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The Naturalist's Biary.
we must not fail to notice that emblem of virtue in retire. The Commissioners, however, have not confined their ment, the modest violet, which makes its appearance this attention to matters of utility only: with a view of ulti.
month, and perfumes the air with its delicious odour. mately restoring and perpetuating the scenery and enjoy. MARCH, 1825.
The character of the violet has been well exemplified in ment to the public of the Royal Parks of Richmond,
that little French motto Il faut me chercher,' so justly Hampton Court, Bushy, and Greenwich, they have caused (From Time's Telescope.)
applied to this flower. Violets have been the favourite a special survey to be made of these parks; and a great
theme of the poets, who have named them honours of number of the trees being found to be in a state of pro. (Concluded from our last.)
meads, and pretty daughters of the earth gressive, and many of them of rapid decay, a competent and sun.' 'They are also thus apostrophized :
of money is now annually appropriated towards Our little modest friend, the Alpine wall-cress (aratis
Sweet violets, that spread
stocking them with young and growing trees. In Wind. Hina) has not yet forsaken us, and, though in external
Your gracious odours, which you couched bear
sor Great Park, plantations to a considerable extent had luty it must yield the palm to the more gaudy flowers
Within your paly faces,
been made by the command and under the direction of Flora's train, yet it is endeared to us, from the
Upon the gentle wing of some calm-breathing wind his late Majesty, and these have been recently extended that it enlivened our walks in the severity of winter,
That plays amidst the plain.
under the direction of the Commissioners. In Hyde Park, en the rude blasts of Boreas continued to blow with
In this month, black ants are observed; the blackbird also, similar improvements have been made by the Ranger, diminished rigour. The mezereon is putting forth its and the turkey lay; and house pigeons sit. The green- under the direction of the Lords of the Treasury. res, and the blossoms of the peach and nectarine trees finch sings; the bat is seen Aitting about ; and the viper Among the magnificent ornaments of our metropolis, mygdales) are now open: But we have forgotten the uncoils itself
from its winter sleep. The wheater, or Eng. commenced under the auspices of his present Majesty Frimrose, showing itself yet fairer from the early sea: lish ortolan (sylvia ænanthe) again pays
its anaual visit, while Regent, the Regent's Park ranks high in point of of its appearance: peeping forth even from the retreat- leaving England in September.
Those birds which have utility as well as beauty, and is an invaluable addition to snows of winter: it forms a happy shade
of distinction passed the winter in England now take their departure the comforts and the pleasures of those who reside in the ween the delicate snowdrop and the flaming crocus.
for more northerly regions; as the fieldfare, the red-wing, north-west quarter of London. It is no small praise to TRE PRIMROSE. and the woodcock.
the Commissioners of Woods and Forests to say, that this law it in my evening walk,
On the 20th the vernal equinox takes place, and all Park is under their especial direction; and although, from A little lonely flower
nature feels her renovating sway, and seems to rejoice at the various difficulties they have necessarily encountered, Doder a hollow bank it grew, the retreat of winter.
they have not been enabled to carry into execution every Deep in a mossy bower.
The general or great flow of sap in most trees takes part of their intended plan, they have done enough to en. In oak's gnarled root, to roof the care,
place in this month; this is preparatory to the expanding title them to the lasting thanks of a grateful public. A With Gothic fret-work sprung,
of the leaves, and ceases when they are out. The ash park, like a city, is not made in a day; and to posterity Whence jewelled fern, and arum leaves,
now puts forth its grey buds; and the hazel and the wil it must be left fully to appreciate the merits of those who And ivy garlands hung.
low exhibit some signs of returning life in their silky en designed and superiatended this delightful metropolitan and close beneath came sparkling out, folded catkins.
improvement. From an old tree's fallen shell. Now hazel catking, and the bursting buds
In March, trouts begin to rise, and blood worms appear A Uttle rill, that clipt abuut
of the fresh willow, whispered 'Spring is coming: in the water. The clay hair-worm is found at the bottom The Lady in her cell And bullfinches forth fitting from the woods,
of drains and ditches, and the water-flea may be seen and there, methought, with bashtal pride,
With their rich silver voices, and the humming gliding about upon the surface of sheltered pools. She seemed to sit and look of a new wakened bee that passed: and broods
The equinoctial gales are usually most felt, both by sea Go her own maiden loveliness, Of ever-dancing gnats, again consuming,
and land, about this time. Pale Imaged in the brook. In pleasant sun-light, their regiven time:
The smelt begins to ascend rivers to spawn, when they No other tower, no rival grew
And the germs swelling in the red shoots of the limec are taken in great abundance. The gannets or Soland Beside my pensive maid; All these were tell-tales of far brighter hours,
geese resort in March to the Hebrides, and other rocky the dwelt alone, a cloistered bun, That had been, and again were on their ways
isles of North Britain, to make their nests and lay theís In solitude and shade.
The breaking forth of green things, and of Aowers, eggs. No run-beam on that falry pool
From the earth's breast; from bank and quickening spray Black beetles may now be observed flying about in the Darted its dazzling light:
Dews, buds, and blossoms; and in woodland bowers, evening; and bats issue from their places of concealment Only, methought, some clear cold star Fragrant and fresh, full many a sweet bird's lay,
Roach and dace float Dear the surface of the water, and Might tremble there at night Sending abroad, from the exultant spring,
sport about in pursuit of insects. Peas appear above To ruting wind could reach her thero To every living heart a gladsome welcoming.
ground; the sea-kale (crambe maritima) now begins to
Howitts Forest Minstrel No eye, methought, but mino,
sprout. The male blossoms of the yew-tree expand and Or the young lambs that came to drink
About the middle of the month, the red currant is in discharge their farina. Sparrows are busily employed in Had spied her secret shrine.
leaf. The buds of the red lilac appear, and the leaves of forming their nests. Young Otters are produced, and And there was pleasantness to me
the thornless sose and of the hawthorn are gradually be. young lambs are yeaned this month. In such belief-cold eyes coming determinate. The field daisy is now seen scat
About the end of March a brimstone-coloured butterfly That slight dear Nature's lovelines tered over dry pastures.
