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Scientific Records.

experiment inaccurate, especially as an increased velocity with a given power, a certain time, its polish will not be

would, in that direction, decrease adhesion; besides, 1 anything like so high as if the grinding-stone made more hending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve think, that a revolving circle under the waggon will act revolutions in the same time? Is there not more friction in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin: differently upon it, to what a moving straight line would there ?—Your faithful servant, ical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical following experiment would not give a more certain result,

Warrington, Feb. 14, 1825.

D. mena, or singular Facts in Natural History: viz:-to a pulley

which, through a certain

power, makes ation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.; List of Patents ;-a certain number of revolutions in a given

time, and which, jections, urged by our correspondent, to Mr. Roberts's

We must confess that we do not see the force of the ob. ontinued in a series through the Volume.)

by an accelerated moving power, will make proportionally experiments. If he will turn to the account of them in MECHANICAL PARADOX.

more revolutions in the same time-suppose, in twenty our last, he will find that especial care was taken to keep

minutes the pulley makes A revolutions with B power, the carriage exactly over the axis of the drum. It was laying inserted so many original letters on this and C revolutions with D power ;=now let to such a pul. foreseen by Mr. Roberts, that, if the carriage was properly no and con, we think it will be acceptable to our ley a break be applied, which will decrease the number of placed, when the drum was at rest, the spring of the

revolutions of the pulley; if the quantum of friction is to weighing machine would consequently be carried from the : we afford them the opportunity of hearing what he estimated by time, and not by space, then the decrease of centre. A perpendicular line, drawn on the carriage, pon it in other quarters. The following letter revolutions, through the application of the break, will be would then have formed " an acute angle with the horiessed to the Manchester Guardian, in consequence in a given time the same, whether moved by B or D power, zontal diameter of the pulley," and " the weight of the oberts's experiment, which was described in a late or thereabouts; but if, with the break on, the revolutions carriage would have acted upon Mr. Marriott's scale."

stand as A to C, without the break, then the case will be But, to prevent this, a screw was introduced, by which, of this publication.

different. I really feel inclined to think, that greater space as the spring elongated, the weighing machine itself was TO THE EDITOR.

must increase friction ; the roughness of the surfaces of two drawn back, so that the carriage remained in precisely the If you will allow a hardly visible star amongst bodies, passing each other in close contact, must, in my same situation, and a perpendicular line upon it continued t luminaries of the scientític hemisphere to ha- opinion, cause more friction when the parts of these sur to form a right angle with the horizontal diameter of the mark upon Mr. Roberts's experiment on friction, faces have to pass each other twenty times, than only ten pulley. With regard to the experiment suggested by our peared in your valuable paper of last week, then times : increased speed will, naturally, from impetus, in correspondent, we cannot exactly comprehend how it is to e to suggest, that, as a perpendicular line on the crease the power for overcoming friction; it will also in- be made;

and it proceeds

on the erroneous supposition, ed waggon, if produced, must, by the direction crease

vibration. Action and re-action is

, I believe, favour- that we had maintained that the quantum of friction volving pulley, be made to form an acute angle able to the

overcoming of friction : to calculate

, therefore, was to be estimated hy time and not by space." Now we horizontal diameter of the

pulley, the weight of an exact proportion that should hold good with practice, contend, that it was to be measured by space, and not by zon will act upon Mr. Marriott's scale, indepen- may be difficult.

time. It is, therefore, unnecessary to examine the exbe friction; and, although the weight may be the Again, if the stated law of friction be correct, then how periment minutely; and the same remark will apply to ring quick, as slow motion, yet it may render the' is it that if metal is held to a revolving grinding-stone, I the observations respecting grindstones.-Edit. :


It gave him considerable ease in a disorder with which he strangulated hernia, and inflammations of the stomach an To Prancis Melville, of Argyle-street, Glasgow, piapo. was afflicted, (the stone)-and answered the other inten. bowels. forte maker, for his improved inethod of securing the tions for which he used it—for he died at an advanced

" From its power of determining to the surface of 6 small piano-fortes, commonly called square piano-fortes," heridoof life, having for many years been in the constant body, it is useful where

any acrimony is to be discharge of the strings.-Dated 18th January, 1825.-6 months In combating the general apprehensions of catching removed. In the former view it may be employed in se to enrol specification.

cold, after the use of the warm and vapour bath, Dr. ral affections of the skin, as leprosy, ulcers, and ssphili To Edward Lees, and George Harrison, brick-makers, Kentish justly observes, that if the skin be rubbed dry, in the latter, in chronic catarrh and diarrheas. This of Little Thurrock, Essex, for an improved method of and the absurd custom of going to bed, and sweating, be first

it chiefly assists the effects of mercury, and in tầe 1 making bricks, tiles, &c.-ist February. 6 months. avoided, ' we are less liable to partial torpor, or cold in any ter supplies the advantages of a milder climate.

