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the wheels be increased, with the view of increasing the whatever way the spring of the weighing machine may fined. Let us now suppose that the steam is urged to be speed, the force with which they are impelled will be be acted upon by the friction.

full extent, or, to render the matter more clear, is 03, stop, unless the pressure is increased. To increase that, ber of experiments were made, chiefly with a view to de kept at one uniform temperature, say a red heat; the diminished in the same proportion; and the engine will This simple apparatus having been constructed, a num fined in a generator filled with water, which is constancy of course, will be to augment the power. As it is obvious, termine whether the friction was the same at different vetherefore, that a steam-engine cannot exert the same locities. The waggon was loaded with 50 pounds, (inclu- first effect arising from the escape of a portion of thi force at different velocitics, some other means must be ding its own weight) and the drum was driven at different water from the generator, in the form of steam, will be di devised for putting to the test of experiment the rule laid velocities, varying from two to TWENTY-FOUR MILES communicate a certain velocity to the wheel or resistata down in the Scotsman. We now come to the most important and interesting Tion, as indicated by the weighing

machine WAS PRE: aside, as before stated) would of itself, without farba AN HOUR on the periphery : but in every case THE FRIC

to be overcome, which velocity (obstructions being a part of this article. As none of the experiments of Vince CISELY THE SAME. or Coulonib (so far as we have seen or heard them detailed) index at all, but on increasing the weight, it immediately impulse, for ever keep the wheel in this same equal were made with bodies resembling rail-way waggons, either shewed a corresponding increase of friction.

motion; the next escape of steam adding, as in the case in form, or in the nature of their motion, the correctness We consider these experiments as perfectly conclusive of of gravitation, to the already acquired velocity of the of the conclusions deduced from them, with respect to the fact that the friction on a rail-way is the same for all wheel, will communicate an accelerated velocity to it such carriages, was doubted by many persons of consider. velocities; and that a carriage may be propelled twenty able scientific attainments. It became desirable, there miles in one hour, with the same amount of force which which will be still further increased by the Dexter fore, that other experiments should be tried, with car- would be necessary to drive it twenty miles in ten hours, cape, and thus it will proceed, the force of the stean riages, upon rail-ways, which, of course, would be much provided the resistance of the atmosphere was out of the increasing the already acquired velocity of the wheels more satisfactory. This, however, it did not, at first sight, question : and, if the carriage was properly constructed, in the same manner that the force of greváy increases appear very easy to accomplish in a satisfactory manner: inat would not amount to much. In other words, goods the already acquired velocity of a falling body

. Bar but Mr. Roberts, of this town, recently devised a mode of may be conveyed from Manchester to Liverpool, on a raildetermining the point, which appears to us wholly un- road, with very nearly the same expenditure of steam,

now.comes the question to be decided—Is this is masing objectionable, and which exhibits, in a high degree, the whether they are carried two miles, or four miles, or twenty velocity liinited, or is it unlimited? Are there brenda sinplicity, and facility of execution, by which that gen. miles an hour. A steam engine, which will propel 20 tons to it in this case, or are there done? That is al tleinan's inventions are so eminently distinguished. It at four miles an hour, will, with the same expense of coals, mited, and, consequently, that there are bounds te was very difficult to devise means for measuring accurately propel 10 tons at eight miles an hour ; so that, with the will, I trust, be rendered evident by the following an the friction of a carriage moving over a rail-way; but it smaller load, it might make a journey to Liverpool and nccurred to Mr.

Roberts, that the difficulty would be back, in the same tiine which would be occupied in going deration :-Since the aperture from which the sten ist obviated if the rail-way were made to move under the thither with the larger load. Or, to put the matter in an- is always of the same size, and the expansibility, e pare sarriage. When this idea once presented itself, it was other shape ; suppose a four-horse engine will convey 40 of the steam to escape, is uniform (the generale easy to reduce it to practice. Mr. Roberts, therefore, cons to Liverpool in eight hours,—an eight-horse engine always kept at one temperature) the same quantity constructed an apparatus, of which the following engray- will convey the same weight thither in four hours. There issue from the generator at one moment of time, as is ing will give a pretty correct notion :

will be the same expenditure of steam in both cases, but, or will issue from it at another; that is to say, the cas
in the latter, a saving of half the time ; a saving which,
we need not add, will frequently be of immense importance and consequent power of the steam is unifam : 49

Mr. Roberts also tried some experiments to determine form and regular power in constant action has a tad the rate of friction, and the relative frictions of different to produce a uniform and regular motion, which weights; but as these experiments will probably be re: immediately be produced, if no obstacle interfesla peated with greater care and accuracy, we shall at present pose its effects ; the only opposition exerted again abstain from further notice of them.

uniform motion, in our case of the steam-engies, i MECHANICAL PARADOX.

force necessary to coinmunicate an equal modicat wheel, or moving parts of the engine, and which

when once acquired, would, by the laws of velocity SIR,—The question relative to the increasing, velocity fore stated, for ever continue, without further in of a carringe impelled by steam on a railway, having given This velocity being communicated by the force of thes rise to such disputes, I have herewith sent you my ideas the opposition before mentioned is removed, and of the subject, tending to prove that this accelerated mo-escape of the steam becomes, consequently, to tion is not infinite, but that it possesses bounds. I have the power of the steam cannot any longer begun by explaining the boundless acceleration in the the velocity of the wheel; for the wheel having motion of falling bodies, which, I presume, you will not velocity, acquired the same power, flies before the e consider superfluous, it appearing to me absolutely neces- the same manner as a body moving in the same disa sary to the investigation of the case.

