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Literary and Scientific stirror.

OR,

- UTILE DULCI."

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- Vol.

BY M. ALEX. P.

LETTERS

ples, and more than four distant from the sea. The foot twenty-nine years, it again began to burn in 1660, and ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE. of the mountain borders the coast, and its inclination is entirely filled with lava the immense cavity formed in

so gradual as far as the first plain, that it may easily be | 1631, within which, after several smaller eruptions, a new

ascended on horseback up to that point. This plain is mountain arose in 1685. La legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne nearly circular, and is about six miles in diameter; its

In 1707, all the inhabitants of the country around, and souere que des ruines.- Paris: printed, 1824.

perpendicular height above the level of the sea is half a of the city of Naples, were thrown into alarm by frequent Translated expressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French work. mile. Thence rises another mountain, called, in the explosions and concussions, and by the fire which again

country, Monte-Vecchio, of an irregular shape, and about burst forth from the summit of the mountain. An enorLETTER YL-CONTINUATION OF VOLCANOES.

four hundred paces in perpendicular beight. Its summit mous quantity of ashes, violently ejected from the crater, NEW ISLAND, WHICH ROSE FROM THE SEA NEAR

is hardly two miles in circumference, and was, before the filled all the atmosphere, and darkened the sun, during a TERCER.I, IN 1720.

year 1631, hollowed out in the form of a basin ; it was whole day. Fortunately, these frightful appearances were

surrounded by old oaks, and enormous chesnut-trets, followed by no fatal effects, and the mountain again be. [Account given by Mr. The Forster.)

whose fruits afforded nourishment to a large number of came tranquil. Joho Robinson, Captain of a small New England snow, cattle; there was, at the bottom of it, a carern, into which

In 1724 the quantity of ashes and stones thrown from artired at Tercera, on the 10th of December, 1720. He it was possible to descend more than two hundred paces, the mountain was so great, that it filled all the space besaw fire issuing from the sea, near that island. The go- although with some difficulty. This aperture was consi- cween the old and the new mountain. fernor prevailed on him to approach it with his vessel, dered as the ancient crater, which, during a long time,

In 1730 there was a new eruption of Vesuvius, which, od sent on board sixteen sailors, and two priests. The had ejected a prodigious quantity of bituminous matter, though inconsiderable, compared with the last, gave rise Sllowing is his own relation of what he saw: and laid waste a considerable part of the surrounding

to much apprehension. On Sunday, the 18th of December, we set sail at mid-country. sight, and stood to the south-east of Angra ; the follow- The eruptions which have taken place before the pre- tain was never tranquil: sometimes it ejected smoke, at

During the month of May of this year, 1737, the mounng day, at two o'clock in the afternoon, we approached sent time, may be divided into ancient and modern. Be others, burning stones, which fell upon its surfaces From n island, entirely composed of fire and smoke. We con- rosus, Polybius, Strabo, Diodorus, and Vitruvius, have the 16th to the 19th, hollow, subterranean sounds were nued our course towards it, until the ashes fell upon our mentioned some of the first. Vesuvius, under the reign eck, like hail or snow, which they continued to do all is of Trajan, became famous by the death of Pliny: there

continually heard. sight . We then stood out to sea; noises like thunder, or no doubt that eruptions were less frequent from that me

On the 19th, the summit of the mountain was involved peaks of cannon, proceeded from the fire and smoke. At morable period till the year 1139, when, after a considers in thick black clouds, and fire was seen to issue from it. lay-break we again sailed towards the island, and at noon able eruption, Vesuvius became tranquil,

and remained on the same day, noises, like the roaring of thunder, were Tere sufficiently within view of it to observe it, being only so during nearly five centuries. This long interval of heard to proceed from it, which continued to become more poleagues to the south of it. We sailed round it, and repose effaced the remembrance of former disasters: the frequent towards evening, and in the course of the night. pproached so near, that we narrowly escaped being in- inhabitants of the neighbourhood flattered themselves. The mountain then discharged a very thick smoke, intersred by the fire and matter ejected from it. We were that the inflammable matter was exhausted, and cultivated mixed with ashes and stones, and the adjacent country

apprehensive lest we should be thrown upon the all the surrounding land, which, by its fertility, became was agitated by some slight concussions. last; but a south-east wind, which rose whilst we were the garden of the country. But, in the course of time,

On Monday the 20th, at nine o'clock in the morning, Lat prayers, delivered us from danger. The breeze was they were deceived in their hopes. In 1631, during six the mountain experienced so violent an explosion, that the companied by a slight shower, which caused a great months, continual roarings were heard to proceed from shock was perceptible to the distance of more than twelve al of dust to fall upon our deck. We took advantage the mountain, and several earthquakes were experienced. miles round. A black smoke, accompanied with eshes, the wind to return to Tercera.

