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these plants, although several of them are broken, are fossils we have learned, as I have already said, that the Latural History.

never found bent or folded together ; they are all flat. globe has not always had the same envelope ; that the LETTERS

tened out in their full extent, as if they had been pressed layers of soil have been deposited slowly in a liquid, and ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE. between the hands. They must, therefore, have been de that that liquid gradually changed its nature. It has also

posited gently in a soft substance, which has, since, gra- enabled us to ascertain the composition of the different BY M. ALEX. B.

dually become hard, and preserved them in its interior. | layers, and that, although most of them are of marine La legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne A proof, pot less convincing of the formation of our soil, formation, some have been deposited by fresh waters. wure que des ruines. Paris: printed, 1824.

by the tranquil abode of the sea upon the continents, ex- Finally, we shall, by the same means, be able to prove,

recent French work. ists in the uniforın composition of the horizontal layers, that these layers have been left bare more than once, in anulated expressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French work. ists in the uniform composition of th

in a great extent of land, and even in mountains actually consequence of the removal of the liquid, and that the LETTER VIII. -ALLUVIAL SOIL.

separated from each other by valleys, or arms of the sea. changes that have taken place have been sudden.

In these mountains, the layers, situated at equal heights, France has the happiness of possessing a naturalist, I hope, Madam, that you are sufficiently convinced, by are found to succeed each other in so similar a manner, whose life cannot fail to form a brilliant epoch in the

last letter, of the existence of marine bodies in the in- that they must evidently have been deposited at the same history of science. M. Cuvier, who is indued with great ior of the continents, as well near the summit of the time, and in the same waters, before the great revolutions powers of observation, and has acquired a profound knowshest mountains, as in the lowest cavities of the deepest by which they were separated. That they formerly con- ledge of the laws of nature, has succeeded in recomiposing, lleys. You will also admit that they are the remains of stiluted one mass, and have since been wrenched asunder, from fossil remains, dug out of the earth (which are gene. arine animals, which could not have been deposited where is apparent from the mutual correspondence of their sa. rally in a very imperfect state) the skeletons of most of pare, except by the sea. Consequently it is demon- lient and retiring angles.

el

the animals to which they have belonged. He has, by ated to you, that the ocean must, during some period of All these facts, Madam, lead as to conclude, that the this means, enriched science with the knowledge of a efinite daration, have covered the part of the earth remains of marine bodies, which the sea has left in our great number of terrestrial quadrupeds, entirely unknown ich we now inhabit.

continents, are the result of a tranquil abode of its waters before his time. But was it in consequence of a sudden increase of water, there; and we must seek elsewhere proofs of the deluge, The study of terrestrial animals is even more important it the sea, dragging violently along with it all the pro- attested by the religious traditions of all countries. than that of marine animals, because, as their race is bet. etions inclosed in its bosom, transported them promis. It is evident that the abode of the sea, upon the con- ter known, we may more easily discover whether or not usly to the places which it invaded ? A moment's re- tinents, must have been of very long duration, in order to they belong to species, or genera, now extinct. They also tion will convince us that this cannot have been the form depositions so considerable ; especially, as the or- indicate that the layers in which they are found have been

ganic productions which they indlose have experienced once left dry, and then again inundated, and sometimes I would, in fact, be impossible to conceive, first, how very perceptible modifications, in consequence of the changes that this second inundation took place suddenly, as we shall ses could have removed enormous heaps of shells, suf- that have taken place in the temperature and composition presently see. Besides, it is evident that a marine irruption ind, extensive, as I have before said, to cover several of the waters. The most ancient fossil shells do not at must have destroyed all the terrestrial animals living dred leagues of land ; secondly, admitting that it had all resemble those now contained in the sea, which have on the surface of the soil, whilst it is supposed that the aported them, how it could have caused them to pene gradually changed their nature; but, although they do not marine animals, at least a large part of them, might still

to the interior of the soil, and have deposited them belong to species known in our days, they may, at least, continue to exist. We may therefore hope to find, in a he places where they are now found; since, to produce be included in the same genus. This difference, however, I series of successive layers, all the terrestrial animals living e effects it must have decomposed the surface of is a convincing proof that they are of much greater an. upon them, when the several irruptions of the sea took continents to immense depths. Besides, as the remains tiquity than the first period of the existence of the human place. marine bodies are frequently found inclosed in the race.

You may imagine, Madam, how.arduous a task it must Jest stones, they also must have been liquified, and re. At the beginning of the last century, the only data, be to determine the genera and species of animals, which

d to soft paste; a supposition so contrary to all pro- which served to explain the internal composition of the do not perfectly resemble any of those now living upon lity, and possibility, that it cannot be admitted. If globe, and the forination of the layers constituting its the earth, and of which oply imperfect remains can be pass over these insurmountable difficulties, we meet most superficial envelope, were furnished by the facts I procured. M. Cuvier has, however, overcome this diffips, pot less great. If the shells bad been violently have just laid before you. All the theories, therefore, culty, by means of patient observation, and of inductions ied away by the waters, they must all have been bro- invented upon the subject were exceedingly vague and so ingenious, that, if you had not forbid me to make re.