and with the same velocity as the wind, constantly The attraction of gravitation is a power continually fore it, and eludes its pursuit. From this period, acting on matter, tending to draw distant bodies towards fore, the motion of the engine will be uniform.

each other; the action of this force never ceases, be the The above are my humble ideas on the subject: A is a small waggon with four cast-iron wheels, placed matter acted!upon large or small; at moțion or at rest, this at your service. It appears to me so plain, that on the periphery of a cast iron drum, B, three feet in attraction still continues as before. Velocity is a property power cannot produce an unlimited velocity, and diameter, and six inches

broad, (which acts as the rail which matter in motion acquires, and which, when once power of steam is limited, that I begin to be titel road.) This drum is fastened on the same shaft with the communicated, would for ever keep the body in the same subject; but, at the same time, do not wish to see from another pulley. The waggon is attached by a wire equable motion, if it were not arrested by some opposing cluded, unless to the satisfaction and convictist to one of Marriott's patent weighing machines, D, for force; this property of matter for acquiring a velocity, parties. the purpose of measuring the friction, and the board, G, operating in conjunction, or at the same time as the con

London, Feb. 14. 1825. prevents the current of air, occasioned by the motion of stant attraction of gravitation; would cause two bodies, the drum, from acting upon the carriage. Now if the drum be driven with any given velocity, say four 'miles submitted in free space to its action, to be attracted with a

Correspondence an hour, in the direction indicated by the mark E, and motion increasing in proportion to the distance they tra. We waggon held in its place by the wire which attaches versed, however great, until they met at a certain point, it to the index, it is perfectly obvious that the wheels will which, provided they both contained the same quantity of

LIVERPOOL IN 1855. revolve on the drum in precisely the same manner as if matter, will be that point which was originally equidistant the waggon moved forward on a horizontal road; and the

TO THE EDITOR friction will also be the same, except, perhaps, a small from them both; therefore, supposing these bodies sepaaddition occasioned by the curvature of the drum, but rated to an infinite distance, and then submitted to this SIR,—This is an age of improvement. The which will not affect the relative frictions of different action, they will move with a velocity continually accele- | frequently comes across me, What is it all to end speeds. As the waggon is stationary, the resistance of the rating, so as to cause them to acquire an infinite or un- but half the schemes for the advancement of the air will be entirely got rid of ; and the index of the limited velocity.

happiness, and improvement of the present generatia weighing machine will indicate the precise amount of traction necessary to overcome the friction. Of course,

Let us now investigate the case of a steam-engine, in carried into effect, what will be their result on sian in making the experiment it will be necessary to keep the which all obstructions arising from the friction of its parts, generations ?. Musing, as I frequently do, on these centre of the waggon exactly over the axis of the drum ; the resistance of the air, &c. are completely laid aside ; in ters, I insensibly fell from a reverie into a downright for if it were permitted to go beyond the centre, a part of this case, as in the former, motion is communicated by and, this singular enough, just as I had uttered the i the weight would be added to the friction : if, on the con. two forces, acting in conjunction with each other, yiz. 1st. ing quotation from my favourite author: weight would act against the friction, and diminish the The force of the steam, which is the prime mover, and " Visions of glory, spare my aching sight: apparent quantity. The tempering screw, F, is, there which, at present, corresponds with gravitation in the Ye unborn ages, crowd not on my soul fore, added to keep the waggon in ito proper situation, in former case. 2ndly. Velocity, which has been before de. in my slumber I fancied myself transported 1000

[graphic]

correct.

riod of time ; in short, that instead of 1825, I was living was once (so we have been credibly informed) the second day, as the Eagle balloon was on its flight, froin Birming1855. The newspapers and other journals of that period port in the kingdom! and even now the Bristolians will ham to Paris, and soaring along, at about fifty yards from | before me, and as the perusal of them afforded me tell you that it ought so to be at this day, were it not for the ground, it was fired at by a miscreant, with a Perkins's uch amusement, I hesitate not to transcribe a few ex- Chamber of Commerce. In all probability these will last it, and rob the passengers. Luckily none of the latter

the interminable disputes between the Corporation and the steamer, with intent, as was afterwards proved, to disable aets, for the gratification of such of your readers as may but twenty years longer, and then we shall see,

The were injured; but the ball or balls of the steamer perfoish to cast an eye into the Kaleidoscope of futurity; and Council-house, began in 1824, is at length finished ; and rating the balloon, the gas escaped as well as the passen. saying, I remain (asleep or awake)

were it in line with any one building near it, really it gers; and the whole soon came to earth. The design of Your most obedient servant, S.T.

would not look amiss. This circumstance (which was not the villain was, however, frustrated, by the courage and Bristol, Feb 8, 1825.

discovered till the walls were up) has occasioned the delay; vigilance of the guard; and, after obtaining a reinforcement twenty-four years having been occupied in deliberations of gas from the next town, they proceeded on their journey

(the citizens pluming theinselves on never doing any thing in safety. We hope this will operate as a caution to steers. (From the Liverpool Mercury of April 3, 1855.)

in a hurry, whether taste should give way to convenience; men, to keep their balloons sufficiently bigh in air' to * We think it right to explain to our readers the cause or, in other words, whether the building should be straighi avoid such risks in future. It was but last week that the the non-appearance of our London article last week. or askew. The question was at last set at rest by an indi Skylark was near striking against Salisbury spire." ke facts are these:—The stoker of the Spitfire (by which vidual, who observed, that as they had never been famed I despatches are usually sent) got beastly drunk, but for being very straight forward in their proceedings, in “TO THE EDITOR OF THE MANCHESTER GAZETTR. d still sense enough left to know he was considerably his judgment, the Council-house ought to correspond with “ Pray, Mr. Editor, can you, or any of your readers, sind his time: he, therefore, got his steam up to its their counsels, and forth with proposed that it should con- give me information on the history (literary and biohest pitch, and, regardless alike of the safety and the tinue crooked; which straighiway received the unanimous graphical) of one Gerard, a poet and painter, who floutreaties of his passengers, endeavoured to pass the Etna, sanction of the meeting."