In December there was a terrible eruption of fire, which, rose suddenly into the air, and assumed the form of seveThe governor informed us that the fire had exploded on at first, caused to explode a part of the mountain. Water, ral vast undulating globes, which dilated in proportion as e 20th of November, 1720, in the night-time, and that cinders, stones, and fire, were afterwards ejected from the they became more distant from the crater. The exploefrightful noise which it occasioned caused the earth to crater, and the lava overflowed a space of country, extend-sions continued to be very violent and frequent all day, mble, and overturned several houses in the town of ing nearly to the sea side, of more than seven miles in and stones of an enormous size were thrown to the height igra, and its neighbourhood, to the great consternation breadth, and caused to perish above four thousand per- of e mile, in the midst of clouds of smoke and ashes. the inbabitants. Prodigious quantities of pumice stones sons.

At eight o'clock in the evening, whilst the concussions He found at the distance of several leagues round the

The mountain, after this eruption, was much less ele. and dreadful roarings continued, a new chasm was opened land, and fishes, half broiled, were seen floating on the vated than before. Having remained undisturbed during in the mountain, upon the first plain, at a mile's distance a, with flocks of birds, gathered round them, to feed

from the summit, and there issued from it a vast torrent on them. This new island is nearly round, and is

• The reader may judge of the violence of this eruption by of fire; from that moment, all the southern part of the But two leagues in diameter. Its latitude is 38 degrees the following account, which I have taken from No. 21 of the mountain appeared to be involved in flames. The torrent minutes, and its longitude 26 degrees 33 minutes (me- Philosophical Transactions, for the year 1666. It was com- flowed into the plain below, which is more than a mile žan of London.) A person of my acquaintance, passing from Cadiz to towards six o'clock in the evening, a shower of sand and extended nearly a mile further, and at four o'clock in the

1631, being at anchor in the gulf of Valo, in the Archipelago, long, and nearly four miles broad. Soon afterwards. it ndon towards the end of April 1721, told me that he ashes began to descend upon us, and continued to do so till morning reached the extremity of the plain, and the foot I found the sea covered with pumice stones, from Cape two o'clock in the morning. The deck was then covered with of the small elevation on the southern declivity of the zister nearly to the entrance of the Channel; he gave

layer two inches thick; we scraped it away with shovels, mountain. But, as these eminences are composed of

the way in which we had, the day before, removed the snow; some, which he had gathered.

there was no wind at the time that these ashes fell

. A shower steep rocks, the greatest part of the torrent flowed into the

of the same description was also poured down upon some spaces between them, traversed two small valleys, and fell, ERUPTION OF MOUNT VESUVIUS IN 1737. vessels, then at five leagues' distance from us, which were in two streams, into the other plain which forms the base

coming from Saint Jean d'Acre to our port. We compared of the mountain. After having been again united here, it ticuları given by the Prince Cassano, a member of the Royal the ashes that fell in these different places, and they were of divided itself into four branches, one of which stopped in Society in London; extracted from the Philosophical Trans- the same nature. kelions.]

N. B. This rain of ashes įproceeded from the eruption of the middle of the road leading to Torre del Greco, at the Mount Vesuvius is about seven miles distant from Na. Vesuvius, mentioned above

distance of a mile and a half from that village; the second

flowed into a large valley; the third continued its course human observation ; and I am satisfied that the day will on the Rock of Ages, whose unerring wisdom is surely a as far as Torre del Greco, which stands near the sea coast; come when the punishment of death will be generally better guide than our own understandings ! Expediene: and the fourth to a place at a short distance from the new deemed an unwarrantable and presumptuous interference is it not a distrust of Providence ? a paltry subtenint crater. with the prerogative of the Creator.

in place of truth ? a doing

of evil that good may come The torrent, which flowed through the valley, arrived The consideration of the leading features of human doctrine of expediency.

Small indeed must be the faith of those who uphold & at the space of ground between the church of the Carmel. policy, the institutions or customs of a country, must be If in a school, where many children are gathered togs ites and that of the Souls in Purgatory, at four o'clock in pressed upon us; for what inducement could we have to ther, and they, heing under the control of the master, rock the morning. The matter com sing fit had the consist- call in question the propriety of those things which have been amongst themselves, and go so far as to expel a ency of melted lead, and its progress was at the rate of been sanctioned

by the whole world, backed by the weight master ? or can they plead expediency on their behalt four miles an hour. This degree of velocity was extraor- of antiquity, and consolidated by the lapse of ages? it A master is supposed to have undoubted rule and cogli. dinary, since it was thought-surprising, that in the erup- may seem a bold speculation to set aside those circum- zance of all within his school, and never delegates the tion of 1618, the lava had advanced sixty paces in an hour. stances, but it is necessary, and will be advantageous to power of expulsion to the hands or the judgmeet old