To John Thin, of Edinburgh, architect, for a method part, after warm bathing, than at any other time,'and “ Its general effects in rheumatism, and other info of constructing a roasting-Jack.- 1st Feb.—2 months. that after thus using a warm bath we are the least sensi. matory diseases, the relief of tension and abatement To Samuel Crosley, of Cottage Lane,

City Road,
Mid- Ribe to the impression of cold... That this

is the fact, we pain, which follow its use, as well as its extensive per dlesex, for certain apparatus for measuring and register know from personal experience, having frequently gone of restoring a broken constitution, afford strong grounds ing the quantity of liquids passing from one place to an.

to the warm bath, chilled by the influence of the external expectation from its application in this disease. other.-ist February. -6 months. atmosphere, in the winter, and returned from bathing, The following case, related by Doctor Meyers

, el To Samuel Crosley, of Cottage Lane, City Road, Mid with a sensation of general warmth, which the cold air was centiate of the Royal College of Physicians in Londen, en dlesex, for an improvement in the construction of gas unable to diminish. This is farther confirmed by the testi- an eminent

practitioner there, in a letter whether mony of Count Rumford, whom Dr. Kentish has quoted. Cochrane, on the effects of the vapour bath en his eas per To Timothy Burstall, of Bankside, Southwark, andSo far from feeling chilly,' says that active philosopher, son, must carry conviction along with it Jobn Hill, of Green wich, engineers, for a locomotive or or being particularly sensible to cold, on coming out of ". Your very polite attention to me, and the very best, steam-carriage.-3d February.–6 months.

the bath, I always found myself less sensible to cold after ficial, as well as agreeable accommodation yier Lindesa To George Augustus Lamb, D. D. of Rye, Sussex, for bathing, than before. I even observed, repeatedly and has afforded me, by the use of your invaluable and it a new composition of malt and hops.-10th February.- invariably, that the glow of health, and pleasing flow of proved vapour bath, when suffering under severe strese 6 months.

spirits, which resulted from the full and free circulation of and indisposition from late and repeated attacks on ! To Richard Baduall, jun. of Leek, Staffordshire, silk the blood, that (warm) bathing had brought on, continued gout, demand from me my most particular acinore manufacturer, for improvements in the winding, doubling, for many hours; and never was followed by any thing ment. The utility of the bath to invalids of various change spinning, throwing, or twisting of silk, wool, cotton, &c. like

that distressing langour, which always succeeds to an is too obvious to urge me to enter into a minute diri -10th February.-6 months.

artificial increase of circulation, and momentary flow of your very useful invention. By your machinery, man To John Heathcoat, of Tiverton, Devonshire, lace spirits, which are produced by stimulating medicine.' of any degree of heat, whether medicated or det, at manufacturer, for improvements on the method of manu. “ The mischief, which arises from exposure to cold, conveyed with facility and comfort to any part time facturing silk.--11th February.-6 months.

after being heated, is occasioned not by the presence of and when required, to the whole body.-Every cute To Edward Lees, of Little Thurrock, Essex, for im- excessive heat, but from the circumstance of having become versant with the innumerable ills that await the line provenents in waterworks, and in the mode of conveying cool, after the excess of heat. The experiments of Sir frame, must have deplored, with me, the dificily, water for the

purpose of flooding and draining lands, appli. Charles Blagden, Dr. Fordyce, &c. in a room heated to inconvenience, the loss of time, and, in some can cable also to other useful purposes.--19th Feb.—6 months. upwards of 200°, which were repeated by Dr. Dobson and utter impossibility to obtain a warm water bath in

To Thos. Masterman, of the Dolphin Brewery, Broad. others at Liverpool, -- the constant practice of the Russians, bed-room, and, when obtained, how insufficient and street, Ratcliffe, Middlesex, brewer, for an apparatus for of passing from a hot bath to roll naked in the snow, cult the management ! All this is effectuelly ebrian bottling wine, beer, and other liquids, with increased eco- the habit of the Romans of pouring cold water over the your ingenious contrivance. After eighteen reeks nomy and despatch.-19th February.—2 months. body, immediately on emerging from the hot bath, &c. (ful confinement to my chamber, by a most anda