by their friction against each other, and by being unsatisfactory. The most intelligent writers perceived ferences, I should request you to read a large work, just led against the rocks, and surface of the continents ; that the sea must, during some period, have covered our published by him, upon fossil animals, in order that you

would then be found reduced to fragments, and continents; but, for want of sufficient documents, they might be able to appreciate the 'genius of the author. ssed in the greatest disorder. But, on the contrary, never went beyond the supposition that it formerly inun- You would there see that he has succeeded in classing the t of them are in so excellent a state of preservation, dated the whole surface of the globe, to a height above remains of seventy-eight quadruped animals, as well vi. they retain their sharpest angles, and most delicate the summit of the loftiest mountains, and that its waters viparous as oviparous. sa in several may even be distinguished the shining, gradually diminished, leaving bare tracts of land, which He divides these animals into genera and species, and ly substance, which invests their interior.

soon afterwards became the seat of animal and vegetable enumerates forty. nine which belong to species entirely un. he remains of plants are also found in a fossil state, | life. The researches which have given rise to more pre known in his time. Out of these forty-nine there are

they give rise to a similar remark. The celebrated cise ideas upon the subject, bear hardly an earlier date jeu. in a dissertation upon this subject, published at than the beginning of this century.

• The results of very recent researches made by M. Cuvier,

seem to prove, that the marine animals, no less than others, beginning of the eighteenth century," observes that It is to a more intimate acquaintance with the nature of;

have been destroyed by great inundations, and that after each fossil bodies that we are indebted for the knowledge lately cataclysm, the whole race of animals has been renewed in

to Dissertation upon the herbs, sea-shells, and other bodies, | fossil bodies that we are indebted for the knowledge lately

| acquired, of the theory of the earth. From the study of the countries where it happened. ad in certain stones of Saint Chaumont, in Lyonnais.

twenty-seven whose genera have been lost, and which form | more than thirty pounds weight of fur and hair were ing; while the moral good, which the institusion seven new genera ; the remaining twenty-two species are found, which had been trampled among the damp soil by effected and developed, has actuated them by an

and anxious desire to see extended, far more widev. comprehended under known genera or sub-genera. Twenty- the white bears, whilst they were devouring the flesh. ,

e advantages of which such an institution is capable nine animals either belong to known species, or are yet | The animal was a male ; its tusks were more than line and which it was the expressed wish of the motor 60 little understood, that their classification cannot posi- feet long, comprehending all the inflexions, and its head, been the constant endeavour of the committee, tona

to promo tively be determined.

without the tusks, weighed more than four hundred The committee have, ever since their appointment. ** Do not suppose, Madam, that this great naturalist was pounds. Mr. Adams took the greatest care to collect all a meeting on

a meeting on the first Monday in each month, for the is

spection of the librarian's report, the audit and payme misled by his imagination in the inferences which he drew. the remains of this single specimen of an extinct creation.

of current expenses, the selection of books, the recentie His assiduous researches, aided, no doubt, by chance (for He then bought the tusks at Jakutsk. The Emperor of of donations and subscriptions, and making such od chance often plays an important part in the history of our Russia, who has obtained from him this precious relic for and arrangements as from time to time seemed reques discoveries) have been the means of procuring for us the sum of eight thousand rubles, has caused it to be de. The regular growth and evident utility of the librais bar almost entire skeletons of several of these animals, all of posited in the Academy of Petersburgb."

given the greatest pleasure to the committee and

I general success of the institution, which has exrvaded 22 which have completely confirmed the justness of the con- What seems particularly worthy of remark in this won

most sanguine expectations, in every respect but in the

most sang jecturee advanced by M. Cuvier upon bones, or even frag- derful history, is the double fur with which the skin of amount of annual subscriptions, may be judged off ments of bones.

| this anediluvian animal was covered, and which seenis so the following comparison : The result of the closest examination of fossil animals well adapted to the climate of the country where it was When the institution was adopted by the publie twelve has been to prove incontestably the existence of layers of found. To the elephants of the present day, although in months ago it was in debt, to the amount of about in soil formed by fresh water, containing the remains of the every other respect similar to those which formerly inha

inhe. Since that period, the publicity afforded by a liberales

| to the statements then made by the founder of the instits animals formerly living upon the shores of the lakes, by bited the polar regions, nature has kindly refused a weight

tion, and other gentlemen, and to the general crites which which they were deposited, and inclosed between marine of fur that could only have served to incommode them in the such an institution had upon the public, aided by the layers, one of anterior, the other of posterior formation. burning regions which they inhabit. This difference af. exertions of the committee, have had the effect of unter Each of these layers proves that the sea must have left fords a new proof of the vigilant attention with which she in its support men of all parties, and of not only des

ing off the debt, but of obtaining a balance in hand its ancient bed dry, during a very long period, in order to suits the organization of living heings to the local circum

| £12. 18s. 4d. At the former period, the number of me permit the development of different races of animals, stances of the scene of their existence.

enjoying the advantages of the library was about which were suddenly destroyed by a new revolution, after I must, however, remark, that it cannot positively be the present number is above 800. The number of release a lapse of time, more or less considerable. I repeat that known, what was the temperature of the north of Lapland then in the library was about 800; there are DOT the destruction of these animals, living in peace upon a at the period when these elephants lived.