The torrent, which flowed behind the convent of the seek the naked truth; for truth, ultimately, is always con- pupils. But, oh! how immeasurable is the distance be Carmelites, entered the church, after having set fire to the sistent with the happiness and well-being of society. It He, more than master, seeing all that ever partes amanga small door; it also penetrated through the windows of the will be acknowledged, that in a Christian community, the us, and as no crime can be hidden, so noge tun escape vestry, and of two other apartments: it burned the win-foundation of all law ought to be the will of God,* as ma- punishment. dows of the refectory; and the glass vessels upon the ta. nifested in the institutions of the gospel. Had Christian

I have not attempted to extenuate the deep antity of bles were reduced to paste, by the violence of the fire. legislators sufficiently considered this, and disregarded the murder, nor do I even say that a murderer is to deserving Sixteen days afterwards, the lava was still warm and very miserable doctrine of expediency, laws, and with them, against God and against society; and while the late sa hard ; it was, however, found possible to break it. the people, would have been greatly exalted, and different justly confine and punish with bonds, it is of eternal in

A bit of glass, fixed at the end of a stick, and placed in many respects from what we find them; but what portance that that time, wherein his peace with God sa near this matter, was reduced to paste in four minutes; could be expected when the mental darkness in which the be made, should not be shortened by his fellow man.al under the mass of the torrent, frequent rumblings were world was involved was such, that Christians could not ment of death is too awful to be lodged in the katse heard, which made the church tremble. There were, upon agree which was that course wherein the way faring man, man, and that the extinction of life belongs exclusidye its surface, several small crevices, through which issued a though a fool, should not err?” As knowledge, begun in Him who gave it. smoke, that diffused an odour like that of sulphur mixed early life by education, and enlarged afterwards by cultiwith sea water, and the stones around were covered with vation and literature, gains a more extended footing, it

Scientific Records. saline sublimations. Pieces of iron, introduced in these chases the darkness, the superstition, the ignorance, the clefts, were drawn out damp; but paper, placed there, prejudices of past ages, progressively away: imbued with NEWLY-DISCOVERED ISLAND. seemed to become hard and dry.

knowledge, the mind comes to the search of hidden truths Al the same time that the new crater was opened, with the best of all concomitantslight. This light, we New island in the Southern Ocean, from the last

We copy the following account of the discovery that at the summit emitted a vast quantity of burning have reason to believe, is steadily advancing among the received from New South Wales. The merit of die matter, which, dividing itself into several torrents and whole human race: in our own government it is exempli- covery rests with Captain Hunter, of the Donna currents, directed its course, partly towards Salvadora, fied by those liberal views which have lately obtained, and and from the logbook of that ship we copy the and partly towards Ottajano. Burning stones, involved have given such satisfaction, perhaps, in degree, as an interesting account: in clouds of thick smoke, were also ejected from the top of earnest of better things; nor is it less apparent else At 11h. 30m. p. m. saw the land bearing s.wb

July 29.--Fine clear weather, carrying all possiblemi the mountain ; this phenomenon was accompanied by fie- where ;--but this is digressive. Our inquiry is into the distance six miles ; up courses and shortened rail quent peals of thunder, and flashes of lightning.

propriety of capital punishment among a Christian peopie, top-sails, and stood towards it at daylight; fresh breke The eruption of burning matter lasted till the following and to grapple effectually with the matter, let us suppose the land discovered proved to be an island, Ate Tuesday; upon that day it was discontinued, and the a case, whose bearings shall comprise the question. p. m. close in under the lee of it, observed a number of thunder and lightning ceased ; but a south-west wind be- If, in wandering through some solitary path, I meet a ing canoes to leeward, which were flying for the

with all possible despatch : bore down and interopiel gan to blow with violence, and transported the ashes in man who is a robber and a murderer, no matter whether he of them with a great deal of persuasion got one e great quantities to the extremites of the kingdom. In be the most ignorant and brutal character, or whether he people to come on board, when I presented him vi some places they were very fine, in others, as coarse as moves in a more respectable rank; immaterial is it whe-hatchet and a piece of white cloth, which pleased gravel. Showers, not only of ashes, but of pumice stones, ther his motives be revengeful or mercenary,–my death much, as he showed it to all the canoes about the ship and stones of other kinds, were experienced in the neigh-is inevitable, unless, in this dilemma, by anticipating his chief came on board, and on my making signs tha bourhood of Vesuvius. design, I inflict on him the fate he had intended for me. wanted refreshments, he sent all the

canoes on shore, The fury of the volcano was somewhat appeased on Now, I confess, I dare not preserve life by this alter- staid himself on board with a few others. Tuesday evening; on the following Sunday, the flames native. There are many, no doubt, who would urge, that At 11, so close in shore, armed and manned the were hardly visible at the upper crater , and on Monday self-preservation is the first law of nature; that necessity and our friend the chief, keeping another on board

and despatched her on shore in charge of the first di there was nothing to be seen there but smoke and ashes. has no law, and so forth; good reasons, so far as they go, hostage. It began to rain abundantly on that day, and continued but not sufficient. Be it remembered, that among Chris

At one, p. m. che canoes returned from shore, to do so during Tuesday, and several days following. tians, the preservation of the soul is a superior object to number of thirty, laden with hogs, yams, plantaitis, The eruptions have always been succeeded by rains. the preservation of self, and the disobedience of one does and traded with the greatest bonesty for iron hoops, ce The damage occasioned in the neighbourhood by this not suspend the obligation of another to the Divine

com- often got their canoes overturned, but it never inae

&c. They seemed to be very expert swimmer, eruption of fire and ashes is incredible.