To Edmund Lloyd, of North End, Fulham, Middlesex, all prove the correctness of the principles above stated. of the gout, I was induced, by your invitatia for a new

apparatus from which to feed fires with coals The first-mentioned gentlemen . passed out of the heated persuasion of several of my medical frieuds, to be and other fuel. - 19th February.—2 months.

room, after every experiment, immediately into the cold my carriage to inspect your vapour bath. Isti To Benjamin Farrow, of Great Tower-street, London, air, without any precaution; and after exposing their proved it, and immediately used it

, and repeated ironmonger, for improvements in buildings, calculated to naked bodies to the great heat, and sweating violently, eight times, about the heat of 120 degrees on Fahne render them less likely to be destroyed or injured by fire we instantly went into a cold room (says Sir C. Blagden) thermometer, and continued its operation each time than heretofore.—19th February.-6 months.

and staid there even some minutes before we began tó minutes. On my first trial, I was directly selet To Jesse Ross, of Leicester, hosier, for a new apparatus dress, yet no one received the least injury. And Mr. eased from pain, and am now enabled to perso for combing and straightening wool, cotton, and other Parke assured Dr. Currie, that, in repeating those experi. wonted and professional occupation with ease abi ee fibrous substances.—1911 February.-6 months.

ments at Liverpool, after remaining some time in the I can now, without assistance, get in and out of a To Jacob Mould, of Lincoln's Inn Fields, Middlesex, stove, where the heat was as high as 2020, he went into riage, though, on my first visit to you, I was able for improvements in fire-arms :-communicated from the external air without a great coat, or any other than the one or the other without much help; and it was abroad.-- 19th February.-6 months.

his usual clothing, during a hard frost, and perceived difficulty, and by the use of crutch-sticks, I gett To Henry Burnett, of Arundel-street, Middlesex, for neither injury nor inconvenience.""--Medical Review. your hall. My general health, since my first visu improvements in machinery for a new rotatory or endless “• The Russians, (says Dr. Sanches) it cannot be doubthas much improved : the exercise, the variety lever action :-communicated from abroad. — 19th, owe their longevity, their robust state of health, their since engaged my mind, the change of air, from la 6 months.

happy and chearful temper, mostly to their baths; and finement, has conjoined to restore me, unda B To John Beacham, of Paradise-street, Finsbury-square, the Doctor adds, that all indisposition arising from vio- completely. I am, therefore, fully satisfied of the cabinet-maker, for improvements in water-closets.—19th lent exercise, producing chills, with all the

attendant bad lence of your vapour bath, and its general utili February.—2 months.

consequences ; that inflammations of any part of the body, varicty of complaints to which the animal economy : To James Aylon, of Trowse Millgale, Norfolk, miller, even if attended with internal or external tumours and ject, when judiciously administered. But I will for an improvement or spring to be applied to bolting- fever, may be successfully combated by the Russian baths : clude this long letter, without adding any things mills, for the purpose of facilitating and improving the also, in all chronic diseases, arising

from excesses in eating this subject, as I trust the world will soon be in a dressing of flour and other substances.--19th February.- or drinking, and the gratifying of other pleasures which of your plan, which will indeed be a blessing to the 6 months.

debilitate and enervate both the body and the mind, the ing part of the community, and which, by duer attentive physician will find considerable aid in the use of ment, may and will become a lasting benefit to se

the Russian baths; and Tooke, in his Life of Catharine, " That a due attention to a strict purity of past The Investigator.

says, that the baths are in such general use in Russia, as sufficiently observed in this country, carnet de (Comprehending Political Economy, Statistics, Jurispru. to produce a decided influence on the physical character of The matter thrown out by the exhaling arteris dence, occasional passages from Parliamentary Speeches the nation.'"-Clarke's Essay.

quently permitted to accumulate for a long of a general nature, occasional Parliamentary Docu- “ We have dwelt particularly upon this point, with the surface of the skin ; by obstructing perspiratza: ments, and other speculative subjects, excludirg Party hope of contributing to the removal of a popular prejudice, ter is, with justice, supposed to give rise to a Politics.)

which opposes the use of an important

agent in the pre- cutaneous disorders, which might have been parte

vention and removal of disease. In conclusion, we may they are now known to be cured, by the rapsur WARM AND VAPOUR BATH.