1800. When it is considered that above one-halid de soil that had been left dry, during, perhaps, some thou. I shall return to this subject, and at present shall merely

.. volumes are in constant circulation, amongst a class o

ciety who could not furnish themselves with food be sands of centuries, must have been occasioned by a sudden observe, that certainly it was not as cold then as it is in

mind," the utility of the institution will appear & a inundation of the sea; this has been rendered obvious our days; and that the preservation of the elephant proves undoubted and extensive ; and it must not be caminte by some very remarkable discoveries. Nothing can be also, that the cliinate changed in that part of the world, state, as highly creditable to the readers, that these more wonderful than the history of the elephant, found suddenly enough to permit the animal to be surrounded

which men of the best experience would produs in the north of Lapland, near the mouth of the Lena, in by the ice, in less time than would have been necessary to

the most useful, are in such demand, that they were

ever rest upon the shelves; and it is an extraoreen the middle of a mountain of ice, and examined some time reduce its flesh to a state of putrefaction.

cumstance, that, to the knowledge of the libraris, afterwards by Mr. Adams, an English naturalist.

This is not the only striking proof that can be adduced, single volume has been lost by the readers. Hacte The following is the account of it, extracted by M. Cu. how sudden were some of the revolutions of the globe. a picture for the philanthropist! Eight hundred vier from Memoirs of the Academy of Petersburgh, vol. 8, | There is, I believe, at Washington. the skeleton of a fossil / rising youth, the future tradesmen and operatie

town, who, in the absence of amusement at home, year 1815: rhinoceros, found, in 1771, on the shores of the Vilhoni,

be tempted to spend their evenings in the streets, " In 1799, a Tongusian fisherman observed upon the at the depth of some feet, and in so excellent a state of

loose company, where they might not only be draw shores of the Frozen Ocean, near the mouth of the Lena, preservation that it retains even the flesh and skin. distress but into disgrace, are here not only furnished and surrounded by flakes of ice, a huge shapeless mass ;| Perhaps, Madam, when you read the account of these the means, but are actually enjoying the means, but he could not discern what it was. The year after, a wonderful discoveries, you will be inclined to think, that mig

| ing their own firesides the best places of resort, and

once saving their health, their money, and their chata larger part of it was disencumbered from the ice, and naturalists may have mistaken for antedilurian animals, and of

and of improving their minds, by studying there towards the end of the following summer, the whole side the remains of those which were in existence only a few illustrious philosophers, moralists, historians, tran of the animal and one of the tusks distinctly appeared. centuries ago. Formerly, indeed, they were liable to er. and mechanics: thus qualifying themselves to become Five years afterwards, the ice having melted more sud.rors of this kind; but this is now no longer possible. The telligent and respectable members of society. In denly than usual, this enormous mass was thrown upon species found in a fossil state possess certain characteristics

es is the effect of the institution, every day's experiede

dantly testifies. The behaviour of the young meni the coast, upon a bank of sand. In the month of March, which entirely distinguish them from those now living ; orderly and respectful; and their improvement in till 1804, the fisherman carried away the tusks, and sold them and the study of these characteristics has, by the skill and and deportment, since they became readers, is very for fifty rubles. Upon this occasion, a rough drawing was perseverance of our naturalists, been so much advanced, Their cagerness for information is evinced, by the made of the animal, of which I have a copy, given to me that any person, sufficiently acquainted with the subject, I larity with which they change their books, au

description of the books which they ask for. The by M. Blumenbach. Two years later, and in the seventh may easily recognise them.

| and other relations of the readers frequently expres vear after the discovery was made, Mr. Adams, a member! I will, if you desire it, in one of my future letters, de- / gratitude tor the advantages derived from the of the Academy of Petersburgh, and now a Professor at scribe to you the most remarkable fossil animals, and the which, in many cases, have made most agreaber Moscow, who was travelling with the Count Galowskin, eharacteristics which distinguish them from those of the in the domestic conduct of the young men, statt on his embassy to China, having been informed at Jakutsk same species now living amongst us

read aloud interesting portions of the books they are

ing, by which means they very greatly extend te of the existence of thes: remains, repaired to the spot

of the institution. where they lay. He there found the animal already much

The investigator.

The donations of books to the library, durs mutilated. The Jakouts of the neighbourhood had cut

have been, as before stated, extremely liben: up the flesh for their dogs ; a large part of it also had been (Comprehending Political Economy, Statistics, Jurispru. committee assure the public that if tbeir Area devoured by wild beasts ; nevertheless, the skeleton was

dence, occasional passages from Parliamentary Speeches sill more considerably augmented, the good to

of a general nature, occasional Parliamentary Docu• been done, and is now being done, might be los still entire, except one of the fore feet. The spine of the

ments, and other speculative subjects, excluding Party an unlimited extent. The secretary and the libra back, one shoulder-blade, the basin, and the remains of Politirsi

harrassed with applications for admission by som the three extremities, were still united by the ligaments,

young men, sometimes ten or twenty in a day! and by a portion of the skin.. The shoulder-blade want.

ANNUAL REPORT

stock of books is by no means equal to the variety · ing was found at a short distance from the animal. The

OF THE

even of the present readers; and it is matter head was covered with a dry skin; one of the ears was LIVERPOOL APPRENTICES AND MECHANICS' LIBRARY,

POOL APPRENTICES AND MECHANICS' LIBRARY. that, very frequently, for the want of duplicate, porfect, and was ornamented with a tuft of hair. The Read at the General Meeting of the Subscribers, Feb. 15, 1825.