rished (nó, he did not flourish, if the following lines speak ach, in justice to the engineer of this latter, was going

truth) who lived, about thirty-five years ago, in your town? the usual steady rail-road pace of twenty miles an hour. otwithstanding the superior velocity of the Spitfire (she

"TO THE EDITOR OF THE WESTMINSTER GAZETTE. Some historians contend that he resited after that time en travelling at the rate of twenty-five miles an hour) he “SIR,— The speech of the member for Manchester, as

(probably about 1825 or 6) in Liverpool, to which opinion

I rather incline, as I happen to be in possession of certain complished ibis; but, lamentable to add, owing to the reported in your paper of the 1st instant, is glaringly in. MSS. which I met with (for a song) and which bear date eat pressure on his valves (all four of which were extra

What Mr. T. said was this :- Never, since the 19, Parker-street, Liverpool. They are chiefly familiar ghted), just as he reached the middle of Chat-moss, the reform, was there a question before the House of such im. letters, in rhyme, 'addressed to a friend; and, though not ler burst , the unfortunate stoker was killed, and the portance to the clergy and the country at large, as the intended for publication, I know I shall

be excused if I sengers blown in all directions. One old woman was Tythe Compensation Bill, That the abolition of the old present your readers with a few extracts, as any thing is I up a perpendicular height of 76 feet (a countryman system of providing for the interests of religion, bg sub- interesting connected with the fate of this celebrated wit ing observations at the time, determined the altitude tracting the tenth of the produce of other men's labour, and artis b his, quadrant), and having the presence of mind to should be viewed with satisfaction by the country, he was

Dear Sir, serse her position, descended without injury, being by no means surprised. It was no more than natural

This comes to certify the fact that I ad by the Etna perfectly erect, but with only her head that it should be su; but did it follow, from thence, that

Have got your kind epistie per the post, earing above the quag! In consequence of this acci. we should run into the other extreme, and hold out to the

It did rejoice my soul exceedingly, we were deprived of our usual parcel, and our readers late owners of livings no compensation for what the law had

To learn your loving kindness was not lost : he usual latest London news. We have since under thought fit to dispossess them of? Let it not be said that

I need some consolation, and the why I that our parcel was found next day in one of the the House had not tempered justice with mercy. The

Is, that in every effort I am crost, pits adjoining the road. Really, it does behove the least it could do, since it had deprived the reverend body

To furnish food and raiment for the weans, ic to put a stop to these proceedings. If they do not, of one living, was to put it in the way of getting another :

And painting seems the very worst of means; leave it from good authority that some prohibitory at least there should be no obstacle to the improvement of

For in life's struggle I am sunk so low, sures will be brought before Parliament. People will talent where talent existed ; and he was happy to observe

As to be out of sight of fear or hope ;* I go the old horse-way in twenty-four hours, than many instances where it had met its reward. The reverend

Fear that I have much further down to go, their necks endangered at twelve." gentleman who once held the see of Canterbury was deriv.

And faith would fail to float me to the top: The new tea-making company continues to prosper ing a very comfortable maintenance (some said 7 or £800

If 'tis the fate's decree, then be it so, a gire universal satisfaction, with the exception of a a year) by preaching in the chapel late the Rev. Rowland

The subject is ungrateful, so I'drop 14 women, who do not like mixed tea. It is, how. Hill's; whilst, on the other band, there were not wanting

It, and proceed, forth with, to let you know difficult to please all. Such should remember, that instances of the late holders of fat livings coming to abso

How matters of another kidney go.' athly pleasures are unmired. Why, therefore, should lute want. He knew the inference that would be drawn

“In a subsequent stanza he reverts to his domestic pri. espect an exception in the article of tea? To such from this; namely, that it would serve to divide the drones readers as may not have seen the company's works, from the working bees. Unquestionably it would ; still vations ; but even on such a subject could not resist a joke. ef description may be amusing: There are two im he did not wish to crush even the drones of the commu. • Don't you believe that miracles have ceasid, à boilers, of cast-iron, in which the tea is made ; and nity.'

“I am, Sir, yours, &c.

1, by a daily miracle, am fed; pot by the immediate action of fire on the boiler or

* dpril 2, 1855.

“ J. E. T." Nor are Elijah's cat'rers, in the least, but of steam, introduced by the new patent mode.

More wondrous than my daily loaf of bread:

When you reflect (the wonder is increased) 1 boiled enough, it is admitted by valves into the House of Commons, March 80.—The member for Bir. pipes in the streets; which valves are open from mingham was about to address the chair; but, on the mo

How lame I am, by whom 'tis furnished;

I have myself, five children, and a spouse, ast six to eleven in the moruing, and from half-past tion of the Public Accountant the House was counted,

To feed and keep from getting RAVEN-ous ! eleven in the evening. Every family drinks by and there being but 658 members present, of course nothing by which the quantity admitted into the house is could be done, and the Speaker left the chair.”

“ There is a poem of Gerard's, now very scarce, entitled egistered, as in the Oil-gas; a measure highly ap.