appeal, in corroboration of the principle above stated, to by simply bathing in warm water. The quasette

persons of sedentary habits, who possess but a moderate scaly matter which may be observed floating on the Extracts from the Works of the Hon. Basil Cochrane, Dr. vigour of constitution, whether they have not marked the of the bath, after a person, not in the habit of Kentish, Sir

Arthur Clarke, M. D. &c. to shew the ef- different effect of external cold upon their frame, when they affords sufficient evidence of the necessity of com ficacy of vapour bathing in the cure of several diseases, have gone into the air, chilled already by a cold apart

ablutions." -Clarke's Essay. viz. rheumatism, scrofula, cutaneous eruptions, glandu- ment and want of muscular exertion; or, on the other hand,

YELLOW FEVER. lar swellings in the neck, gravel, palsy, gout, dropsy, with a general warmth, and an active state of cutaneous “ Dr. Johnson, in his observations on the yellow consumption, fever, inflammation of the bowels, bilious circulation. In the former case, the chilliness continues says, that the vapour bath, which is now introduced and liver complaints, water in the brain, &c.

for a considerable time, and is with difficulty overcome by navy, is likely to prove one of the most useful active

and continued exercise : in the latter, the impression to draw the blood to the surface of the body, and (Continued from our last.]

of the external cold is not perceptible, or is soon overcome the internal congestion which exists on the vitalosti

by the glow which moderate exercise brings forth."-Me- * The more general and immediate effects of “On this principle the Doctor informs us, that when dical Review.

bathing in fever, are-it disposes to a calm sad Dr. Franklin, the American philosopher, was in England “ The cases to which the vapour bath seems best adapt- sleep, and seems to regulate the discharge by many years ago, he recommended to him the use of a ed, are chiefly gout, rheumatism, palsy, several affections promoting it when too little, and restraining it in warm bath twice a week, to prevent the too speedy access of the skin, as leprosy and ulcers; also, after dislocations, without injuring the tone of the stomach, or redan of old age, of which he then thought he felt the approach; and in white swellings of the joints. It is also of use in patient's strength, objects of the first consideratis and to relieve infirmities under which he actually laboured. ' female obstructions, chilblains, tetanus, dropsy, diabetes, exacerbations which happen sooner or later in the


re lessened, if not prevented; the head is preserved from winter quarters will be pretty comfortable. Fuel and pro- as an axiom, that, if the power of moving bodies be given, it elirium ; and the symptoms are kept moderate until the visions have been provided in abundance, and though is easy to assign an oblique direction to the generated motion. orbid action ceases, or the disease terminates."

glass cannot be carried to such high latitudes, and their It certainly requires some peculiarity of adaption of the [To be concluded in our next.) windows must be formed of oiled parchment, a rude sort

means in converting rotatory into parallel motion; but, when of candle, which is made from the fat of the elk, and the motion given is direct or parallel, the simplest contriDUTIES ON METALS.

other animals, will enable them to read and write, and vance, without materially abating its foice, will be suficient perform various other necessary operations

At times, to change (not invert) the course of progression. By the The persons interested in the iron-trade will, by the esta; too, they may venture out of doors, buckle on their snow power of gravity, an impulse is given to all ponderous bodies, ishment of railways, reap a great harvest, and they will shoes, and, by boring holes in the thick ribbed ice of and the centre of that gravity imposes the direction. Sup, e every expedient to make this as abundant as possible

. Mackenzie's River, set their nets, and drag many kinds of pose a square tube, the internal sides each four feet, whether this most necessary of metals, which enters into such be regarded as monsters in the finer climates of the South. terial were laid on the surface of the earth, between the two gultitude of implements and machinery, in husbandry; In this way they may partake of many a savoury meal, places ; and that a carriage, or any number of carriages, with nufacture, and co:minerce. The price of iron, which and we had even, we confess, the

curiosity to inquire, four wheels, each four inches short of four feet in diameter,

and the length of such carriages varied according to circum: idly advanced to £12; and it is allowed in the

trade, and then be permitted to season their fish with a wekcome stanees: with one end made slightly air-tight, by springs it the admission by Parliament of the establishment of dram of Fairntosh. But no; whisky is too bulky an arti- mounted with leather, and introduced, with any

required lways will be the signal for a further advance; and cle to be carried

so far, and, besides, would be exceedingly loading of merchandise, into one end of the said tube, and, price of bar-iron, which is in Wales £12, and in Lon- hurtful in a climate where the thermometer stands below at the other extremity, if three air-pump pistons, with spring