ks, readers are obliged to change their course of

and to be 'supplied with books, which, however pupil of the eye was still perceptible; the brain was in the

themselves, may not happen to be within the range! cranium, although dried up; part of the under lip had! The committee, who, for twelve months past, have had taste and inclination at the time. The committee been gnawed away, and as the upper lip was entirely the management of the Liverpool Mechanics and Appren. opinion that the number of readers would soon am destroyed, the molar teeth were laid bare. The neck was tices' Library, respectfully beg leave to lay before the three or four thousand, if there were books sufia

hl annual meeting a brief cutline of their proceedings, and a | their perusal; and they, therefore, urge upon the ornamented by a long mane; the skin was covered with

statement of those views and feelings with which their the necessity for furthering the present good Fors: black hair, and with a coat of reddish fur or wool. The experience, during that period, has inspired them. That mediate and liberal donations of books. To those animal was, in this mutilated state, so heavy, that ten experience, they are happy to state, has rendered the per tants of Liverpool and its neighbourhood, who a persons could hardly remove it. According to Mr. Adams, 'formance of their duties not only easy, but highly gratify.'yet favoured the institution will books, they would

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THE SKYLARK. hat there are very few families who will not find, on exa- | bryo blooms are almost visibly struggling towards light

When day's bright banner, first unfurled, lination, that they have many books in their possession and life, beneath their rough, unpromising outer coats

From darkness frees the shrouded world, unpromising to the idle, the unthinking, and the inob. bich they can easily spare: all that is required is to

The skylark, singing as he soars, carch them ont, and send them to the library ; and, while servant; but to the eye that can see Othello's visage in

On the fresh air his carol pours. oly one hundred families neglect to do this, who could his mind,' bright and beautiful, in virtue of the brightness

But tho' to heaven he wings his flight, ch spare twenty volumes. all the good which this insti. / and the beauty that they cover, but not conceal. Now,

As if he loved those realms of light, too, the dark earth becomes soft and tractable, and yields ution, increased nearly four-fold, would accomplish, is

He still returns with weary wing eglected also.

to the kindly constraint that calls upon it to teem with new The committee say nearly four-fold, he use, if the number of books were doubled, the number | life-crumbling to the touch, that it may the better clasp

On earth to end his wandering. 'readers might be doubled also, and cach of them would in its fragrant bosom the rudiments of that gay but ephe.

Aspiring bird! in thee I find len have twice the number of books to resort to. mereal creation which are born with the Spring, only.to

An emblem of the youthful mind, The donations during the past year have also been liberun their race rejoicing 'into the lap of Summer, and there

Whose earliest voice, like thine, is giv'n l; they have amounted to £157 4s. Od. and have effected yield up their sweet breath, a willing incense, at the shrine

To notes of joy that mount to heaven; Dimportant change in the funds of the institution, as of that Nature, the spirit of which is endless constancy

But, fettered by the toils of life, ated above : but the annual subscriptions are, as yet, ex. growing out of endless change.

Its sordid cares, its bitter striferemely deficient. When, however, the committee reflect The melody of birds now gradually swells upon the ear.

It feels its noble efforts vain, o the proverbial liberality of the inhabitants of Liverpool, The throstle, second only to the nightingale in song,

And sadly sinks to earth again. nd see that similar institutions in otlier towns are most charms us with the sweetness and variety of its lays. The

Literary Gazette. enerously supported, they must rather attribute the defi

linnet and the goldfinch join the general concert in this

month, and the golden-crowned wren begins its song. lency to the want of proper means being adopted to pro

About the commencement of this month, the blossoms

of the yew-tree (taxus baccata) make their appearance, ure such support than to any exception to the general rule The lark, also, must not be forgotten:

reminding us that • in the midst of life we are in death ;' in the part of their townsmen. They now, however, ap

The gentle lark, weary of rest,

and that even in our gayest moments, and at the opening peal most earnestly to the public for subscriptions. Half. From his moist cabinet mounts up on high,

of our brightest prospects, we should ever bear in mind Buguines per annum qualifies the subscriber to admit me. And wakes the morning, from whose silver breast

that He who gave us our being requires us to surrender it chanics and apprentices to the advantages of the library ;

The Sun ariseth in his majesty:

at His pleasure. and, as a very large sum is not required to maintain the Who doth the world so gloriously behold,

TO THE YEW-TREE. institution, they cannot doubt that the requisite angmen

The cedar-tops and hills seem burnished gold.

When Fortune smiled, and Nature's charms were nom, ation of the funds will be furnished by an enlightened

SHAKSPEARE.

I loved to see the oak majestic tower, ublic. • Didst thou ever see a lark in a cage? Such is the soul in

I loved to see the apple's painted flower, To those who have not yet favoured the institution either the body: this world is like her little turf of grass; and the

Bedropt with pencilled tints of rosy hue; rith money or books, the committee would suggest two heaven o'er our heads, like her looking-glass, only gives us a hings:- First, a perúsal of Mr. Brougham's most able knowledge of the small compass of our prison. -Duchess of

Now, more I love thée, melancholy Yew,

Whose still green leaves in solemn silence wave od useful pamphlet, on popular education, just pub- Valfy.