(papilio rhamni ) appears. Profane her mysteries.
The planting and sozing of FOREST TREES is gene. THE ENFRANCHISED; OR TRE BUTTERITI RAT Long time I looked and Ungered there, rally concluded in this month. The mixing of fir trees
Thou hast burst from thy prison Absorbed in stil delight; with oaks (except in yery, sheltered situations) is now fre
Bright child of the air, My spirits drank deep quietness
quently adopted by the planter. From a variety of expe. la with that quiet sight. riments made under the direction of the Commissioners of
Like a spirit just risen
From its mansion of care.
bis Majesty's Woods and Forests, and Land Revenues, tected from the inclemency of the weather by our former have derived so much benefit from the shelter it appears that where oaks have been mixed with firs, the
Thou art joyously winging
Thy Arst ardent Aight, -houses, roses, hyacinths, heliotropes, and gera.
Where the gay lark is singlag s, are now in full blossom, regaling the senses with afforded by the latter, that in almost all cases the oaks
Her notes of delight:
affording to the obviate any objections that might be made to the plant-
Where the sun-beams are throwbang sheltered by the walls of a good conscience, is able ing of firs on account of their supposed injury to the
Their glories on thine, hstand the keen blasts of affliction, or the more de. tion, however, will be required to thin out the firs, before beauty of the forest scenery. The most watchful atten
Till thy colours are glowing ive blights of slander, and, under the smiles of an
With tints more divine. ving God, blooms with redoubled freshness, shed- they either overgrow the oaks, or draw them up to a
Then, tasting new pleasure its balmy sweets on all around. Yet, amid this height disproportioned to the strength of the stem, and Gve scene of beauty, will thoughts, like those of the without regard being had to the whole of the produce,
In Summer's green bowen such thinnings must be executed in the first instance,
Reposing at leisure occasionally present themselves to the reflective which, for a few years, would probably not defray their
On fresh-opened howers
or delighted to hover
Around them to see
Whose charms, airy rore,
Bloom sweetest for thes
And fondly inhaling
Their fragrance, till day Ww life restore the hours belonging to the Crown, now actually in timber or young
Trom thy bright eye is falling a Innocence, when, free from pata plantations, amounts to 51,627 acres ; and from some new
And fading away. Our day was like the flowers inclosures to be made in New, Dean, and Woolmer Po
Then seeking some blossoms fodils, yellow auriculas, coltsfoot, with its brilliant rests, it is expected that 11,000 acres may yet be added to
Which looks to the west, and sometimes pink or silvery stars, and hounds this amount. Dy are in blossom about the middle of the month. Such are the beneficial results (as it respects the growth
Thou dost ind in its bosoma
Sweet shelter and resta nerica ve are indebted for a species of cowslip which of Navy Timber) of the science and industry displayed s in March, and whose beautiful rose-coloured hy the Commissioners in the execution of the important
And there dost betake theo ins, growing in thick branches in the form of a task committed to their care. Having carefully perused
Till darkness is o'er, aow add greatly to the beauty of our gardens. their different triennial Reports, we cheerfully give our
And the sun-beams awake the Ist our attention is attracted by the more gaudy humble testimony to their meritorious and unceasing
To pleasure once more. gers wbieb obtrude themselve on car observation, ' labours for the attainment of this great national objects
D. 2. VOIR
that town. F. Cara
INSCRIBED TO MISS
Thermo- I hermo-Extreme Star el meter 8 meter
the morning. boon. Night. Wind.
REMARKS FOR FEBRUARY
Welcome, ye fair and dewy flowers,
Culled from the lap of spring;
For dear the hopes ye bring;
And the leafy woods were bare;
And bland is the perfum'd air;
And thy form inclines to earth;
Inwove with life and death;
More dear than musky rose ;
The weary heart's repose;
Ye gentle flow'rets, hail!
And hope is on the gale;
Once more I bid you hail!
And breathe your sweetest tale;
And life, be thy hours like the flowers of spring. Liverpool
Fair maiden! say, does this apply
highly honourable to the taste and feelings of the parties, a To any thing 'twixt thee and I?
who, on that occasion, partook of a sumptuous dinner el Perhaps thou wert not quite aware
Bagot's, the Commercial Inn,
Esq. was chosen President, and T. Thompson, Esq. Vics
president, and a more intellectual or agreeable evenit Thou gav'st me that dear lock of bair
was never passed by the warmest admirers of genius ar Than Psyche's ringlet far more fair,
poesy. After the cloth had been drawn, a number And bade me use the gift discreetly.
appropriate toasts, sentiments, and songs went round; 2 Ah! rather let me hope 'twas meant
Mr. Bulfield addressed the meeting in an eloquent speed According to the fond intent
dwelling with enthusiasm on the merits of the poei, es
touching, with generosity and delicacy, on the faults are Which still is registered above,
man,-frailties which he justly attributed to those wh As the first gift of truth and love.
though they had the means, did not hold out the hand Beau-street, Feb. 23, 1825.