At Ottajano, mand" Thou shalt not kill.” He who looketh on all them, for they soon put them to rights. They are situated at four or five miles' distance from Vesuvius, the with an equal eye, hath taught that it is better to suffer than the colour of Malays, but have more of the ground was covered with a layer of ashes, four palms in to inflict evil; and surely the untimely death of a mur- features. The canoes are very handsome, norme thickness. All the trees were burnt, the inhabitants were derer must be a sore evil. Does the reader believe, then, of Ceylon, and ornamented with shells. thrown into the utmost terror and consternation, and that any thing could justify him in taking the life of a

At four p. m. the cutter returned from the shared many houses fell under the weight of ashes and stones. fellow-creature, short of a Divine command or permis- pical fruits of all kinds.

on board twelve hogs, a great, quantity of yamus ut sion? which he will find difficult to produce from the The following is the chief officer's report of the Le The Philanthropist. words or tenor of the gospel: if not, it must follow, that of Onacuse, or Hunter's Island :

in our religion there is no such thing as justifiable homi- At one p. m. got close in shore ; the native desin LETTERS OF A LITERARY DEVOTEE. cide, nor any authority from the great Author of life for not to pull in shore, when we observed a great and capital punishment. It will not avail to say that the exe- being pretty high, we landed opposite the people

of people assembled on a bluff point of land. The No. II.-ON CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.

cution of one criminal may possibly save the life not only native in the cutter pointed out the King (Fuuafoca.)

of one, but the lives of an indefinite number of innocent the monarch, with his attendants, came round, and “Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord."

persons, which, if ever it does, though very doubtful, does himself close to the boat, when the native desired After a long interval, I again find opportunity to volun- not touch on the propriety of the thing itself; other means, walk towards the King. I thought it best to go unatim

:: teer a few thoughts on this momentous topic. The casual

, less sanguinary, might be quite as efficacious : nor do I of them were armed with clubs, with short round the slight, but serious communications of individuals, and see how the present penal system can be prevented from and some with spears, from twenty-four to foriy feet le the agitation in converse, may at length lead to the re- grounding on the doctrine of expedienc: Oh, the shift. and a few were much longer. A great many wom cognition by governments of a great moral truth, long ing sands of expediency ! how abhorcënt to the unchange- numbers of whom carried two spears, were present hidden under the mass of ignorance and prejudice, a truth able spirit of truth! how alien to .nat humble dependence my obeisance, presented him with a white shirt,

pettin among the many which time more and more unfolds to

* See Paey.

on him. I likewise gave the same to his brother: 22. INTRO

MECHANICAL PARADOX.

TO THE EDITOR.

b

b

R

semed highly pleased, and in return made a present of a si l'on vient à augmenter l'une de ces deux forces, Imaginons pg, a basket of yams, and bananahs and cocoa nuts. qu'on augmente la puissance ; le mouvement naitra peu à fter sitting some time, I made the King a present of a peu, et s'accélérera par degrès, Cette accélération durera voking-glass, which seemed to surprise them greatly: tant que la puissance sera plus forte que la resistance. Mais

SIR,— I now I went from the King to the Queen, and from her all si, par qnelque cause que ce soit, la puissance vient à dimi

proceed to redeem my dund, every one taking a look at it, and then touching nuer, ou que la puissance, demeurant la méme, la resistance promise of giving a more

2 he crown of their heads with it; and the same ceremony vienne à augmenter, l'accélération diminuera; et lorsque la

general demonstration as performed with every little present made them. The puissance et la resistance auront les valeurs simplement of the principles by which ing took a shell from his neck, and gave it me; I then requises pour l'équilibre, le mouvement deviendra uniforme;

locomotive engines are ade signs if there was any water to be had; they said 11 demeurera tel en vertu de l'inertie de la matière ; la puis- governed. Let c be the outor, and pointed among the hills. I expressed a

sance ne fera plus à chaque instant que combattre les coups common centre of the ish to go and see the watering-place; the King got up sans cesse renaissans de la resistance."--See Considerations wheel and crank, CQ the

м) d desired me to follow, with our friend the native. I mathematiques et plıysiques sur les Machines en mouvement.