Above the peasant's rude unhonoured grave, ished; and, secondly, a visit to the library of this institu

Now is the time (says the elegant writer just quoted) to Which oft thou moistenest with the morning dew. jon, during one of the hours when the books are in a

To thee the sad, to thee the weary fly: sow the seeds of most of the annual flowering plants ; parourse of delivery, where they will see the description of ensons reading, and of books read; and will be enabled ticularly of those which we all know and love-such as They rest in peacę beneath thy sacred gloom,

Thou sole companion of the lonely tomb; sweet-pca, the most feminine of flowers-that must bave a judge accurately of the great good which such institu

No leaves but' thine in pity o'er them sigh: vos cannot fail to afford to the community at large.

kind hand to tend its youth, and a supporting arm to cling
to in its maturity, or it grovels in the dust, and straggles Lo! now to fancy's gaze thou seem'st to spread

away into an unsightly weed ; and mignonetle, with a The following are the officers and committee for the

Thy shadowy boughs to shroud me with the dead. name as sweet as its breath-that loves • within a gentle

LEYDEN. asuing year: Hardman Earle, Esq. Chairmans

bosom to be laid,' and makes haste to die there, lest its Each succeeding week pours forth fresh beauties from

white lodging should be changed; and larkspur, trim, the lap of Flora, and furnishes the botanist with new W. Wallace Currie, Esg. Deputy Chairman; Mr. W. S. Roscoe, Treasurer;

gay, and bold-the gallant of the garden ; and lupines, sources of delight. Golden tufts of crocuses, expanding Mr. Wm. Wood, Secretary.

blue and yellow, and rose-coloured, with their winged their corollas to receive the genial warmth of the sun,

flowers hovering above their starry leaves; and a host of interspersed with pink and blue hcpaticas, and the garden Mr. T. B. Barclay, * Mr. Wm. Rushton,

others, that we must try to characterize as they come in daisy, with its little tufts of crimson velvet, united with Mr. Thomas Binns, * Mr. Edward Rushton,

turn before us. Now, if the weather be mild, we have the the blossoms of last month, greatly ornament our flower Mr. Joseph Eccles, Mr. Egerton Smith,

bulbous-rooted flowers-the Tulip, beautiful as the pan-borders. , Rev. W. Hincke, Mr. John Smith,

ther, and as proud, standing aloof from its own leaves; : M. Edward Martineau, Mr. Thomas Thornely,

Yet, all beneath th' unrivalled rose,
and the rich hyacinth, clustering like the locks of Adam;
Mr. Thos. Mather, jun. Mr. Ottiwell Wood,

The lowly DAISY Sweetly blows;
and the myriad-leaved anemone; and narcissus, pale and
Mr. M. L. Mozley, ,
Mr. Geo. M. Woolsey,

Though large the forest's monarch throws
passion-stricken at the sense of its own sweetness. Now,
Rev. Robt. Philip,
Mr. J. A. Yates.

His army shade, too, the tender green of Spring first begns to peep forth Mr. Theodore Rathbone,

Yet green the juicy hawthorn grows, from the straggling branches of the hedge-row elder, the

Adown the glade. BURNE. trim lilac, and the thin threads of the stream-enamoured willow-the first to put on its spring-clothing, and the last

(To be concluded in our next.] to leave it off. And if we look into the kitchen-garden,

there, too, we shall find those forest-trecs in miniature,
MARCH, 1825.

the gooseberries and currants, letting their leaves and
blossoms, both of a colour, look forth together, hand-in-

" Housekeeping and husbandry, if it be good,
hand, in search of the April sun before it arrives. It will Must love one another as cousins in blood :
[From T'ime's Telescope.)
be well if these early adventurers-forth do not encounter

The wife, too, must husband as well as the man, a cutting easterl; blast; or, still worse, a deceitful breeze,

Or farewel thy husbandry, do what thou can." There is a stir abroad In earth and sky.

that tempts them to its embraces by its milder breath, The busy clouds, now huddling, now dispersing.

only to shower diseases upon them. But if they will be Syrup for Hoarseness. Of syrup of squills, an ounce; Seem with the windy messengers conversing. out on the watch for Spring before she calls them, they of syrup of saffron, two ounces; of lemon-juice a table

spoonful: mix, and take a tea-spoonful occasionally. must be content to take their chance. The landscape is alive: the shadows fly.

Med. Adviser. Coursed o'er the uplands by the hunter breeze.

How beautiful upon this verdant bank The shifting lights are colour to the eye, ..

The sunshine slumbers! how the vernal trees

German Polish.-Melt an ounce of black rosin, and a lothing with warmth the sober scenery,

Expand their foliage fresh and young! how clear quarter of a pound of yellow wax, in an earthen pipkin, The russet corn-lands and the crisp, bare trees.

Through yonder vale glitters the silver stream!

and pour in, by degrees, two ounces of spirits of turpen. dotting scarce perceptible, thrown out

How pleasant 'tis to mark the labouring plougbs

tine : when the whole is well incorporated, put it in an la tints of livelier brown, on hedge and bough,

Traverse the field, and leave a sable track,

earthen jar, and keep it close covered for use. When you Dives mystie signs A spirit is about,

While merrily behind the driver stalks,

use it, spread a little of it on the furniture with a woollen Felt through all Nature's veins; and all things now,

Whistling in thoughtless vacancy of mind;

cloth, and rub it well in. In a few days the polish will b Swelling with vernal hope, are ready quite,

The small birds, as it were a holiday,

as hard and as bright as varnish.-Mechanic's Magazine. Waiting his word, who said, Let there be light.

Sing forth, with carol sweet, from every bough; The winds of March, which come careering over our

And larks, ascending to the clear blue sky,

Coffee.-The great difference between the English and Ids and roads and pathways, although cutting winds'

Suffuse the air with music.

