

ground coffee in a pint of milk, a quarter of an hour; In rury different from Mrs. Malaprop's words are • The Italians think the Peter Count Gamba did no then put into it a shaving or two of isinglass, and clear it; Maloprop's saying. "Ah, very different; and Lord Byron dropping of oil very unlucky. such thing.

let it boil a few minutes, and set it on the side of the fire dear Mr. Malaprop, I was sjagularly accurate as well Pietro (Count Gamba) dropt

to fine, sweetened with sugar. er loved him will be was as apposite in his quotations. some the night before his ex

for Chilblains.- Prick the

part affected, and squeeze The pretended conversation ile, and that of his family

out the blood at that period when the flesh is much in makes him gelther one nor the from Ravenna. - p. 152.

flamed, and feels more solid than usual. It is necessary other.

"I will give you a specimen Mr. Hobhousewas with Lord to make an incission in every inch of the sore. Chilblains Bero cut three fortunes, Lord Byron's father did not of some epigrams I am in the Byron on his wedding-day: are first caused by the blood congealing, and, consequently, marted or no way with run out three fortunes, nor habit of sending Hobhouse, to his Lordship could not write as soon as it is evacuated, a cure is effected. By this easy party or run away with three whom I wrote on my first to him on that day. This ac- remedy, I have cured both my hands and feet when they

wedding-dayi'dcap. 165. Hon In the more unlucky, we have been much swollen.-- Correspondent.



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