crank, C F & radius of ck the carpenter and four men armed, in case of acci. The following is from Art. 907, Maclaurin's Fluxions :

the wheel, F L a portion NL The King had gone by a shorter route over the

"In any engine, the proportion of the power to the weight, of the rail, QM I a line 11; however, I soon found it was not the watering-place when the balance each other, is found by supposing the en

perpendicular tothe rails ley rere taking us to, for we found ourselves on the gine to move, and reducing their velocities to the respective then Q CF may be conach, not far from the boat, in a kind or cone, with

a directions in which they act; for the inverse ratio of those sidered as a lever kept at Moth beach, where we saw his Majesty seated with all velocities is that of the power to the weight, according to rest by three forces, viz. attendants

, and I was requested to sit down opposite the general principles of mechanics. But it is bluse tooden by the pressure of the steam acting in the direction @ ML, ki markedet into apartments by rows of stones. The other, that, when the power prevails,

and the engine isnies friction of the rail at F; hence the lever C F L may be subromen were ordered on one side, but only for a short motion, it may produce the greatest effect in a given time stituted for it; and, since the forces are in equilibrium,

CF ime, when they al crowded round us, and were particu. When the power prevails, the weight moves at first with an is to F L as the pressure to the power of traction. The same u in looking at our shoes and buttons, but were very invariable, its action upon the weight decreases, while the tuting the lever MCF for QC F; in which case, the power

accelerated motion; and, when the velocity of the power is proportion may be obtained in another manner, by substiisil. Shortly after the King's mother came down, an velocity of the weight increases. Thus the action of a UK thirty, his Quern about cwenty, stout and good from the excess of the velocity of the fluid above the velocity by the

friction on the rail, the power of traction will be equal lderly woman, about fifty, the King himself seemed stream of water or air upon a wheel is to be estimated at Q will be to its effect upon the rail at F round as C F to

CM; but, since the carriage is entirely drawn or impelled sking, and was the only one that had part of her bosom of the part of the engine which its strikes, or their relative to the force exerted on the rail. A third mode of considering vered. She was a very fine figure, her teeth perfectly velocity only. The motion of the engine ceases to be acceen, and very clean. All the women and men had their lerated when the relative velocity is so fu diminished, that drawn by a rope wound round the wheel, when it is evident

the question is, to suppose C fixed, and the weight to be dle fingers cut off by the second joint on the left hand, the action of the power becomes equal to the resistance of that the forces are in the proportion above determined ; d the women had their cheek bones perforated, and the the engine, arising from the gravity of the matter that is but, since action and re-action are equal

, and in opposite Dod smeared round about an inch. Some of them were elevated by it, and from friction ; for when these balance directions, it must be the same thing whether C or F be Looed with a red colour, especially in their arms, mostly each other, the engine proceeds with the uniform motion fixed. Now, C M and FL are equal to the sine of A a. Let circles about an inch round; they were uncommonly it has acquired." 1, and did not seem at all bashful. The signal being What A. B. T. bas advanced about the crank is not com

CH, CF=b, P=the power of the piston, R=the resistde from the ship for us, I expressed a vish to go on prehensible by me; his reasoning is a little too fine. My v=the velocity, S=the space described, c=3,14169; then

ance, X=A CQ, W=the weight of the engine and waggons, ord, and luis Majesty expressed a wish to gofalso, which, opinion is, that the theorens and tables

, in Ms. Silvester's ne vould not take canges to bring bim back, I declined. report, are TAUB; that they are founded on scientific princi- the power of traction_P.a. sin. X. in a ram and an ewe with the King, for the benefit of ples; and that they will ultimately be found to agree with ure navigators, and made signs to the natives not to kill experiment, which is the true test of every theory, that ever the moving force_P.a. sinx R m. The women were all naked, excepting a small has, or ever will be, advanced.--Yours, very respectfully, ering round the body; and the men mostly wore a kind

А в с.

and, since P and R are without inertia, nat round their bodies, with leaves of trees woven into m, like a Highlander's kilt. The island was entirely

the accelerating force P. a. sin x posed of lava, in some places almost a metal. It lies

TO THE EDITOR

bW

also the fuxion of the space described=bx flux; but the the lat of 15. 31. S. and long. 176. 11. E. by sun and SIA. Your correspondent, C. C. E. has accounted for the

fluxion of Vv=the force into the fluxion of the space you, brought up by chronometer for four days previous. origin of the singular mistakes, into which the author of

P. a. sin x. xf the report has fallen, in a manner, which, however speci.

ous it may be, altogether fails to remove them. A stronger MECHANICAL PARADOX.

instance could hardly be produced of the truth of the observa- taking the fluents VV=P.

tion, that it is unwise even in the most skilful mathematician TO THE EDITOR.

to rely wholly upon calculations without a reference to expe- which taken between the limits of x=0 and X="ne, boYour correspondent A. B. T. still contends the riment and analogy. The consideration, that the results are

comes V V force of steam, on the piston of a steam-engine, is totally repugnant to the known laws of mechanics, ought to