£13 108. per ton, will probably be raised to £20 per ton. zero. Water, therefore, must be the sole beverage of both valves, worked by a steain-engine, were applied to extract t there is a remedy to this inconvenience, attendant on officers and men, with the exception of two solitary gal- the atmospheric air

, the carriages would be drawn along

the ich has not been adverted to, and which is in ac. circle, and which are husbanded for a carousal at the ap. great public measure of the formation of railways, lons of wine, included in the Bill of Lading, for the arctic tube with as much certainty and celerity as if drawn by a

A bag of cotton, a balk of timber, or a hogshead of sugar, de cada mission of foreign iron, either free of duty, or a pack of spring and previous to prosecuting the ulterior might

thus be conveyed the whole distance in a few hours ght duty, in lieu of the present prohibitory one.

In spring Captain Franklin, and his old companion Mr. and might be received, with perfect safety, at the termina ds are in quality superior to the English, and are worth, party, will proceed down Mackenzie's River, and from culative improvement and adventure, this scheme is not of vedish and Russian iron pay £6 10s. per ton. Both these Back, who goes out on promotion, with one half of the tion of its course, by a steel spring trap.

Though this period may be rightly termed the age of speband, £15 to £is per ton; and, therefore, duty paid, thence explore the coast to the westward, as far as Jey

, that origin: it is the result of many years' mature delibera benefit of the use of this better kind at £15 to £18; appointed to force a passage by the coast, meet the party vate and public consideration afteen years ago. It is now, er metals are subject to prohibitory duties

which call and convey them to China in his vessel, the Blossom; with fearless confidence, obtruded on general notice; the revisal. English block tín has risen to 105s. per cut which is at present fitting out at Deptford, and will by and chief motive being a disinterested wish to promote public le East India and Peruvian can be had, in bond, from bye proceed to double Cape Horn, with the view of getting benefit, by the most simple, economical, and efficacious 10.90s. ; the duty is 1098. 3d. per cwt.! British cop: into the South Sea. On the

other hand Dr. Richardson's method. The experiment may be made upon a short dis 2,197 to £85, but the duty

is £60 per ton. This party, including Mr. Kendal, who was assistant surveyor tance, at comparatively small expense; and I most anxiously he seasonable moment for the Chancellor of the Ex- in Captain Lyon's late expedicion; will seperate from Cap: implore the unqualified attention of our merchants and make quer to lower the duties on all foreign metals (if not tainn Fr at the mouth of Mackenzie's River, to explore the gistracy to the subject.— Yours, &c.

INVESTIGATOR. ome instances wholly remove them) which would country, stretching to the eastward, as far as the Copper mine River. In this excursion, the extensive track of

14, Concert-street, Liverpool, Feb. 17, 1825. jer an addition to the revenue from a source per: mountain country abounding in copper ore and fields of weight, were required, it would be quite easy, at the


P.S. If extremeswiftness, or the movement of extraordinary 5 new, and would be of general service to the agri

: coal, will occupy much

of our townsman's attention. The time, to apply a propelling power behind the carriages. exclusion of foreign grain be impolitic, the same must expedition part of the way, to collect botanical and zooloburse with the world be our true interest, it must, in a gical specimens; and

the liberality of Government has of the immensity of the vacuum which it would be necessary mount sense, be the case in respect to the rude mate that the natural history of this division of our American as a new mode for the conveyance of letters; but we have provided an able naturalist to assist Captain Beechy, so and

something of the sort has been lately brought forward and primary ingredients of capital.-Globe & Traveller. dominions bids fair at length to be effectually investigated. heard of the suggestion long before it appeared in some of

After landing Captain Franklin at Canton, Captain Beechy the cheap periodical works with which the country abounds. The Traveller.

will take in provisions and return to Behring's Straits the -Edit. Kal.

following season, with the view of succouring Captain SECOND OVERLAND EXPEDITION.

Parry; and should that hardy mariner appear on the
coast, or should he even leave landmarks behind him, we

need scarcely allude to the eager interest, we had almost TO THE EDITOR OF THE MORNING HERALD. (from the Dumfries Courier.;

said feeling of veneration, with which these monuments of SIR-I shall be obliged, by your inserting in your journal ptain Franklin and suite, including our friend and the progress of science will be approached by our weary, the following communication, which is occasioned by the far-travelled countrymen.

melancholy death of Lady Mostyn. I send you this in the man, Dr. Richardson, embarked at Liverpool, a ays since, in the Columbia Packet, direct for New tions with our excellent and accomplished friend Dr. Rich" from a similar


, and shall be glad to see all possible The above particulars have been gleaned from conversa- hope that it may be the means of saving some fellow-creature ery and adventure, though not, we fondly hope, of ardson, and we have only to add, that from the judicious publicity given to it.