T. A. M. generous patronage, to remove him from those difficult
and domestic embarrassments to which bis failings wa
mainly attributable. The meeting was afterward [SEE A NOTE TO CORRESPONDENTS.)
dressed, in an energetic manner, by Mr. Gallosas; and
after a variety of toasts, including all the surviving ra SONG,
latives of the bard, the living poets, the Lancastin SUGGESTED BY READING IN A LONDON PAPER OF THE 19TH witches, &c. the company retired bighly delighted vih ULT. “LINES RY T. M. K. TO MARY."
the festivities and treat of the evening, and leping thay
might long enjoy many periodical returns of the said. Air, There's nae luck about the house.
(From the Liverpool Courier.]
43 20 40 0 E.S.E. Chod. And wanton rove through ev'ry bow'r,
41 20 42 20
30 29 39 0 40 20 35 0 S.S.E. Fair. A little foolish thing.
36 20 1 37 34 OS.S.E. Spor Then take no heed of Mary's eye, &c.
27 29 50 41 20
39 0 N.N.W. Rain.
28 29 31 42 0 45 37 S.E. Fair Ah! take no heed of Mary's smile,
34 01 S.S.E. Fair.
Mean temperature, 39: 20–Mean barometrical de
29 : 90.-—Prevailing winds, westerly. The strmogli With hopeful step we trace the sprite,
throughout this month, has been extremely deal And fancy bliss the way;
humid, and, though unusual, the mean temperatur Till reason's morn, with faithful light,
this month two degrees colder than the preceding Declares we've gone astray. Then take no heed of Mary's eye, &c.
Fashions for March. Ah! take no heed of Mary's tongue,
PROMENADE DRESS.—Coral-colour grås de M When plighted vows are given ;
high dress: the corsage made to the shape in front
, 'Tis like the morning cloud that's hung
little fulness at the bottom of the waist behind: thed In peace o'er angry heaven:
én gigot, that is, very large at the top, and confined 'Twill pass in dying brightness by,
wards the wrist with five-corded bands, each abou
inch in breadth ; as the sleeves finish at the st. Nor leave a cheering ray;
are requisite, which are usually of embroidered F Though smiles may bless the morning sky,
cambric, of the same pattern as the collerette
. The Yet thunders shake the day.
of the corsage has a fancy bow in the centre, and Then take no heed of Mary's eye, &c.
more are placed at equal distances down the front of
skirt: on each side are two bias tucks of the same ne Ah! take no heed of Mary's kiss,
as the dress, edged on one side with a narrow satin e Nor count her lips unbought;
they approximate at the waist, extend to the shoulder 'Tis like the price of Judas' bliss,
towards the feet, where they turn off circularly ta trid
bottom of the dress; wadded hem beneath. 'Hate When he his Master sought:
gros de Naples ; brim broad and circular in frost, The traitor bribe, like his, betrays,
much shallower behind ; the crown large and price To bind you in her lures;
forward, composed of six divisions, the points meets For if not crownd in golden rays,
the centre at the top; a bouquet of fancy flowers et The kiss can ne'er be yours.
right side: strings inside the brim. Hyacinthist
blue silk mantle, lined with ermine, and trimmed Then take no heed of Mary's eye, &c.
the bottom with a deep border of the same. Skoodi Then fling away the syren form,
morocco. Light yellow kid gloves.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON FASHIOS AND ME Nor let her cling around ;
Promemade costume has not varied since lx She'll in your bosom nestle warm,
but some tasteful novelties have appeared in ce To give the surei wound;
home dress, of which we shall endeavour 1954 For love that hangs upon the form
account. Will sicken at the light;
A crimson velvet pelisse appears to us remarkably 'Twill close before the virtuous morn,
gant: the corsage is made tight to the shape, om
on each side of the back with braiding in a scroll par Like flow'rs that blow by night.
and finished at the hips with hard silk lozenges Then take no heed of Mary's eye, &c. richly wrought. Low collar, cut in dents de sa, Liver pool, March 3, 1825
W.J. D. are lightly braided, to correspond with the luck
sleeve, the fulness brought entirely into the midler Celebration of the Birth-day of Burns.-It gives us arm, and confined by five narrow bands of wrought pleasure to observe, by the provincial papers that come each fastened by a small lozenge. The trimming.com under our view, that the memory of the Caledonian bard of lynx fur, disposed in a very striking manner in 1 is not less enthusiastically celebrated in many of the towns leaves ; they are edged with trimming to correspond on the south of the Tweed, than in the immediate scenes the bracelets, are placed at regular distances, and which are hallowed by his lays in the north. A few weeks from a scolloped band of velvet at the bottom of the ago, the natal day of Burns was celebrated at Lancaster, by each scollop forming the base of a leaf. The a number of the admirers of his inimitable verse, and we fastens up the front with lozenges of different sizes regret that other matters prevented us from supplying at largest being placed at bottom, and the smallest at the time a satisfactory account of the meeting, which was a tassel depends from each.
Ere Time was old, the legend goes,
His own wild flame young Cupid felt; 'Twas just before men felt his woes,
The god himself in love should melt. As round fair'Psyche's form he clung,
And sported with her golden hair, He begged a tress that loosely hung, And seemed just like a sunbeam fung
On snow-her forehead was as fair! “Oh! Psyche, gentle maid," he cried,
“Let me this golden ringlet sever, No chance shall then our loves divide;
I'll wear it next my heart for ever !"
Ere man before her bends the knee!"
An angel wrote the fond decree.