_4n Pa

2n Rbc 3 constant force. He has indeed partly agreed that it is have induced a suspicion that the reasoning was incorrect. If there be another piston, with a crank acting at right angles bat there are extreme cases, he thinks, where that theory The notion of the sum

of the sines appears to have been borIn all practical cases, it is true; the limits 1 pointed rowed from the theory of the overshot water-wheel, which is tween the same limits, will be of the same value; and, there

to the former, its force=P. cos x, the fluent of which, be In my last remarks on this subject. Mechanics (nay even in no way applicable to the crank; the power is there equally fore, if P be now put for

the pressure on both pistons, the LT.) assert that the pressure upon the piston is a certain and constantly diffused over the semi-circumference of the expression need not be altered. ther of pounds (as 10, for instance) on a square inch, and wheel; whereas in the steam-engine, the expenditure of this power produces a certain effect. If we be allowed power is in proportion to the verse sine of the arc described sistance and power of traction are equal,

When there is no acceleration of velocity, or when the re19 that the force of the steam, acting upon the piston, is by the crank. The manner in which the lever is supposed to valent to a weight of 101b. on a square inch, do we not act is equally erroneous, though the true explanation is not

20 Rb c a by the expression that the piston is constantly and uni. quite obvious, and will require some illustration.

W
Wypressed with a force of 10lb. on a square inch, and that
The demonstration formerly given was adopted on account

2 Pa this pressure wbich moves the machine? If not, what of its simplicity; a method more general and comprehensive,

Or, 2 Pa=Rbe and R= = the traction T.

be emean? It may be argued, perhaps, that the velocity though not

more correct, shall be prepared for the Kaleido e piston is not uniform, throughout the whole

of a single scope; in the mean time let us inquire what are the true ex. if p be the pressure on the square inch, and d the diameter o te ; but the mean force surely remains the same, and, if pressions for the time and velocity. For this purpose let T =

cdd

the pistons, the area of each = and P the pressure on stean be kept at the same temperature, the force pro- the power of traction, as before determined, which, till a cerang each succeeding stroke will be the same. tain velocity has been obtained, will be a constant force,

pedd A that moves a steam-carriage is a constant force; and I w=the weight, R=the resistance of the inclined plane and

2 no need to argue with so able a philosopher as 4. B. T. the friction, v=the velocity, t=the time, and S=the povince him that a constant force, in every case, produces

padd

the same expression as was obtained

b telerated motion. This is the point on which the dis- space; then T-R=the moving force, and since both T and whence T =

T-R hinges; and when it is once shown that the force which Rare without inertia will be the accelerating force; in a former letter by a different proeess. Ps a steam-carriage is a constant force, the dispute is at an

T-R

But since 2 Pa=bCT, and 2 bc=S, and the theory advanced by A. B. T. is, in that case, therefore V= 32 Tw t and VV=64

T-R. S

we have VV = ssarily erroneous. Let us suppose, for an instant, that oree is not constant; and, first, let it decrease uniformly; Ex.-Let W=64,000 fb. T=500 Tb. and R=400 lb. then is case, as there is a constant opposing force, arising from T-R= 100 fb. V=1-20 t, and VV= 1-10 s. If t=3 mi. To express the velocity in feet per second, we must multiply

T-R On and the weight to be moved, would not the engine nutess, V=9 feet in one second, which is sbout six miles an continually slower, and at length stop) on the con bour, and S=10, V V=810 feet = 270 yards in 3 minutes. by 84}, when we have VV=845 if the power increased uniformly, the carriage would From the expression, it would appear, that the velocity inbe made to move uniformly. But the carriage, after a creases as the time, but then it is derived

from the supposition, In the same manner we may obtain

V=327

T-R
Short period, does move uniformly; therefore, the force, that T is a constant force. It has been abundantly shown,
Boving power, is constant. The following elucidation is that as soon as the steam is drawn off faster, than the fire can

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These expressions are obtained upon the supposition that 2 Bossut:-"Supposons donc qu'on ait calculé l'equilibre supply it of the same power, T will be diminished; when it

P is a constant force; ultimately, it will vary inversely as the le machine, c'est-à-dire, la proportion qui doit se trouver becomes only 400 tb. or equal to R, the acceleration will cease,

velocity, when the integration would be more difficult. e la puissance et la resistance, pour que la machine, and the motion will become uniform...Yours, &c.

Yours, &c.

A, B. T. lellement en repos, soit préte à prendre du mouvement,

A.B.T.