“ The Great Unknown;" I want to see it. In my M.SS. 1, as, when paid by the year or quarter, there is great

there appears to be a few detached fragments of it; some “ How would our ancestors have stared to witness the of which, as characteristic of the nature of the work, I for imposition on both sides. A waggish friend of various locomotive devices now resorted to to facilitate subjoin : bserved, it was the largest tea and turn-out company communication between town and town. Balloons, for I ever heard of.” instance; would it have been credited, fifty years back,

• Some knowingly assert, and will not alter, wo labouring mechanics were observed, the other that they could have attained the vast perfection they have

The Great Unknown is known to be Sir Walter.t the corner of one of the streets in Bolton-le-Moors, now arrived at? To be sure, even within the last thirty

Considering that the muster-roll of fame debate on the respective excellencies of Euclid and years, a few individual, though unsuccessful, attempts

Would form but lenten fame to him who reads ; n. At the end of an hour, one of them recollecting were made to render them subservient to some useful pur.

As neither of my heroes have a name, bat he had left unfinished, broke off suddenly, with pose: but how was this done ? Frequently by only a sin.

And claim their titles solely from their deeds, * Prudens advertit ad gressus suos."... The other gle adventurer committing himself to the car of this pon,

I have subjoin'd remarks upon each claim, liately retorted, • Qui festinat ad divitias, non crit derous machine, mounting two or three miles high, and

Tenliven the detail, as it proceeds. Te can conceive of nothing in the fine arts more him. Nay, so little control had he over the balloon, being blown about wherever the winds of heaven wafted

The man who noble is, may laugh to scorn,

Him whose sole boast is, he was nobly born." gly beautiful than the statue of Roscoe, by our cele- that, in descending, it was mere chance-work whether he

• Who from the Nautilus first took the hint, townsman Gibson, lately opened for public inspec- perched in a forest-tree, or on the spire of the parish

of making Eolus drive him on his way, the centre of the great ball of arts in this town. church, on terra firma, or the main sea. As to steering in

When floating on the watery element? work is not less creditable to the public spirit of a parallel direction he had no idea of the thing; still less

Who first made of the tinny race a prey? ce, and to the genius of the sculptor, than to the of combining the united powers of gas and steam in pro

Without e'en which the Catholies, in Lent, y of the illustrious character for whom it was de pelling the machine, whenever and wherever he wished.

Would dine but sparely-fasting, do they say? It is a noble figure; worthy of him in his best | All this our fathers had no conception of. They went up

Feed me with fish, and I'll commence to-morrow, such as a few of us seniors can remember him to to the clouds, as bubbles blown by children, and with

And call it lent, as long as I can borrow.' about as much of usefulness; and he was the greatest bilst. Liverpool has been rising rapidly in wealth aëronaut who went the greatest height. The establish.

“ I could give many more, and will do, if you wish me; nmercial importance, especially during the last half ment of them as media of communication, as regular as Who would believe that this man, so much neglected in ', we can but look with wonder, not unmixed with stage-coaches, would then have been scouted, as visionary the summer of his days, should afterwards find honour in lace has rather made a retrograde movement. It their imperfections and occasional accidents, as well as prized till life has lost its

chief relish : perhaps not ti ir

, other conveyances : most certainly they have, as the fol- Chatterton. prudent man looketh well. to his going.

lowing occurrence will prove. All we say is, they are not + Probably Sir Walter Scott, who indeed Nourished at the that maketh baste to be rich shall not be innocent. worse, in this respect, than land-carriages — Last Wednes- period.

een.”

SOLUTION TO GAME XXXIV.

but, for the present, shall only add the following, as speci- of sending a few lines by way of answer. To my first

As this arrangement will be attended with considera mens of his love for punning:

query, ** can there be a succession of discords ?” he re- expense to us, we must solicit our friends and the pol • A King may have his birth-day antedated; Witness our Sovereign Lord, in point a case.

plies in the affirmative, then contradicts himself, and flies for a share of advertisements, to enable us to defray i A man may like his income over-rated,

as a last refuge to musical licences. In the second place Advertisers through this medium will have the advanta Tho' not before the tax-collector's face.

he says, "F* should be G b." I beg to say that, in of extensive publicity for their advertisements, not only A man in Norfolk may be suffoc-ated,

my humble opionion, F * is perfectly right, as 'tis as- this county, and throughout the principal towns of As well as almost any other place.

cending, and therefore could not with propriety be G b: kingdom, but also in Ireland, where few English net A tailor, if on heraldry he dotes,

He then accuses me of being "negligent and slovenly" papers circulate, in consequence of their price, which May take for coats of arms, the arms of coats.' “ In hopes some of your correspondents may be able to

for not attaching a b to the B which I gave as a funda- siderably exceeds that of the Irish journals. favour us with the requisite particulars on the above sub-mental note; as “throughout the octave there are scarcely As a specimen of the nature of our supplemental ject, " I remain, &c.

any two notes more dissimilar, in all their bearings, than we beg to refer our readers to the “ Local and Adveria “ Mar. 31, 1855.

“ AMICUS." B and B b. Wonderful discovery! erudite M:lsicus! Department” of this day.
To this observation I must say, that when musical people

Battle of Algiers.—The panorama descriptive d'!
DIORAMA, BOLD-STREET.
speak of Ebbb, it is supposed that B is dat

important event is one of the most effective canizam To conclude, the argument of Musicus (i. e. if his name

we ever witnessed. The landscape, the ocea, the mea TO THE EDITOR.

can be taken as such) is most preposterous; and we may, tic approach of the British and Dutch fiets, the territs SIR,When an article in praise of any public exhibi- with great propriety, say to Musicus, in the words of bombardment of the city, and the amazing eficta pesma tion, whatever its claims on public patronage may be, ap- Romeo, "you speak, yet say nothing.”

duced by it, are all so vividly portrayed, but the speepears in a newspaper, it is generally put down as a