D. M. MOIR. the Continental mode of making coffee is this :-foreigners the invalid, are highly beneficial, as they tend to dry up The birds, indeed, are for once in the year as busy as always burn the berry before they make it into coffee, e damps that the thaws had let loose, and the previous the bees are always. They are getting their houses built, while in England the berry is frequently bought ready

sts had prevented from sinking into the earth; and and seeing to their household affairs, and concluding their burnt, subsequent to which progress it soon loses its flavour. ey pipe to the spirit ditties,' the words of which tell family arrangements that when the summer and the sun

The fi

- After les of the forthcoming flowers. The general face of Na.shine are fairly come, they may have nothing to do but grinding the berry to a fine powder, mix it with the shell Te is not much changed in appearance since we left it in teach their children the last new modes of flying and sing. and white of an egg, then put it into a coffee-pot, fill this ebruary ; though its internal economy has made an im. ing, and be as happy as-birds, for the rest of the year. vessel with boiling water, and then boil your coffee till it Irtant step in advance. The sap is alive in the seemingly | Now, therefore, as in the last month-they have but little becomes fine, which will be in less than ten minutes. The Peping trunks that every where surround us, and is be- time to sing to each other; and the lark has the morning | Italians seldom take milk, in any share, but the Germans inning to mount slowly to its destination; and the em. sky all to himself.

"I always add boiling cream to their coffee.

· The Naturalist's Diary.

The Housewife.

e best

Poetry.

FRIENDSHIP.

Friendship, a name! 'tis even so,
A charm to work the heart's o'erthrow; .
A flattering dream, a fleeting shade,
And only for delusion made;
A morn of generous sunshine bright,
Receding from the shades of night;
A vapoury vision, and a breath,
Exhaled the hour that owns its birth!
Go, tell me not of friendship tried,
And found the whirlwind to abide ;
of friendship scorning chance, or fate,
And daring to be nobly great;
Of friendship, that when clouds deform,
Unshrinking braves the yelling storm,
And but the closer, truer clings,
When the hoarse raven flaps bis wings !
No! cheat no more with idle dreams,
Illusive phantoms, tinsel beams,
That radiance give, but ne'er impart,
One genial ray to warm the heart;
And, Friendship, since I've woo'd thee long,
Yet found thee but in Poet's song:
A far-off star, too bright and rare
To deign illume this nether sphere;
Take now, oh, take my last farewell,-
How sad, it little boots to tell;
For what avail the tears we shed
Upon the cold, and coffin'd dead ?
No! fare thee well! in worlds unknown
Thou lives, and loves, and there alone;
While here, a traitor form divine,
Lures but to bend at falsehood's shrine,
And, when her softest smile she wears,
Consigns to penitence and tears !
No! hence, and hide thy recreant head,

Thou lightest shadow of a shade!
Liverpool.

The lovely star of evening hastes away,

So beautifully bright, so brightly fair,
It shrinks afraid, and shuns the impeuding fray,

Foretold by vengeful signs, and heaven's red glare:
And as a guardian angel flies his care,
So, from this fated land, yon evening star.
Thus, ere Jerusalem's great temple fell,

And Roman eagles waved their horrid wings
Within the place where once was wont to dwelt

. Jehovah, God, Most High, and King of Kings,
Celestial voices (woe to Israel's race!)
In dreadful peals resounded, “Leave this place !"
But see the rolling clouds of night move on,

Slow marching from the north in black array,
And seem a huge Leviathan, anon

T'ingulph that splendour and unreal day:
Those portents dire, the chariot, skiff, and spear,
And dread volcanic light-all disappear.
Beneath old Mersey urges on his course,

With mighty energy his waters sweep,
While nought, except his murmurs low and hoarse,

Declares the potent offspring of the deep:
Unmoved by warring skies he strides along,
Ocean's favourite son, the great, the strong.
Deeper and deeper still, the twilight gloom

Leaves not an object to engage the eye,
Save where on Mersey's stream tall shadows roam,

And stretch'd from shore to shore gigantic lie:--
They are the awful genii of the deep,
Holding their revels here, whilst mortals sleep!

Y. Z. # In winter the sun often sets behind the western banks of the Mersey with uncommon splendour. About three weeks or a month since a scene, very like the one which is attempted to be described in these lines, actually occurred. It was a remarkably still evening, and for more than an hour after the sun was sunk from view the sky was covered with a glorious light, forming with the clouds a variety of forms and shapes.

Bidston hill, with its signals and poles.

And gaping wide, bis tongue extended.
With suspicious walk, round the lion see him stalk,
Loudly growling, then sullenly howling,

Lie down by the lion's side.
Once more the signal gave Francis,
And there leap from two doors with agile spring
Two swift bounding leopards at once in the ring,
And forward they rush desirous of prey!
The tiger advances, and quickly arrests
With his terrible paw their way.
Then the lion with a roar rises up, they fight no more.
But around in circle wide, by each other's side,
The dreadful monsters abide.
When lo! from the circle's height,
A glove from a lady fair
'Twixt the lion's and tiger's lair,

Sudden alight!
Then Kunigund burning with scoffing atr,
Address'd her lover, Delorges the knight,
“Sir knight, if true be the oath you swear,
If true the passion you daily declare,
Go bring me the glove you see there."
The knight, no sooner taunted,
Descends upon the sand, with step undaunted,
And ere the savage monsters round him move,
His fearless finger again reclaims the glove.
While struck with wonder and with fright.
Ladies and nobles behold the knight
Unmov'd, Delorges-the pledge returns
Loud bursts of praise extol the deed,
But with the blush and eye of love
Meets him Runigund from above;
The blush that promises his valour's mead.
But the knight with low ubeisance said,
“Your thanks, lady, I no more need,"
And forsook for ever the cruel maid.