People in general are not aware of the very great danger of ind privation. As the illustrious travellers stepped nature of the arrangements that have been formed, he an. ard the steam-boat appointed to tow the Colombia ticipates none of the sad disasters that befel the expedition jumping, or even of dropping

from any vehicle in rapid mo port, thousands of spectators crowded the quay,

on a former occasion. From the sixteen sailors that went tion; they imagine that it is almost the same thing as jump, bg to the utmost bent of their voices, and with many put last year, the most gratifying accounts have already ing from it while it is in a state

of rest.

But the danger in

I shall endeavour briefly to explain the priner for their safe return, wishing them all the com- been received, as well as from the agents of the Hudson's rhich men can well enjoy amidst the eternal sterility along the whole route, and otherwise forwarded the views this statement will be so impressed with it, as to call it to

epots of provisions ciple whence this danger arises, in hopes that all who read leaving New York, Captain Franklin and party will of the travellers to the utmost of their power: Indeed, mind should they ever he in a situation to require it. At the d by the Lake Eric Canal, through Lake Huron the union of the two fur companies into one, under the moment when a person parts from a vehicle, the body is ake Superior to Fort William, the first of the Hud- name of the Hudson's Bay Company, is a most fortunate acted upon by two forces. One is that of gravity, which

would et communication to Winipeg, Athabasea, Slave, the Directors to remove stumblingblocks from the path of ner as if the carriage

were at rest: the other force is the im reat

Bear Lakes. Near the latter place, the winter discovery that were nearly as formidable as the rigours of pulse given by the motion of the vehicle; so that the body is of the travellers will be fixed, where the above the climate in the former divided state of the country. strikes the ground with the velocity (or violence) given it ny

have already built a house, and laid up pro Turn-again, from weakness and fatigue, proved a terrible quences which generally follow from jumping out of a car. , and where they expect to be met by sixteen able: bar to the crossing of rivers ; but on this occasion a water riage going at full speed. Now, if a person have the presence season, and who have had ample time to forward proof canvas boat has been provided, so admirably con

truments and luggage intrusted to their care. In rived that it may be separated into pieces which each of carriage being overturned, the danger is not near so great as oyage through the principal lakes, the travellers the party may stow into his knapsack or carry in his that arising from jumping from it; for the very obstacie

which overturns the carriage, must, at the instant, in some conveyed in American steam-boats, and when this pocket !

degree stop it, and deprive it of a great part of its velocity; nodation ceases, they will procure, as formerly,

so that the person thrown out strikes the ground with vices of stout Canadian boatmen. And here we


little more velocity (or violence) than that acquired from eption one of the greatest evils attendant on the

gravity, or the weight of the body. It should also be recoltion : namely, that it requires upwards of twelve


lected, that in nine cases out of ten where horses run away ; to convey them to what may be called the

with a carriage (especially a four-wheeled -one), they stop 3 point of discovery, And however heavily the

without overturning it, as they necessarily, in a short time, nay hang on their hands, they must patiently Sır,—There is not any occasion for either canals or rail- are exhausted of wind, and cannot continue their speed. he tardy lapse of an arctic winter; and even roads for the conveyance of merchandise (they being in- These facts are daily confirmed by experience, as all readers Te sun begins to peep, above the horizon, there are animate objects) between Manchester and Liverpool. Those of the public journals must perceive. In hopes that this may ove six or eight weeks, during which they can tra-objects may be conveyed and reconveyed in a more expedi- be a caution to many, I am, &c. th any thing like safety. In many respects their ' tious manner. In mechanics it is well known and admitted Cambridge, Feb. 1.


much greater.