The Austrian mantle is also much in favour in carriage remember that it is from authority of the most unques- , catarrhs, chronic rheumatism, contraction of the muscles, $ It is lined with white sarsnet, and is large and long tionable character, that we add, that in the countries and stiff joints,' yield to the influence of the vapour. ugh to form a complete envelope. The trimming con- where it is the practice for the natives to pass naked out calculi were passed, without any of the agony which the
Two cases of gout appeared to be cured by it; and small tine is edged to correspond, and the collar is formed of the vapour baths, and to roll themselves in the snow
?, patient had undergone, before the bath was resorted to. rely of plumes. the rheumatism is wholly unknown.
Tooth-ache has been dissipated by it in a few minutes.'” lonnets have not altered size. We observe that the Mr. Coglan, to whom the town is, in our opinion, un- -Medical Review. FDs of a good many undress bonnets are ornamented der very great obligations for having established a Float
* In this apparatus (the vapour bath) the stimulant semmotte with a piece of the same material, the ends ing Bath, greatly and confessedly superior to any similar power of beat is modified and tempered by the moisture e bonnets are generally trimmed with knots of the establishment in the world, has lately written and com- air, is a less powerful conductor of heat than a watery trial they are composed of. Ruches of shaded ribbon, piled with great care a most useful little work upon the Auid, the effect of vapour in raising the temperature of In sharp points, have superseded, in a great degree, subject of Warm and Vapour Bathing, in which he has the body is much less than that of the hot bath. Its urtain veils lately so fashionable.
collected together the opinions of the most eminent heating effect is also farther diminished by the copious men upon this important subject, together with an perspiration which ensucs ; so that on all accounts the enumeration of the numerous diseases in which warm vapour bath is safer, as it is in most cases more effectual
than the hot-water bath, and may be employed with sucThe Investigator. and vapour bathing is recommended by professional mencess where the hot bath would be attended with danger. mprehending Political Economy, Statistics, Jurispru. of great celebrity. This little treatise, comprised in a “ The vapour bath may be applied to the whole body, ace, occasional passages from Parliamentary Speeches pamphlet of twenty-four pages was intended, by Mr. or to any part of it: its immediate effects are to excite or nts, and other speculative subjects, excluding Party his own baths, in' Bold-street,—but on a perusal of its diminished : this increase of circulation at the surface of
a general nature, occasional Parliamentary Docu- Coglan, principally for the use of those who frequented increase the action of the superficial arteries, by which litics.1
contents, we found the work so judiciously compiled the body produces a copious perspiration, which may be
and so generally interesting, that we solicited permission continued, as it is excited, at pleasure. It should, howWARM AND VAPOUR BATII.
to appropriate the whole of it for the Kaleidoscope. We ever, always cease before debility begins.
“ The utility of this application is obvious in all cases see the introduction of improved baths into Liverpool, der until next week.
blood to the surface, and relieves the internal parts by the Ir. Coglan and the late Mr. Sadler, the wholesome axurious custom of warm and vapour bathing has Extracts from the Works of the Hon. Basil Cochrane, Dr. secretion of the skin, which is the mode.nature takes to
resolve inflammations and fevers. Besides an increased Kentish, Sir Arthur Clarke, M. D. &c. to shew the ef- perspiration, other effects are produced on the system; ve much more prevalent and general than it formerly
ficacy of vapour bathing in the cure of several diseases, equal and due action is restored to the surface, and a and we congratulate the public upon the circum- viz. rheumatism, scrofula, cutaneous eruptions, glandu highly agreeable sensation is produced, which renders the .fully convinced, as we are, that the use of the warm lar swellings in the neck, gravel, palsy, gout, dropsy, influence of cool air safe and desirable."-Clarke's Essay. induces more than almost any other thing to the consumption, fever, inflammation of the bowels, bilious
“ The moderns seem, until lately, to have had a very fation and the restoration of health. We are also as and liver complaints, water in the brain, &c.
different opinion with regard to warm bathing : it has issured, that, in many cases, arising from obstructed
“ Every practitioner, who has paid any
attention to the varing; and this opinion has descended from the physician
been generally regarded as relaxing, weakening, and enerration, and in a variety of diseases to which the na-operation of heat and moisture on the animal economy, to the people, so as to be regarded as an axiom. Mar
our ever-varying climate are particularly liable, must have had frequent occasion to lament the difficulty of teau, Maret, and Macquart, with a host of Continental pour bath is a most efficatious remedy. le prejudices, however, still exist, upon the subject of establishments for warmmbathing in this country b, have reasoned accordingly. But surely the opinion of the mand vapour bathing, which operate against their very sor al promontamenotimerehad methenopulation, but Greeks and Romans, from their extensive and national ing as general in this country as in many other its effects: hence, the general knowledge on the subject is on what they were so capable of forming a judgment.of the world. It is a prevailing opinion that it extremely scanty, and the popular notions cespecting inare The allegories of the ancients agree porrectly
with their gerous to venture into the cold air soon after very erroneous. Warm bathing is deemed a relaxing sisted the warm baths. Nothing can be more un ; d, or contrary to experience, than this apprehension; hardihood of the British character, and incompatible with to Hercules, the god of strength. Suidas, Eustatius, and
effeminate voluptuaries of eastern countries, adverse to the esteemed debilitating, that some of them were dedicated fact is, that the human body, after having been sub- the mutability and rigour of the British climate; at once other ancient writers, make use of the terın balnea Her. d to endure a very low one than it was previously to more obnoxious to the injuries occasioned by cold. Wie was dedicated to Hercules; but he is said to have found omersion : and, although it is true that a rapid have no other foundation than hypothetical views of the a natural
warın spring, whither he used to retire, with the lon from cold to heat is highly dangerous, and often operation of heat and moisture on the living body,
chiefly exertion, from whence he rose a giant refreshed. There it is a well ascertained fact that the human body deduced from their effects upon dead matter, or perhaps existed an altar dedicated to Hercules at the baths of thout detriment, or even much inconvenience, pass from the occasional abuse of the
warm bath: and
we are Thermopylæ ; also, in some Sicilian coins this demi-god Teat heat to intense cold ; and that when inured by equally convinced of the great efficacy of warm bathing, is represented in the act of bathing. Could we forget our it can endure a sudden transition from the tempe- as well as of its total freedom from those hazardous.conse- debilitating; for a great and polished people would not of boiling water to that of freezing water.