AMATEUR.

tator can scarcely resist the impression that he is placed “puff;" but to talk of puffing,” when the Bold-street

on the very scene of action; while the humate objects

Newry, Feb. 21, 1825. Diorama is in question, would be nothing less than down.

the expedition, and its triumphant termination is the sel

jection of the Algerines and the liberation of the waha right nonsense. The word “puff"' conveys an idea that

The Beauties of eness. tunate captives, produce feelings wbich can be beta al more merit is attributed to the thing than it really de.

ceived than described. We heartily commend the al serves: but, in treating of the Diorama, every effort, how

bition to the favour of our readers of all set and

Ludimus effigiem belli"........... VIDA. ever powerful, to do it adequate justice, is futile and vain.

parties.—See ado. la viewing the picture now exhibiting, (the interior of

Co Correspondents Canterbury Cathedral,) the first conclusion I came to was

White.

Black. that either it was a reality, or that human ingenuity in

1 Kuighi H6..F-7+

1 Casile......

F-7 the art of painting had arrived at its utmost limits; and,

ERRATA IN MR. HAMILTON'S LETTER OF LAST WEE-I 2 Pawa E-7+ 2 Casile... E-7

did and erudite writer, read candid and veredict the although an artist myself, and as conversant in the secrets

3 Knight E-6+ 3 Castle E-6

our antiquity, read all antiquity; for Harrison's a and beauties of perspective painting as most of my cotem

read Harris's Hermes. 4 Pawu

E-6 4 Bishop ur Casile lo poraries, I for some time looked upon it as nothing less

LIVERPOOL IN 1855.—This jeu d'esprit of our ested 5 Pawei E-7+ MATE.

any square.

correspondent will afford our readers amusement, than childish credulity to believe it a pictorial representa

points of the humour are generally applicable in die lion rather than a reality. To look at the steps, the stained

(NO. Xxxv.)

unprecedented speculation. By the by, should be glass windows actually emitting light, the aisle, the arches, The white has the move, and gives checkmate in five moves. again, his midnight familiar will, in all probabil, the massy Gothic pillars, the two men lying asleep on the

in his ear some prophetic anticipations of the steps, the sand, the broken fragments of the steps and pil

of Liverpool, by the superior accommodations Black.

commerce by the rival port of Manciter, then lars, the planks placed for the repairing of them, the blocks

British emporium of commerce and manufactures of marble lying on the foreground, the artists' tools thrown

у 8 р а я Η 5 Η

excellent subject for a dreamer; and its birth an carelessly about, the immense distance the interior appears

probability, be traced to some such origin. The from the gallery on which you stand (no less than 100 to

scheme, to use Shakspeare's language, is szeh

dreams are made of;" and, like the baseless film 150 yards) and the short distance you seem to be removed

vision," it will "leave not a wreck behind. We from the entrance (8 to 10 yards) it would require the most

unacquainted with the merits of Mr. Gerard, humble, nay painful subjection of the senses, to entertain

peculigr claims he has to the sympathy of the pikal for a moment the idea that those things are not “verily

we wish our correspondent would draw the steal and indeed” what they are meant to represent, or to ac

our townsmen more particularly to a circumstal

knowledge of which may prove serviceable to de knowledge the whole a plane surface, removed at a dis.

man and an ingenious artist. tance of 80 feet from you. If I am not a perfect stranger

MUSICAL CRITICISM.-We have inserted the letter of to the architectural taste of Liverpool, this exhibition will

of Newry, but we must take the liberty to hint to be literally a poll-tax on its inhabitants. The poorest me

respondent not to be too confident in maintaining chanic must see it, for it is a thing he cannot deny him

view of the subject, as we happen to know, that in self the pleasure or advantage of seeing. I myself took up

son of Musicus, he has to do with a gentleman of na

proficiency in the science of which he is a distingele a perpetual ticket, and visited it as often each day as "the

nament. Wemust say no more; nor should we ha righteous man sins," with a hope, that getting familiar

thus much, had not Amateur in his reply indulgedal with it would in some measure destroy the illusion ; but

which, in our opinion, might have been very wel I must confess, the oftener I visited it the more I found

We have been favoured with the second commune C D E F G H

luded to by our correspondent, and shall take myself deceived. Being, however, a great admirer of

portunity of explaining our views more fully care beauty and fashion, my chagrin is always lost in the plea

WHITE.

alluded to. sure I enjoy in beholding them shine there, “in foul and

AUTHOR OF THE SKETCH BOOK.-A correspondence fair weather,” in the fullest zenith of their glory; for to

The Kaleidoscope.

from Glasgow, is, we presume, in error, in the credit of the ladies of this town be it told, that they

Mr. Washington Irving is no more. We har beste

such a report; and not many months have are constant visitors, which is, in my opinion, the best

TO THE PUBLIC,

he published his Tales of a Traveller, from which proof that can be given of their extraordinary taste for the

some extracts in a recent Kaleidoscope, at the fine arts.--Yours, &c.

pressing our opinion that they were decided

TO OUR COUNTRY READERS.
Liverpool, Feb. 24, 1825.
W. I. D.

his former works.

T. A. M.'s verses shall appear in our next. In the Our readers will perceive that we, this day, present (SEB A NOTE TO CORRESPONDENTS.]

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LETTER VIII.