L. C.



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profit and pleasure, is entirely overlooked and neglected, SETTING THE TEETH ON EDGE.
allowed to struggle with all the accumulated evils of age,
disease, and poverty; while not a man of that immense

multitude, who are in the daily enjoyment of those im-

SIR, I should wish to know, through the medium SIR,-Several stray numbers of your excellent and portant advantages which his genius has conferred on his your valuable Kaleidoscope, what is the reason that the useful miscellany lately fell into my hands by acci- native country, on Europe, and on the

world, ever thinks noise occasioned by the filing of iron, or any other weten dent. I have read them with great pleasure, and some of bestowing on him a single shilling of that wealth which of the kind, takes effect upon the teeth of man, nuore that profit ; and since I have been able to summon courage he has been the principal means of creating, with the any other part of his body, and which of the five selesai enough to address you, I hope you will not be offended single exception of the magistrates of Glasgow, who, to disturbed thereby ?—Yours, &c.

QUESITOR. thet i frankly and honestly express my opinion of your their honour be it told, have bestowed on him an annuity Our correspondent is informed, that we do not per work. This, Sir, is the age of periodicals,--we have them of £50 a year.

tend to explain the phenomena which is the subject di bu pouring in upon us from all quarters, not by twos and I have long been of opinion, Sir, that, if we do not the Kaleidoscope some very curious instances of the me

note; but we shall take an early opportunity to insert in threes, but by dozens and scores ; we have them of all speedily bestir ourselves and do justice to Mr. Bell, by ner in which the teeth of different individuals bare bei kinds and characters-religious, moral, and political; of discharging, in part, at least, that claim which he has all shapes and sizes; and, what is better, of all prices, on the gratitude and liberality of the British public, and affected, even to bleeding, by differeñt sounds

, er roses from the aristocratic and genteel demand of six shillings, thereby prevent these things from being recorded in the

-Edit. Kal. down to the plebeian and vulgar charge of three-halfpence. pages in history, the sons and daughters of a future I have seen and read more or less of almost the whole of generation will curse our ungrateful selfishness and neglect our advertising, columns, that a number of stating

Literature.-Our readers will perceive, by reigning the periodicals of the present day, and I hope you will laugh to scorn all our pretensions to wisdom and libe and useful works have recently been, and are shariy tables not suspect me of an attempt to flatter you, when I say, that, in my judgment, none of them contains so much not live in our days and enjoy our opportunities. This view

rality, and vex themselves by a vain regret that they did published. useful instruction and agreeable amusement in the same of the subject was forcibly impressed on my mind, during

The Beauties of Chess. limited compass, and for the same money as yours; and the course of last summer, when the whole country rein a commercial age and country like this, the last men- sounded with the fame of departed genius; when the most Ludimus effigiem belli".......... VIDA tioned quality is no slender recommendation.

exalted personage in the three kingdoins united in feeling I do not mean, however, to fill my paper merely with and sentiment with the humblest mechanic, for the laudacompliments on the general excellence of your publicable and truly honourable purpose of paying respect to the


Black tion, although, in the outset, I could not avoid it. My name and talents of James Watt, by the erection of a

B-7+ 1 King .......attention has been particularly attracted by an article in monument to transmit his memory to future generations. 2 Casile......B--8+ 2 King ......B your number for Tuesday, 9th November last, in which I thought this a very fit season to bring forward the claims

3 Knight B4.. .A-6+ 3 King ...... A you have, with much good sense, humanity, and philan- of living merit, and to remind the public, that, while they

•4 Knight

4 King ......BA thropy, introduced to the notice of your readers the case displayed so much zeal to honour departed genius, they

5 Knight C5-A-6+ MATE, of a very meritorious, but much overlooked and neglected ought to cake care not to incur the reproach of allowing


1 Knight .... individual, Henry Bell. 'I understand, from the article, a man to starve in obscurity, whose claims on the gratitude

2 Knight B4..A-6+

2 Kiug ......

3 Pawa that you share this merit and honour with the editor of of the British public are almost equal to those of James

B–7+MATE. the Manchester Gazette. I have no wish to step between Watt, but whose good fortune has not been equal to his

(No. XXXVI.) you, for the purpose of awarding to each his fair share of merits, and who, therefore, really stands in need of some

The white to move, and to give checkmate in five mind honour and merit ; but I certainly think that you both assistance. For this purpose I addressed a letter to the edi. deserve the gratitude and the thanks of every man who is tor of the Glasgow Chronicle, with a request that it might a true friend to the best interests of his country, to the be inserted in his paper, in the hope that the attention of

Black. happiness of mankind at large, and to every thing that is the public might thereby be directed to the case of Mr. laudable and praiseworthy in civilized society. Bell, leaving him at liberty to make whatever alterations V g 5 ая