quences which are usually apprehended from its use."shall proceed to adduce some instances in proof of Medical Review. sition, even at the risk of relating what is already The vapour bath in use in this country is simple in its strength; that which they thought possessed an opposite
quality."-Dr. Kentish, to the generality of our readers. construction, and effectual in its application : it is model.
" It has been by Lord Bacon, that the tradition he Finland peasants (says Acerbi, in his Travels in / led from one invented by the Hon. Basil Cochrane, who of Eson being restored to youth, by means of the medical
was led to the contrivance and use of it in the following chaldron of Medea, was in fact an allegorical representation }, Finland, &c.) pass instantaneously from an at
way: Gre of 70 deg. of heat, (Reaumur) to one of 30 deg. *** A very protracted residence in India (he says) had of old age; and, in a note to the Loves of the Plants, Dr.
of the effects of the warni bath, in retarding the approach a transition of 100 deg., which is the same thing considerably deranged mye constitutions and Touble with Darwin has farther expanded the idea in the following
words: more astonishing, without the least inconvenience; phlegm : I laboured under a severe, and almost incessant cough; and my voice, which was feeble and interrupted,
". The story of Æson becoming young, from the medither people are very sensibly affected by a variation sometimes failed me.' Accident, about this time, threw in cated baths of Medea, seems to have been intended to 5 degrees.” my way • Mudge's Inhaler,' and I made use of it with teach the efficacy of warm bathing, in retarding the ap
The words relaxation and bracing, Pontopodon's Natural History of Norway we find something of a prophetic assurance that it would lead to proach of old age. owing passage in corroboration of the same pheno- salutary results: my success was equal, at least, to my which are generally thought expressive of the effects of expectation. This naturally produced reflection on the su.
warm or cold bathing, are mechanical terms, properly perior advantages that might be obtained from vapour, applied to drums or strings; but are only metaphors, le inhabitants of the mountains, in Norway parti- upon an extensive scale, and with a more general applica- when applied to the effects of cold or warm bathing on , do the work of horses for nine successive hours, tion, &c. I was of course the first to try the efficacy of the animal bodies. The immediate cause of old age seems to
all the time; and throw themselves évery half vapour I had thus learnt to control; and such were the reside in the irritability of the finer parts or vessels of 1 the snow, though in a profuse sweat, sucking the balmy effects it produced on my constitution, that they ap- our system; hence these cease to act
, and collapse, slake their thirst
, and without the least appre- ease, and very copiously; the stricture on my chest was adapted to prevent these circumstances, by its increasing I of a cold or fever."
removed; I breathed freely; my cough left me; and my and the extremities of the finer vessels which terminate in could adduce numerous other authorities in proof whole frame acquired new health and
vigour.' fact, that it is safe to pass from a very high to a “Mr. Cochrane, however, with the utmost liberality, it. To those who are past the meredian life, and have dry w temperature; and, although we cannot immedi- has allowed the use of his bath, and the attendance of his skins, and begin to be emaciated, the warm bath, for hay ring to our recollection the name of the writer who of obtaining that benefit. And, though disclaiming all in retarding the advances of old age.?
servants, to any one, we believe, who has been desirous an hour twice a week, I believe to be eminently serviceable s for the fact we are about to state, we distinctly medical science, he states, that he has seen inveterate
[To be continued.]
Literature, Criticism, &c. Was, then, the poet right in denying that satire and selves ridiculous ; that this stigma is attached to ridicule had any effect upon the more important parts of wholly arbitrarily. Whence it follows
, that the well conduct and character ? Certainly not, if the foregoing we ought to affix to this censure, depends wholly open ON SATIRE. reasoning be correct.
qualifications of the judge who passes sentence; and the But, after all, it seems by no means
clear that he did fore, we ought not to fear the ridicule of those o TO THE EDITOR.
seriously deny this influence. In forming a correct idea whose judgment we cannot rely with perfect confidered 818_My correspondence with you has been unavoid- of Cowper's sentiments, as to the power of satire, the But such a compliance with the prejudices of our te ably suspended for some time, by circumstances over most prominent feature to direct our judgment appears bours as will save us from their derision, without yield which I had no control. I have now the pleasure of re. to be his extensive use of this weapon, which he handled any point of importance that ought to be maintained suming it, and hope that it will not again experience such with so much skill, and employed so frequently, that he on every account, to be recommended, though even an interruption. During my silence I have, however, can hardly be thought to have denied its efficacy; and must not be carried too far, lest we compromise on attentively perused your papers, and the discussion on the many passages might be adduced from his letters and dependence of character. subject of learned quotations has afforded me much en. poems which would form a strong argument, that the tertainment. In the course of this debate, Mr. Y. 2. has prevailing tenor of his mind did not coincide with the cation of ridicule as a means of influencing others
Precisely the same views ought to regulate our honoured me with some censures, upon my abilities and opinion alluded to. Indeed, it appears barely possible attempt to benefit a man of acute and irritabile delines style, delivered in an assuming self-complacent tone, with that nerves so tremblingly alive to every species of irrita- by the rude touch of sarcasm and scorn, weak best be which I have been considerably amused. But, as I do tion or annoyance, that feelings so poignantly acute as his barous and unmeaning as an attempt to ce a fence of not in the least cither desire his praise, or beed his dis- could have been insensible to ridicule or scorn. the brain by a stroke of the scalping knife; ale tager approbation, I will not consume either your time or my But in the lines immediately in connexion with those these agents, when the point may be gained by rente o own with any further remarks upon this subject.- re. I have quoted, he limits the circle of their operation to argument, vould be as absurd as to knock a ban den main, &c.