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IMPROMPTU, BY ONE OF THE PROJECTORS OF THE MANCHESTBS SBIT

TO THE EDITOR. SIR,-Your idea that you have before seen a translation of Schiller's ballad of the Glove, is very probably cor. rect. Zelter, director of an academy of music in Berlin, wrote a spirited bass air to the original words; and the gentleman who re-published it in England (C. F. Hasse) procured an almost verbal translation from a Mr. Henry Steinhauer, which I will transcribe for your satisfaction. You will perceive that it has no pretentions to rhythmical rerit ; though, had not Mr. S. been trammeled by the musical necessity of a close version, he was fully capable of giving it in an elegant English dress.

Your correspondent Outus, may not have seen this air, as it obtained little celebrity, far less indeed than it deserved.

Youis, &c. Foirfield, near Manchester.

T. H. S.

The sun we'll place on some high hill,

And run a pole right through its disk;
And on this pole shall he "stand stil,"

To make a modern obelisk!
The dial of a clock we'll make,

And clench it t'other side the moon,
To show the time through her clear lake,

As plain at night as though 'twere noon!
The stars on rail-roads shall move round,

By locomotive engines drawn:
And when a comet can be found,

We'll tow it through the starry lawn!
And when eclips'd the moon or sun,

By which the whole ethereal mass
Is darken'd-We will not be "done,"

For then we'll light them up with gas! February 22, 1825.

SUNSET ON THE MERSEY..

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Afar behind yon dark grey beacon hill,

That, with a hundred pines, salutes the skies, Whose gay-plum'd lofty heads can strangely thrill

Ten thousand hearts, and glad ten thousand eyes, The wearied king of day sinks down to rest, Whilst hateful darkness spreads her gloomy vest. Fell darkness presses close, Sol soon retires,

Wben winter reigns in these bleak northern climes; But, lo! for once the absent god's dread fires

Emblaze the heavens with woe to buman crimes; Evin aus Apollo from his inmost shrine Thunderd unseen his oracles divine. “ Visions of glory spåre my aching sight;"

O! darkness, veil these signs of coming war!
That long portentous spear, that lurid light,

That gilded war-canoe, that warrior's car;
. The symbols all of fierce invading bands,
Bursting from northern wilds on southern lands.
The deluge rolls along, of blood-red light,

The south is all one mass of Jarkling flame, • The north is lost in clouds of darkest night,

Contest and battle rend th' etherial frame;
And clouds, like banner'd hosts, 'slow-winding creep
Along the western ridges of the deep.

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King Francis the combat awaited,
Before the lion's den seated

In royal pride:
Around him the nobles were placed,
Aloft the galleries were graced

With ladies on either side.
By Francis the word was spoken,'
The gates ope wide at the token,
And behold on the midst of the sand

A lion stand.
A silent glance, he cast askance,
Then yawning loudly, his mane he shakes proudly,
His limbs he stretches, and down he crouches.
The king renews his command,
Then opens the speedy hand

A second gate.
Forward springs a tiger bold,
Ere the portals well unfold:
When the lion he espied, loud he cried,
High whirl'd his tail o'er his black spotted side,

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Vive la banatelle. " In order to employ one part of this life in serious and are

occupations, it is necessary to spend another in ments."

There is a time to laugh and a time to reep.'-SOLDES SOLUTIONS TO THE CONUNDRUMS, &e. IN OUR LA

53. Because it becomes merciless (Mersey less.) 54. Because they are high treason (high trees 55. Suffolk (sough folk.) 56. The Tonic (1 ) 57. Glow Worm. 58. Ínk, 59. Rue barb (rhes 60. Ear-wig. 61. Pad-dock.

VONSOLE

INTENDED TO BE PLAYED AS A CODA TO THE AIR BY BEEHOVEN, PAGE 289.

The friend to whom we are indebted for the following Air, informs us that it is a favourite dance in Switzerland amongst the peasants, and is known by the name of a

Ländler. It is surmised, however, as we observed in our last, that it is the composition of Beethoven.

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same space, and that conse

| in the Kaleidoscope, we need not repeat them ; but refer the come the friction is 100 pounds, then that power must be Scientific Records.

reader to our publication of Dec. 28, page 215. The para exerted over every yard of the distance, whether the ear. Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve- graphs are those marked (a) (b) (c), also eight lines of riage moves at six or at eight miles an hour; and it is by ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin- the subsequent paragraph, beginning with the words the distance, not the time, that the power must be meagular Medical Cases ; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi. Now it would be at all times easy," to the words “ or sured. That this must be the case, will be obvious if the losophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical arms of the sea.").

experiment be put in another shape. Suppose a perfectly Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History ; Now we are perfectly satisfied, both by the experiments horizontal rail-way, a mile long, with a perpendicular deVegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.; List of Patents; of Vince and Coulomb, and those more recent and more scent of a mile at one end of it, as represented on the folto be continued in a series through the Volume.) conclusive experiments, to which we have already alluded, lowing diagram.

that the rule laid down here is correct ; but the writer XPERIMENTS ON FRICTION-RAIL-ROADS. ought to have guarded against the misconception to which

his last paragraph is liable. When he says that a high

velocity would cost almost as little as a low one. he should The following article, relating to the discussion into have said that it would cost as little per mile, or as little hich we have entered at such length, is copied from the over any given space : for it cannot be his meaning, that a Lanchester Guardian, the proprietor of which has carriage can be kept moving for an hour, or for any given Suppose a Waggon placed on this rail-way at A, attached ligingly furnished us with the accompanying engraving.