Natural History

Since that time, the earth has been more than once sud-, to give you some idea of the results which they have ob.

denly invaded by the sea ; but if we may judge by the tained, and shall begin, by borrowing from their work the LETTERS

traces remaining to us of these inundations, they must description of the limits of the gulf anciently formed by ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE. have been tumultuous movements, and of such short du- the hollow in which Paris was built. BY M. ALEX. B.

ration, that the animals existing upon the soil before they A considerable tract of the country between the basin

took place were, after the retreat of the waters, again pro- ¡ of the Seine and that of the Loire consists of a vast eleLa legère ceuche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne duced, and multiplied. The last, of considerable impor- vated plain, the largest portion of which is vulgarly known ware que des ruines.-Paris: printed, 1824.

tance, was probably that deluge recorded in the traditions of by the name of Beauce. Its middle part, which is the rendeled expressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French work. all aneient people. This inundation is probably the only driest, extends in a south-east direction, from Courville to

one that has happened since man has existed, who most pro Montargis, over a space of more than forty leagues.

bably, being the principal being of this creation, appeared “ This plain is bounded towards the northeast by a CONTINUATION OF THE MINERAL CRUST.

last upon the globe. His bones have been no where found tract of land, more elevated and more intersected, as the

in a fossil state, because, as the sea has not changed its rivers Eure, Aure, Illon, Rille, Orne, Mayenne, Sarte, In my former letters, I have endeavoured, when speak. bed since the catastrophe which destroyed nearly all his Huine, and Loir, derive thence their sources. This I to you of the mineral crust, to explain the distinction ween the two parts of which it is composed. One of species, his remains are without doubt buried in the depths country, of which the most elevated part, that is to say,

the part between Seez and Mortagne, formerly constituted n, the primitive soil, has covered the internal mass,

I am aware, Madam, that as I have so often mentioned the province of Perche, and part of Lower Normandy, n the most remote period of time: the other, the old the frequent inundations which all parts of our continents now belongs to the department of Ome. fal soil, is evidently of much more recent formation, have alternately experienced, and as I have referred to this “The natural line of separation between Beauce and constitutes its most superficial envelope. The successive cause the deposition of the different formations which con. Perche passes nearly through the towns of Bonnevalle, ens, of which these two parts are composed, are very stitute the largest portion of the mineral crust, I ought, Alluye, Iliers, Courville, Pontgouin, and Verneuil Hy very numerous, and differ widely from each other.

without further delay, to enter into some details upon this “ The plain overlooks all the remaining part of the land The layers of the primitive soil are particularly dis- subject. First, I will explain to you the meaning of the adjacent to it. guished from those of the alluvial soil, by the nature of word formation, which I have already used, and which rocks composing them. They differ still further, first, will again frequently occur in the course of what I have to tion to the subject of which we are at present treating.

" Its declivity on the side next the Loir has no rela. their more considerable thickness ; secondly, in their say. In geology, this term designates the united mass of “ The edge of its declivity on the side next the Seine kter regularity, and their more parallel position with several layers, which, though widely differing from each forms two lines ; one, towards the west, fronts the Eure, pect to each other ; thirdly, in the nature of the pro- other in nature, were formed without a total cessation of the other, towards the east, is immediately opposite the tions which they inclose. This last circumstance has the cause that produced them.

Seine. to the most curious results; we learn from it that life

You will readily understand, Madam, that although “ The first extends from Dreux towards Mantes. hot always existed upon the globe ; for, although it is the great divisions of the mineral crust are applicable to " The other begins near Mantes, and passes through lent, from the crystallization of the layers of the primi- the whole extent of the earth, since the order in which the Marly, Meudon, Palaiseau, Marcoussy, la Ferté-Alais, soil, that they were formed in a liquid ;* yet, as they several formations are deposited is every where nearly si. Fontainebleau, Nemours, &c. ain the remains of no organic being, we are compelled inilar, yet, upon a more minute examination of it, partial “But it must not be imagined that these two lines are include that the liquid, in which they were deposited, differences will be found to exist, sufficiently marked to straight or uniform; they are, on the contrary, exceedingly not produce any, or at least, such only as were in- render indispensable particular researches in every country. rugged and uneven, so that if this vast plain were surble of being preserved.

The great chains of rocks were evidently formed before rounded by water, its shores would form several gulfs, the first layers of the alluvial soil we begin to find traces the deposition of the alluvial soil, by the elevation of the capes, and straits, and would be encompassed by nu. le early stages of an extremely simple organization; layers of the primitive soil, to a height which the sea has merous small islends. le more elevated layers are discovered the remains of

never since reached; their summits, therefore, consist of “ Thus, in our neighbourhood, the long mountain, exs and marine animals ; but these are always preceded naked sharp ridges of granite; in the sides of these moun- tending from Saint Cloud to the confluence of the rivers organical, calcareous substances, as if nature had, in tains the same kind of granite is always covered by other Mauldre and Seine, and covered by the woods of Saint aner, provided for the formation of shells , by prepa- layers, which have successively been deposited by the sea. Cloud, Ville d'Avray, Marly, and Aluets

, would form an the materials which enter into their composition.

The summits, therefore, of these mountains formed island separated from the main land, by the defile in which le study of the successive layers, and particularly of islands, and their prolonged ridges the boundaries of sepa. Versailles now stands, by the little valley of Sevres, and ssil remains of the animals inclosed in them, leads sitively to conclude, that the sea, after having conti- rate basins. The liquids in these basins possessed each by the great valley of the park of Versailles. some distinctive property, in consequence of which their

“ The other mountain, in the form of a fig-leaf, upon during some thousands of centuries, above our con several precipitations must have varied in nature. There which stand Bellevue, Mendon, the woods of Verriere, abode, collections of shells far exceeding in number was no less variety in the living beings which they con- and those of Chaville, would form a second island, sepa

tained ; and thence arise partial and local differences in rated from the continent by the valley of Biévre, and that hole mass of those now found in the ocean, at length the soil of deposition, notwithstanding the general uni- between the hills of Jouy, loned a soil, prepared for the nourishment of the terformity of its composition.