things of merely minor importance, though, certainly, as who stood in your way, when a civil request would
we have just seen, his continued attempts to work upon produced the desired effect. But many person is " Yet what can satire, whether grave or gay? mankind by their agency seem hardly reconcileable with cured of follies, have their pride alarmed, or their serg What vice has it subdued to such an impression.
faculties roused by a judicious and timely ne da Cowper's Task, Book 11.
Though we can scarcely approach, without a feeling of directed satire, when the most striking appeal ut " Ridiculum acri
dread, the awful presence of the god Ridiculus, yet, at conviction would have totally failed. Portius et melius magnas plerumque secat res." Hor. Lib. I. Sat. 10, Line 15. the risk of arousing his slumbering ire, let us, in this age The attempt to shut out the light of truth,
of bold and free inquiry, molest his ancient solitary vert rational principles of thought or action in the In reading over the Task, a poem which (since I read reign;" and, since the doctrine, that power is a trust to be others, by means of ridicule, can scarcely be rated the two volumes lately published, of Cowper's private exercised for the benefit of those under its influence, seems detested and avoided. To undermine the pelset correspondence) I have reperused with increased interest, now pretty generally acceded to, we will bring his pre- soul” is an offence which no talent in the execution I was struck with the dissonance between the passage tension boldly to the bar of truth and utility, and pass plan, no dexterity in the mode of the attack, can Which I have just quoted and the opinions generally en. sentence on them fearlessly and impartially.
These circumstances, indeed, only enhance the tertained of the powerful influence of satire and ridicule. The happiness or misery of the subjects, dwelling under and ought to call forth a proportionate degree of The lines which I have given from Horace immediately the immediate eye of a government, and in the vicinity of
Let us remember that our prejudices are Daten occurred to my remembrance, and I fell into a train of the seat of power, seems an obvions test of its merit. In strong to need any further attempt to darken they thoughts respecting the ridiculous.
order to decide upon this principle, we must visit the vision. If we have the least desire to assert our de It is universally acknowledged that posthumous fame, capital of this deity, and look around us upon his votaries. that emanation from divinity, which raises our however visionary the prospect which it holds out, however But where does he reign“ enthroned in highest state ?" above the brutes, let not our reason, the highest and inconsistent may be the basis upon which it rests, with the Two shrines, situated in neighbouring countries, seem his of our nature, be subjected to the scoffs or seen utter annihilation of all the joys, hopes, and fears of this most favourite abode :-the Parisian saloons, the dread of man; whatever be his talents, let us dare de world, imposed by death-has been, is, and, as far as we the raillery of which oppressed Bonaparte in the zenith selves."
On those who have the cool malignity, I had aling can judge of the future from the past, will long continue to of his glory—and the British Reviews, which have, with be the moving principle of a great proportion of mankind. remorseless and unsparing persecution, “ tortured even to the desperate wickedness, thus to attempt to pose The ways in which men seek this renown may be various : madness” men possessed of the most gigantic talent source the spring of all that is good or great in me the duration of it, at which they aim, may be different: the From these, the strongholds of his dominion, his power proach and remonstrance would be alike wasted. sacrifices which they will make to obtain it may be great or extends, with various degrees of despotism, till its out are worthy only of the deepest unmingled contempo mall, but the end is in all the same. The incendiary who posts seem fixed in the back settlements of America, or burned the temple at Ephesus, and the conquering gene- some other half-civilized territory, where the colonist, ral who hung his " spolia ossima” on the triumphal tree, careless of appearances, lives in a condition, a very few MR. BUTLER'S OBSERVATIONS ON THE REFORIN -the monarch who inscribed his victories on a pyramid degrees above that of the beasts that perish:"_and who, formed to last while the world endures, and the thief who in this our land of liberty, can come forward and candidly
(Continued from page 283.) summons every nerve to the task of dying game upon the say that he bends not more or less beneath his sway? gallows-the philosopher who threw himself into Etna, Who, even in a large assembly, can feel satisfaction, or
TO THE EDITOR and the nobleman who spent a large annual sum in erect. even indifference, when "ridetur ab omni conventu ?"
SIR,~Mr. Butler arrives next at the ingoing ing and beautifying his mausoleum, would all, if asked Unlimited power bears to an Englishman something the conduct of the religious orders justify the wherefore they pursued paths so different, alike answer repulsive and suspicious in its very name : let us lay aside tion of the monasteries ? I agree with the learned " memoriam nostri quàm mazumè longane efficere," or this feeling, and view this Colossus with the calmness ne man, that, upon the whole, it did not. At the * erit ausgespreitenen Hügeln zum Tempel deo nach. cessary to form an accurate conclusion. The fear, then, I would make a distinction between the dissološa ruhons empor zu fliegen."