ring engraving, time, at a high velocity, with as little expenditure of power, to a rope passing over a pulley at B, and loaded at that

as at a low velocity. Yet this he has been generally under-point with a weight exactly sufficient to overcome the stood to mean, and a great deal has been written and said friction, then, if the resi

| friction, then, if the resistance of the air is nothing and the Under ordinary circumstances we should have felt it with a view of proving that he was mistaken ; when, in rope be without weight, it follows, from the rule laid down, cessary to apologize to our readers for occupying a con- fact, he was only misunderstood. In a subsequent article, that if the waggon is set in motion at any given speed, it erable space with a disquisition on a matter purely sci- however, the writer appears to have, in some degree, fallen will continue to move at that rate until it reaches the point Sific, and, in many persons, necessarily dry and unin. | into the error in which he has led other persons. He says- B, and the weight falls to C. But whether the waggon esting; but the numerous and extensive projects lately Every body knows that the rate of stage coach travelling passes over the rail.way in an hour or in three minutes, it rted, for constructing rail-wuys in different parts of the in this country has increased within the last twenty-five years. is obvious that the same weight will descend through the gdom, bave directed a large share of public attention from six or seven miles an hour to eight or nine, and this, too,

e same amount of the subject; and it has become more generally inte-' befo

me more generally inte before ronds were M'Adamized, and with much less injury to power will be expended. It is, perhaps, necessary to ob. ting from the publication, in a newspaper of a high

wspaper o: high the horses than was anticipated. Supposing that a coach serve here, that if the weight is only just sufficient to overentific character, (the Scotsman) of a series of papers horse could run fourteen miles unloaded, with the same mus- come the friction, there will (as is proved by the experiich have been very gen erally read and commented upon, cular exertion which carries forward the stage coach at ments of Mr. Vince) be no acceleration of motion on the

as it appears to us, by no means universally under-eight or nine miles, then Professor Leslie's formula becomes principle of falling bodies. od. The object of those papers was, in a great mea- 3 (14-v)a. Each horse would, of course, draw with a force However, though a carriage capnot, as we think we e, to show the practicability of transporting commodi.

of 48 pounds at six miles, and of 27 pounds at eight miles an have shown, be moved ten miles in one hour, with a upon rail roads, at a very considerable speed; and hour. But if the friction increased in the rat

hour. But if the friction increased in the ratio of the velocity, smuller expenditure of power than in two, it is very in. h some fallacies, which we shall endeavour to point the load upon each horse would increase from 48 pounds to 60 teresting to know that it can be moved with the same ex. they conta

of valuable information on pounds, when the speed increased from six to eight miles an penditure (excepting always the additional resistance of relative merits of highways, canals, and rail-roads. hour; and as the horse exerting the same strength, would the air.) In many cases despatch is of so much con.

principal point, however, and the one to which we only pull with a force of 27 pounds, he would thus have more sequence, that the elucidation and application of this il confine our observations, is an enunciation of the than double work to do-which is plainly impossible. But rule will probably lead to very important results. Many $ which regulate the friction of rolling and sliding admit that the friction is equal in equal times; then, since persons, however, are very sceptical on this subject, and les, as deduced from the experiments of Vince and the time is diminished one-fourth, by increasing the speed contend that the experiments of Vince and Coulomb do lomb. With a view to the illustration of this part of from six to eight miles an hour, the horses have actually one- not authorize any such conclusions as have been drawn subject, some very important and conclusive experi-fourth less to do; the load upon each is reluced from 48 from them. It has been asked, if the same constant ts have recently been made in this town, to which we pounds to 36, and the horse would have to increase its exertion force will move a carriage as well at a high as at a low

by and by have occasion to refer at some length; only one-third-that is, from 27 pounds to 36. The facts, we velocity,--why we do not see something like this in prac. before doing so, we must make a few observations on believe, will be found strictly consistent with this hypothesis, tice ?- why a carriage moved by a steam-engine, instead cule laid down in the Scotsman, and the misconceptions and decidedly at variance with the other. However strange of acquiring, as it proceeds, a high degree of velocity.

h appear to have prevailed respecting it, both in that it may sound, then, to common observers, it is practically moves on at one uniform rate after it has overcome the nal and in other quarters.

true, that a smaller absolute amount of force will drag a coach vis inertiæ at the commencement of its journey ? We fter comparing the resistance experienced by a boat over the same space in three hours than in four, and in one hour think the reason is very obvious. A locomotive steam. ing through the water, with the friction which retards than in two."

engine does not exert the same constant force on the progress of a waggon on a rail-road, and stating that This paragraph seems to us to contain a very obvious peripheries of the wheels of the carriage, when it moves

are governed by different laws, the Scotsman notices fallacy." If the speed be increased from six miles an hour at different velocities. For instance, suppose the piston conclusions established by the experiments of Vinceto eight, the horses have by no means one.fourth less work of an engine to move 220 feet in a minute, and to impel Coulomb; the most important of which is, that the to do, supposing the friction a constant quantity, and the the peripheries of the travelling wheels at a velocity of Eon of rolling and sliding bodies is THE SAME FOR traction consequently the same. It is true that they exert two miles, and with a force just sufficient to overcome the VELOCITIES. The writer then observes

this power for a shorter time, but it is over the same disc friction, how can the speed be augmented without in-s the passages here introduced have been already given tance. Supposing the power of traction necessary to over- creasing the power of the engine ? If the diameter of

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