“ From Saint Cyr to Orleans, there is no complete se al quadrupeds, whose races have been destroyed by

It was natural that the soil, upon which Paris is situated, paration of the land, although the valleys, watered by the eding cataclysms. If, before this retreat of its waters, should become an object of particular study to the cele rivers Biévre, Ivette, Orge, Etampes, Essonne, and Loing, a had sometimes temporarily

, receded from our con- brated naturalists who inhabit that city. They, in the penetrate very far into the continent, on the eastern side ; ts, it would have left the soil in a state unfit for vege. pursuit of their inquiries, have shown in what manner re- and those of Vesgre, Voise and Eure, on the western side. 1, and consequently incapable of affording sustenance searches of that kind ought to be carried on. M. Cuvier,

“ The part of the coast which would most fabound in imals of a somewhat elevated order.

conjointly with another celebrated naturalist, has produced rocks and islands, is that vulgarly known by the name of This opinion is adopted by Cuvier, and by most of the an excellent work upon this subject. I will endeavour the French Gâtinais ; especially the portion of it com.

prehending the forest of Fontainebleau. alists of the present day, but it is not universally ad- • Essay on the mineralogical geography of the environs of Paris,

• The declivities around this immense plain are, in d. Some geologists (Buffon was of the number) at- by M. M. Cuvier and Brongniart. The first edition appeared te the formation of the primitive crust to the action of in 1810: this essay has, since that time, been reprinted, having general, steep. All their craggy bare parts, as well as the

been included in the great work of M. Cuvier upon fossil bones. wells dug in the plain, show that its physical nature is

every where the same, and that it is formed of a prodigious

Miscellanies.
by the waters reaching their beds in the darkness of night

, mass of fine sand, extending also over the surface of the

and could only escape without clothes by hastening up to lower tracts of land around it. DREADFUL AND FATAL INUNDATIONS AT the roofs or lofts of their houses. There

, like many other “ The side of the plain opposite the Seine, from Maul

HANOVER.

families, who were roused from their sleep by the thunder dre to Nemours, forms the natural limit of the basin,

ing noise of the waters rolling over the dykes, a great nus which we are going to examine.

The most calamitous accounts have lately been received ber of them are yet waiting, suffering from hunger “ From under its two extremities, that is to say, to from Germany of the devastations committed by the rising cold, to be released from their perilous situation, because wards Mauldre, and a little beyond Nemours, issue two of the sea. The power of the water was so great, that no barges, boats, and rafts could not be procured in suficiel portions of a bed of chalk, which extending to a great dis- dyke or bulwark could withstand the rush, and the places number to come to their assistance. Several other sefe tance in all directions, forms the whole of Upper Nor- on which the floods have had most effect are, of course, ers have remained clinging to trees for a whole day belen mandy, Picardy, and Champagne.

the lowlands, which, in that country, are by far the most any help could be given them. “ The interior edges of this great inclosure, which form fruitful. But no words of ours can describe the scene so 6. The loss of public and private property is impetu

, at the north-east a considerable angle, comprehending the well as the following extracts from official reports, dated especially in the districts of Harburg and Stade, in the whole of Saonnais, on the eastern side pass through Mon. Hanover 8th and 11th Feb. 1825:

province called the Ante Land, so well known by the ar. tereau, Sezanne, Epernay; on the western side, through While the distress, caused by the dreadful inunda- cellent fruit it produces, in the vicinity of Baustekude, in Montfort, Mantes, Gisors, Chaumont, and approach tions in November and December last, was still very se- the bailiwicks of Himmelpforten, Neuhaus, Blameschel, Compiegne; they complete, with the sandy coast which verely felt by thousands of the inhabitants of the northern the county of Kehdingen, and in the extensie district of we have just described, the natural limits of our basin. provinces of this kingdom, they have been visited by a re- Emden, Norden, Papenburgh, Esens, in East Frisland,

“But there is this difference, that the sandy bed of Beauce petition of the same calamity by far more extensive and and in all the districts situate on the coast of that cestry: being higher than all the others, is consequently the most deplorable.

30,000 of the inhabitants have lost all their motable for modern, and that the coast we have marked out is its ter- “On the evening of the 3d inst. the violent gale, which perty, and 100,000 acres of the finest land and garden mination ; whilst, on the contrary, the bed of chalk is had blown for 24 hours from the west, suddenly turned to have been laid waste and rendered useless for several years naturally the most ancient, and consequently lower than the north-west, and became a complete hurricane, which to come, if they can ever be recovered from the sen. Man all the others. It merely ceases to appear externally along raged till the next day with unremitting fury, accompanied of the houses which have escaped total destruction

, ez a the line of circumference, indicated above ; but, far from with a thick fall of snow and flashes of lightning. The will be, rendered uninhabitable, as they remain expelu terminating there, it evidently extends under the other sea being driven by this hurricane up the rivers Elbe and the violence of the floods. At least two-thirds of all the layers; this is found to be the case, wherever sufficiently Weser, they quickly rose to the tremendous height of from ile have been drowned, and immense quantities of con deep excavations are made in them; in some places it has 21 to 22 feet, which has never been the case since the year which had been hoarded up, the farmers not having ber even forced its way through them, and appears above them. 1717. The smaller rivers connected with them, especially able to sell it at any price, and of hay, have been see