of derision operates upon the mind, so as to induce it to orders, and the seizure and alienation of mosaik If, then, the thirst after the admiration and attention of adopt, or reject, certain habits of thinking, speaking, and the first resolves itself into a nice matter of disa mankind be so insatiable as to grasp at an imaginary acting: and this operation will be beneficial, or the con- and the dation was certainly as much at liberty will eternity of fame, the dread of their neglect or contempt trary, as the line of conduct encouraged or proscribed be this point as the use of the cross, the sbasen czom can scarcely be thought a thing which has little or no absurd or rational. But, in the wide circle of the world, any other. The second admits a larger field of influence. Laughter is said, in the Spectator, to arise the things to which ridicule is attached, are as various as sion; and perhaps so nice a question should not be from an inward sense of glory; and this appears to be are the customs of its inhabitants. This truth may render upon in these limited pages. I will endeavour, be most clearly the case with regard to that laughter which the idea of adopting a standard so fluctuating, as the guide to be as concise as possible. It is not clear 40 * w indulge in at the expense of others : here rests the of our actions, somewhat absurd ; but since, let us reason Henry VIII. had any more right to seize this par Best of ridicule. Our exuberant mirth arises from an as we will, we shall still in some degree bend to its nod, property, than his present Majesty has to approp inward exultation in our freedom from the follies or mis- and since, like most other motives, the extent of its power himself the endowments of any modern dissenting i fortunes of those whom we deride ; and here also lies its regulates its utility, we will examine how far we may tion. It may, perhaps, be objected, that the sam sring ; since holding up its victim as a mark for the reasonably yield to it, and how far it may be reasonably ciple will extend to the regular clergy. I think na moring finger of scorn, and the contemptuous derision employed as a lever to move the minds of others.
there appears to be a great difference between the of mankind, it wounds most acutely those feelings, the We cannot keep too constantly in mind, that few, per. The one partook more of public, the other of privat Hrong force of which we have just considered.
haps accurately speaking, not any, thingo are in them. Iperty, By what mense, and for what purpose, ma the monasteries founded? A very large portion of their landed property, would ever have been ready on any com- | a very poor opinion of them, though not worse than of the lowments were derived, it is true, from the influence motion, to throw their weight in the scale, and use their Catholic clergy in general; be it understood in this as in superstition, a corrupted and ritual religion, and the utmost exertions in the restoration of Catholicism. A strict other remarks, I more particularly refer to the state of reliigns of a wary priesthood: but there were other and reform and surveillance would have greatly lessened the gion before the reform introduced by the Council of Trent: rer sources whence many of the monastic houses and danger; but there still would have been much to fear. still, I can never believe the English Monks were such sessions sprung. During the middle ages, and even There were then but two methods of remedying the evil, brutish and vicious beings as the report of Henry's commis7, when the population of Europe was small compared both of which, strictly speaking, were violations of right sioners would lead us to suppose they were. These docuh what it is at present, these edifices lay scattered over and justice, though the one was infinitely less so than the ments, froin which the general opinion respecting the country, at a distance from the towns. They were other; either to have placed the monastic revenues and crimes of the English religious at the period of the Refor. red up to, by the circle of population of which they buildings in the hands of trustworthy Protestants, for the mation is taken, must be allowed by most men to be, for ned the centre, as protectors and friends. In time of purpose of being applied, in every respect, where public the greater part, destitute of truth. Money and threats imotion, the peasantry had but to retire within the good and benefit was concerned, as they had been previ. will obtain almost any evidence, and no one knew better indaries of the convent, where the powerful arm reli- ously, in the same manner the Catholic endowments of the how to employ both to advantage than Henry. The b then possessed was stretched out in their defence. In public schools and colleges were retained; or at once to Monks would not surely have been such simpletons as to tness, the Monks were the only persons who could give take the arbitrary steps adopted by Henry, to confiscate disclose such enormities against themselves, or not to have
medicine or advice; they were employed daily in and destroy whatever appertained to the system of monach- been fully prepared for the examination. Then how came instruction of youth in the schools of the monastery ;' ism. This latter procedure unfortunately. coincided but all the trumpery, jugglery, and undescribable curiosities ir doors were open at all hours, and lodgings and protoo well with the views of this despotic tyrant, who, which were said to have been found in the monasteries, ions prepared for the stranger and traveller; the desti. throughout the Reformation, as in every action of his life, not to be put out of the way? One would suppose, from le poor around received a daily pittance; and, in time was guided by the most detestable, selfish, and infamous the accounts of these gentlemen, they had pounced down
upon the Friars through roof and ceiling, and discovered scarcity and want, * general distribution was made to feclings. I who stood in need. All these offices were performed, It has been too much the custom among our Protestant of witches. Do the conteniporary chronicles and writings
them at once celebrating their horrid orgies like a Sabbath must be remembered, at the cost of the institution, controversialists, and many of our literary men, to run ich thus returned to society a large share of what it re- down the Monks, without a single exception in their fa justify such enormous imputations ? The old writers were led from it. It is but fair, then, to suppose, that many vour: every epithet the criminatory part of our language monastic orders did not stand the highest in their good
not sparing of their censures of the priesthood, and the he monastic endowments proceeded from persons who would admit has been applied to them indiscriminately. s sensible of these benefits
, and who believed they were Par be it from me to be the defender of monachism, and graces. Is it not besides notorious, there was not the arding the welfare of their fellow-creatures, at the especially of the system as it existed in the darker ages, houses? In the examination of the famous Abbey of
slightest cause of complaint against many of the religious time they were doing what was meritorious in the and until the sixteenth century. I am as sensible of its St. Edmund's Bury, the annual revenue of which, at the B of God, and of service to themselves in a future state enormities as any one; but a homely saying bids us be to this, the religious houses were places of refuge to just, and not stint the worst of beings of whatever praise present time, would have been at least £100,000, the only wba naturally were inclined to a life of devotion ; to he may rightfully lay claim to. In the middle ages, the that the Abbot was fond of a game at cards or backgam