America, then thy flag shall be seen

gested. This is, to employ the new patent slip, on which Proudly floating o'er Ardwick-green;

å vessel being floated, may be dragged on shore high mi And the Infirmary pool shall be

dry, to be repaired. This will supersede the canal, as he Crowded with barques from the Zuyder Zee; And Manchester swell with portly pride,

merchant ships, on arriving at the mouth of the Dee, vi

be passed into the patent slip, and dragged on shore, whe While Liverpool mourns her forsaken tide.

the aforesaid slip, ship, cargo, and crew, being yoked to 2 But while the ass on the land shall bray,

steam engine of five hundred horses' power, by means And while in the sea the dolphin play,

a rail road, will scamper from the Dee to the northern
And while the whale shall contented keep
Poetry.

porium, in two hours, more or less.
Where he is placed in his native deep,
May Manchester keep to the jenny and mule,
And not be attempting to play the fool-

Shipped, (by the power of Steam) in good code
MARY'S GRAVE.
She's in her right place with her cotton skips,

and condition, by Simon Simple, Lilliput, Ass, f Ca. in And let Liverpool boast of her docks and her ships. and upon the good Ship called the Whale and Levistkaa, Maidens, haste, and o'er her strew

BOW-WOW. whereof John Miracle Brobdignag is master, for this pre Roses fresh, and hare bells blue;

sent voyage, now riding at anchor on Kersall Macr Dry Haste, each opening flow'ret seek,

PORT OF MANCHESTER.

Dock, in the port of Manchester, and bound fer Uapa, Funeral blossom, fair and meek;

One Street, consisting of 30 Cotton Factories, and contain Violet of the lowly vale, “There happening throughout the whole kingdom of ing 200,000 Jennies, and 30,000 Men, Women

, and Chl. Bohemia to be no seaport town whatever."

dren, all marked with the small pox, which are to be deRosemary, and lily pale,

" How the deuce should there, Trim?", cried my uncle livered at the aforesaid port of Utopia, in like good ester Toby; " for Bohemia being totally inland, it could have and condition (the dangers of the seas, canals

, and pareg Myrtle leaf, of emerald hue,

happened no otherwise."
Starry jessamine, bright with dew,
It might," said Trim, “if it had pleased God."

tion, terrestrial or aërial, of whatsoever nature okida “I believe not,” replied my uncle Toby, after some pause; cepted) unto Mesers. Wildgoose, Ninoy, Eccentric, ki Ca Haste, and bring each “herb o grace,"

“for being inland, as I said,

Bohemia could
And strew o'er Mary's resting-place.
not have been propelled to the sea, without ceasing to be

or to their assigns, they paying freight for the said goods

, Bohemia; nor could the sea, on the other hand, have come at the rate of one pound per brick (Georgium Sidas Ca. Now the yelling storm is o'er,

up to Bohemia, without overflowing a great part of Germany, rency) with primage 130 per cent. ln witness thered Now despair can rend no more ;

and destroying millions of unfortunate inhabitants, who the master or purser of the said ship hath suburad be

could make no defence against it." Lover false, or friend unkind.

"Scandalous !” cried Trim.

Tristram Shandy.

one bill of lading, half of which being accomplished, the

other half to stand void ; and so good luck send the real Rack no more the tortur'd mind: Hail to the Fuzzies! in wisdom advancing,

ship to her desired port in safety. Dated in Manches, Now, oblivion's pallet prest,

Honour and praise to their Mars in the Chair;

this 1st April, 1826.
Now, the broken heart has rest,
Bless ev'ry bright thought from such crania glancing;

Contents too well known to
Past affliction's stormy hour,
Lord ! how they make the poor Dicky Sams stare:

JOHN MIRACLE BROBDIGNAG Past the tyrant's reign of power;

Cotton twist spinners,
Now the weeping captive free
Haste, swallow your dinners,

This day is published,
Then "stretch your long arms," dig a trench to the Dee:

VII. Holds eternal jubilee.

Canal undertakers,

taining Eleven Letters on the following sabien

Silk Dyers and Manufacturers, Tanners and Leather le Hark! for on the midnight air

Port drinkers, port makers,

ers-WindmillsOutlandish Names of Places, Wetto Sound celestial voices clear: Reap the fruits of your enterprise and industry.

Bidston Signals-Frauds-Relief of the Poor-Firmed

Police-Nuisances-Habitations for the Poor. Hark! for soft the strain, and bland,

Woe to old Liverpool ! woe to her riggers !
As minstrelsy of seraph band !
Woe to her fishwives, who "codling" do cry

ON SALE,
Woe to her warehouses ! woe to their jiggers !

Vol. I, II, III, IV, of the KALEIDOSCOPE, trith a ani "Tis attending legions fair,

Woe to her sailors, who shipless must die !

Index to each; Price, in boards, Sixteen Shillings; to wa

of all the Agents. Wafted on the viewless air;

Prince's and George's dock,

The following detached Publication may also be a "Tis an angel choir that sings,

Get you both round the rock;

the same publishers. Mark the waving of their wings; Open your gates to the “Ship Canal Co."

PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS upon the EDUCATION Custom-house officers,

the PEOPLE, addressed to the Working Classes and 'Tis immortal spirits blest,

If you're philosophers,

Employers, by HENRY BROUGHAM, Esq. M. P. F.RS

Sixpence. 'Tis the choir of heaven confest!