" It may then be imagined, that the materials con- the Schwinge and Oste, soon rose in the same proportion. off or spoiled.—Even in the towns, many houses have be tained within the basin of Paris, to the extent of the All the dykes and banks on our side of the Elbe and We destroyed, the fury of the waters being such as to learn limits we have just marked out, were deposited in a vast ser, from Winsen and Harburg down to Ritzebutted, and the pavements in the streets, and to wash away the hollow space, a sort of gulf, whose sides consisted of chalk. up to Bremerlehe, a distance of 130 English miles, and all from the ramparts. In the city of Emden vast at

“Whether or not this gulf formed an entire circle, or the inland dykes, were overflowed to the height of four or merchandise have been lost, being swept away great lake, cannot be ascertained, since its south-west shores five fect; they soon after gave way in more than 120 places warehouses. bave been covered by the great bed of sand which we have at once, and thus in less than one hour the whole country “ The dykes and sluices have been so generally now described above."

between Winsen and Bremerlehe was overwhelmed by the that the whole population of the inundated districts can To all the proofs brought forward in this description, raging floods.,

furnish sufficient hands to repair or restore them bel permit me, Madam, to add one, which will perhaps tend “ The greatest and finest parts of East Friesland shared next autumn. They must, in many places, remain o still more effectually to convince you, that the place occu. the same fate during that dreadful night; the floods to new ravages of the floods, though every possible esa pied by Paris formerly constituted part of the bottom of having risen - 10 feet above the usual high tide; and the is making, with the assistance of the military, to il a vast gulf.

waters in the Ems having been swelled to the unprece- at least in a temporary manner, the most dange All parts of the soil, that must have formed its dented height of 22 feet, all the inland dykes were over breaches. Several of these breaches are from 800 13 shores, contain a very large quantity of smooth flints, flowed; the sea rolled with the utmost violence across the feet wide. Four large trading vessels have been sual often united in pudding-stones, like those found on the sea-dykes, till the strongest of them were broken in more one of them, to check the floods on the coast of strands of gulfs, still occupied by the cea. They may then 50 places round the coast from the Dollard to the Friesland. now serve to point out the limits of the ancient gulf of mouth of the Jahde.

“ As most of the inundated districts are still from which we are speaking, as the light substances left by the “ On the morning of the 4th the scene was most appal. 15 feet deep under water, and as all kinds of pren Seine upon its shores, after an overflow of its waters, in ling. The inundated country, comprising altogether from have been destroyed in them, thousands of the suferens dicate to what distance they have extended. M. M. Ca. 1000 to 1200 English square miles, appeared as forming a in a state of starvation, and destitute of every tibia vier and Brongniart enter into still further details respect- part of the ocean. of the extensive lines of the dykes, With several of them no communication has yet ing the places where these Aints are found.

only isolated ruins were perceived rising from the waters, practicable, owing to the violence of the tides and “ Immense banks of flints are found dear Nemours, many of them crowded with the unfortunate people, who floating ice. placed exactly between the chalk and the soil above it. were exposed to the violence of the still raging hurricane. To increase the general distress, their is a total

“ They are also seen at Moret, near the pyramid, where of most of the villages, only the steeples and the tops of of drinkable water, the sea having filled all the vida they are furmed into very fine pudding-stones.

the roofs could be seen. Skeletons and wrecks of houses cisterns; and, to complete the misery of the "The land traversed in going from Beaumont-sur. and barns, haystacks, furniture of all kinds, trees torn up alarming symptoms of disease have already Oise to Ivry-le-Temple, is entirely composed of smooth by the roots, dead human bodies intermixed with drowned amongst them. Every hour brings fresh and fints, spread more or less abundantly in a red, argilla. cattle, were observed every where drifting towards the sea : plorable accounts from the seat of this dreadfulseous, sand, soil, deposited above the chalk. This tract while piercing cries of distress from the poor sufferers which, during this winter, has been visited by of land forms one of the shores of the basin of chalk. clinging to the floating ruins or to the trees surrounding disastrous events. The theatres have been shut, , “Beds of Aints are again found near Mantes, between their habitations, or crowded on the roofs and in the lofts winter amusements have ceased. Our Gorennest Triel and that town, in a small valley called, upon maps, of tottering buildings, were heard in every direction. taken prompt and laudable measures to render a la Vallée des Cailloux.

"No language can describe the horrors and dangers devastation. Committees are forming every where to

to the inundated provinces, and to save

them from fer Near Houdan they are amassed,' round the edges of the which the 80,000 inhabitants, involved in this calamity, lect the donations of private charity; the oficers of Belds, in immense heaps. Finally, that part of the plains have endured, and the state of misery and distress to which army have given up three days' pay, and the soldiers of la Sologne comprehended between Orleans and Salbris

, they have been reduced. A great many have perished, day's pay, and all other ranks and classes vie with is composed of a brownish silicious sand, mixed with a numbers in the noble attempt of saving others. In the other in assisting to alleviate the misery of so nary. large quantity of smooth fints, of several kinds. Here village of Neuenfelde 24 dwelling-houses have been swept repair this calamity, to preserve the lives of so many. not only flints are found, but also jaspers and quartz of away, and 70 persons have found a watery grave. various colours. These beds are deposited almost imme- Francop, another village, eight houses, with all their in the means of subsistence, to enable them hereafter dlately above the chalk, as may be seen upon examining mates, have been carried off. A number of single houses pew their occupations, and to provide for themselves the land near Salbris, &c. and they are very different from in different places in the Duchy of Bremen and East by their own industry, and to protect them and their the mands of the Pays Chartrain, Beauce, &c. which cor. Friesland have entirely disappeared with their inhabitants. perty, against new ravages from the formidable eles win no pebbles of fint.”

Thousands, living at a great distance from the dykes, and similar distressing accounts have been receired the (To be continued.)

thinking themselves secure from all danger, were surprised | Duchies of Holstein and Oldenburg."

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