accusation the commissioner could bring against it was, who were disgusted with the vanities of the world; greatest part of the lower orders were to all intents and iger branches of noble families. The property pos- lands of the Monks were treated with more humanity, and nothing to suspect as touching hys livying, but it was de. en desirous of a quiet and studious life ; and to the purposes slaves : now those who were connected with the mon, and passed some of his time at his farms and in the la by these classes of persons was added to the funds fared far better, than those under the vexatious and fickle tected that he laye moche forth in hys granges; that he le monastery.t All this was given for specific puro bondage of the nobles. This is something in their favour. delited moche in playing at dice and cards, and therein * for the benefit of future periods, and not for that of A great deal of their attention was paid to agriculture and resent alone: it was a species of entailed property, to rustic occupations, in which they greatly excelled those of spent moche
money, and in buyldinge for hys pleasure. ministered, year by year, by certain persons, and for their times. Their estates always produced more, and He did not pche (sin) openly .... As touching the Conans, which pertained as much to their successors as and a large portion of their riches may be safely affirmed Their innocence, however, did not avail them : the blame. in purposes. The Monks could not alienate their pos were held more valuable, than those of lay proprietors; vent, we coulde geate litle or no capte (cause of complaint) selves; they had only the life enjoyment of them, for to have arisen from their improvements and superior cul less and the guilty
alike fell beneath the rapacious hand in return, they were bound to perform with fidelity ture of the ground. They were almost the only
learned of Henry, and the crying injustice apparent throughout duties the regulations of the institution required. men of their age, and had it not been for them, we should the dissolution and destruction of these institutions; and
did not act up to the terms of the trust, they ought know but little of antiquity, and ten of the most interest: the reproach attendant on the proceedings of his ancestore fe been punished, reformed, or replaced; but the ing centuries in the history of the world would have been rty of the establishment itself should not have suf- to us almost a blank. They are accused of monopolizing must awaken feelings of regret in the breast of every imfor their misconduct, or have been turned from the every branch of knowledge, and doing their utmost to
partial Englishman and Protestant. el it was originally designed för. Had our Catholic crush all attempts at literary cultivation in those not of
“ Pudet hac opprobria nobis et dici potuisse et non ors supposed their donations would have been seized, the privileged caste. But the truth is, most of the laity, potuisse refelli.” istributed amongst the favourites of Henry, would and especially the noble classes, held letters in the greatest iave been so liberal of their gifts ? It will be an contempt, and gave themselves no trouble about even the houses, without their vows and restrictions, but under pro
After all, would not institutions, similar to the monastic 1, neither would they have been so had they sus slightest rudiments of learning.* Their “ trusty blade" per regulations, be of great benefit in Protestant communities or foreseen the change in faith and religion :-and held more of the guintessence of knowledge than whole am of opinion they would render the lives of thousands, es II these Monks, with their vows, observances , and volumes of the schools, and the most skilful logician could pecially of the
female sex, far happier than they are at present. nce to the Papal system, to be passed by unnoticed, not parry one of its most insignificant arguments. There cation, who had been left destitute, or nearly so, instead of At in the quiet possession of their enormous wealth, are several other points of minor consideration, which becoming the contemned dependent of some rich relation, or e power necessarily attending it? I confess there might be added in extenuation, and go far to prove the entering a strange family as the slave of children, with salary have been much hazard to the firm establishment Monks were not such worthless members of society, when and treatment little better than a nursery maid, or gaining a testantism if such a course had been pursued; for, considered in a civil and political light, as they are gene- to enter such an establishment, where she would meet with of men, organized as the monastic orders were, rally represented. In a moral and religious view I have companions of her own station and refinement;
all care issessing the influence they did, from their immense
respecting her present and future prospects removed from her
mind; and free to spend her time as she pleased, in the visithim, which was all he was enabled to give, for the dowry, per ation and relief of the poor and sick, the instruction of youth. rly in the reign of Elizabeth the Speaker of the House parte di dote. (Let. Pit.). Many of the fine paintings in the main ornamental work in aid of the institutiou and its objects, imons declared that the dissolution of the monasteries nasteries were thus obtained.
or in the many offices such an establishment would require. itroged more than a hundred flourishing schools.
* During the twelfth and succeeding centuries, the lasty There are, or used to be, in the south of France, several houses these remarks on the Monks relate, with the neces and nobility paid more attention to learning: previously, for ladies of birth on a similar plan. A stated sum was releeptions, to the whole system of monachism, including they were in a miserable state of ignorance; few could write quired on entering, no vows were taken, the time of the inales. On the entrance of the last into a convent, they their own names-hence they made use of the sign of the mates was employed in a similar way, and they married or left xpected to present a certain portion of property, either cross, as they confessed from ignorance of letters, pro igno- the institution whenever they chose; in the latter case the mu , money, or movables, according to their situation in rantia literarum, a practice still continued amongst the lower ney at first deposited was retained by the society. Montaigne This, in Italy, was equivalent to a marriage portion, orders, and for the same reason. The warlike spirit of the mentions these convents and circumstances in his travels. us thus denominated. George Vassari, the author of times was in great part the cause of this neglect; the nobles The sisters of charity, the Frati della misericordia in Italy, and res of the Painters, in a letter to a friend of his father, thought with their northern ancestors, “ that he who had other orders of a like nature, are productive of the greatest him for obtaining a place in a convent for his sister, been accustomed to tremble under the rod of a pedagogue, beneat and good. prevailing on the Nuns to accept a picture, painted by I would never look on a sword or spear with an undaunted eye:)
[To be continued.)