Haste ye to Manchester! “Europe's depôt !" Dry those tears, and still the sigh, “Northern metropolis !"_“Mighty emporium !"

The Beauties of Chess. Dazzling bright is yon blue sky:

Cast from your smoky phiz ominous frowns.
And in that pure realm of light,
Your sages are Nestors; we'll honour and glory 'em,

Ludimus effigiem belli"........... VIDA. Region of supreme delight,

If they but spare us—the humblest of towns.
Manchester Solomons,

SOLUTION TO GAME XXXII. There, within that glorious place,

Pity our hollow moans !

White.

Black. Purchase of redeeming grace, Fuz-Lords ! to us, Lords! oh, grant this short prayer :

1 Knight....E-6+

1 King ...... ELives the loved, the lost, and mourned,

Let your plans fade away!

2 Queen D_A+

2 Bishop .... Spotless bride for heaven adorned ;

Take not our trade away!

3 Castle .F-8+

3 Castle ....FRise nor press the dewy sod, Peterloo conquerors, list our despair!

4 Kuight....G_7+MATE.

ON .
Death has given her back to God!
Liverpool.
G.

(No. XXXIII.)
MANCHESTER VERSUS LIVERPOOL.

The white to move, and to give checkmate in fire THE MANCHESTER BUBBLE,

Since the grand project of Messrs. Moonshine and Written on reading in the newspapers that a project was on foot Company, to build one hundred cotton factories in Li.

Black. for converting Manchester into a seaport, by cutting a canal verpool, appeared in the Kaliedoscope, we have heard, from the Irish Sea, at the mouth of the Dec, direct to Man that in consequence of the probability that the project chester. will be realised, of which no reasonable doubt can be

8 г а н а 9 From the papers to-day,

entertained, the projected rail-road between Liverpool I perceive with dismay,

and Manchester must necessarily be abandoned, as alto. That our neighbours a project have hit on,

gether useless, when the home and foreign trade of the By which it is clear,

latter is annihilated. We have been told, but we That their town, in a year,

do not pledge ourselves to the fact, that proposals are Will become the “metropolis” of Britain

about to be made to an ingenious mechanic in the
These Lords of the shuttle,

United States, to come over to this country to assist
By a process most subtle,

in carrying this great scheme into execution. This mo-
dern Archimedes has hit upon a contrivance, whereby

O
A canal mean to cut from the ocean,
And the great Irish Sea

buildings of any size may be bodily removed from one
They'll "unite with the DEE,"
situation to another, without so much as displacing a

O
But it's Fiddle-de-Dee. I've a notion.

single brick. As it is presumed that the Manchester

cotton-factories will be reduced in value to almost nothing, Liverpool.

Our correspondent has omitted to inform us of the site of porium of commerce and manufacture, our new Joint the Fiddle-de-Dee; which we presume to be some tributary Stock Cotton-factory Company may purchase then for

in consequence of Liverpool becoming the northern embranch of its classical namesake.

an old song, and have them removed by the aforesaid

American mechanic.
PROPHECY ON THE MANCHESTER HUMBUG. Whilst these wise precautions are taking by the Liver-

polians, the Mancunians, we understand, are not idle. It A B C D E F G H When the ass with the dolphin shall play

is a mooted point with them, whether they shall cut the And when the whale shall help to make haygrand canal, or adopt another plan which has been sug.

WHITE.

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Vive la Bagatelle. der to employ one part of this life in serious and important rations, it is necessary to spend another in mere amuseThere is a time to laugh and a time to u eep."-SOLOMON.

IONS TO THE CONUNDRUMS, &c. IN OUR LAST.
Looking.glass. 38. Fox. 39. Carpet. 40. G-o-ld

41. R-u-shy (Rushy.). 42. R-u-e (Rue.)
Because he has many neighs (nays.)
Because he is full of payers (pears.)
K.ale-i-do-scope.

NEW CONUNDRUMS, &c.

BY FUN.
46. My first is the name of a tree,

One hundred times twenty my second,
My third and my fourth when you see,

You will say they are both under reckon'd.
My last I can prove without doubt

To be a fam'd river transposed,
My whole I would have you find out,

Tis the name of a town well disposed. 47. My first is two-thirds of a prevalent sin,

My second revers'd is a Parson's degree,
My third is composed of an element cheap,

My whole is the name of a town you will see.

BY SOME STAFFORDSHIRE FRIENDS. 48. Although my first is often trampled on by my second, yet it gives him a title to my whole, which he would not willingly resign.

49. My second is what a governess tells my first to do, but my whole she would correct her pupil for doing.

BY W. S. E. 50. Why do company going to the launch on Saturday resemble the packet?

51. Why is a man relating a story like a letter of the alphabet writing ?

52. When I see a beautiful young lady, why do I resemble one of the alphabet in a blaze?

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