9 H Men of genius have, in all ages and in all countries, he thought necessary, or to keep it out, and call the atcomplained loudly of the neglect and ingratitude of their tention of the public to the matter in any other way he contemporaries

. They have commented in terms of glow- thought more effectual. The letter never appeared; the ing indignation on that disgraceful selfishness which in subject never was mentioned in the paper. What was duced mankind to enjoy the profit and pleasure, resulting the reason of so obstinately neglecting a matter of so from the exertion of their talents, without bestowing on the much interest and importance, I never learned. Our inventors that honour and reward which is so justly their Glasgow editors have too much patrician feeling to allow due. Much of this is, no doubt, to be ascribed to their themselves to notice the communications of plebeian corown self-esteem. Men of genius, like men who want respondents. You and your brother editor, however, have genius, are apt to fall into mistakes in estimating the ex.

given a new proof of the truth of the old proverb—" A tent of their own talents, the merit of their own disco prophet is not without honour, except in his own country.” veries, and the benefits which have resulted from them; You have done ample justice to the merits of Mr. Bell

, but, making all due allowance for the exaggeration and I hope your example will be followed by all those arising from this source, every person, who is conversant who have the same means of engaging the public attenwith the history of those men whose inventions and dis- tion. I would entreat the editors of all periodical pubcoveries have conferred important benefits on the human lications to remind the public, from time to time, that race, must be perfectly aware that these complaints are Mr. Bell has conferred an important benefit on his coun

А в

D E F G A substantially true and correct; and, should the memories try, for which he has as yet received no reward, although

WHITE. of your readers fail to recal to their recollection former he has reduced himself to poverty by those experiments of examples, they have a case in point (as the lawyers say) which the public is now enjoying the advantage. By

To Correspondents. of no ordinary kind, before their eyes

, at the present means, something like these, I would fain hope that the moment-Henry Bell, a man whose talents and invention, people of this country will eventually be induced to do Errata in the Essay « On Satire," in our last-For " or, perhaps, to speak more correctly, his fortunate and in- justice to Mr. Bell, and that no future son of genius, read “opima ;" |for “longane," read" longan;" fx genious application of a previous invention, has been the when contemplating his fate, will have reason to repeat read " Elúgeln;" for “deo," read des;" for at means of conferring on mankind one of the most important the bitter malediction of Burns, when lamenting the fate benefits which the history of science records; who has of poor Ferguson :

The Editor having been last week summoned created a new era in the history of navigation and com

the Lancaster Assizes, as a witness, whence he ! “My curse upon your whinstane hearts,

(Monday) returned, trusts that correspondents will merce, and facilitated the means of intercourse between

Ye Glasgow gentry; the most distant quarters of the globe in a manner and

The tithe of what ye waste on cartes

knowledged, without, for the present,

pledging the by means which the most ingenious and enlightened

Wad stowed his pantry."

We have received the communicatiou of Xeschool speculator of former ages did not dare to anticipate ; and

-X.Z.-J. C.-Claudian-S. T.-Sifter

... yet this man, from whose talents thousands and tens of | -I am, Sir, your obedient servant, thousands are every day reaping a plentiful harvest of Glasgow, March 3, 1825.

Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAT! F.

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Natural History.

and retain their two valves. These oysters are much more, supposed to have been swept away by the waters ; but it similar to those now living in our seas, than the oysters consists entirely of a few metres of alluvial soil deposited left by the seas which deposited the gross calcarious earth. above the chalk.

This circumstance is remarkable, because from it may be N THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE.

What cause, then, can have removed from our valleys deduced inferences perfectly agreeing with those derived these thick layers, some of which are also exceedingly from our knowledge of many other facts.

hard ? It has been supposed that strong currents of La legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne

These banks of oysters are covered with a very con- water, of which our rivers are only very inconsiderable sore que des ruines- Paris: printed, 1824.

siderable mass of sand and free-stone, containing neither remains, have swept them away to the sea. But what eesiated expressty for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French work. not but be considered as a marine formation. It appears, rying away the enormous masses that must have been dis

shells nor fossil bodies of any kind; which, however, can- current of water, what torrent would be capable of car

therefore, that a certain space of time must have elapsed, placed to form our valleys? Those rivers, whose existence CONTINUATION OF THE MINERAL CRUST. during which, the sea no longer supported organized is admitted, cannot have flowed with sufficient rapidity to

beings, or at least that it had lost the power of preserving produce this effect, on account of the extremely gentle Ve discover, by examining the excavations made in them.

declivity of their beds. The Seine flows through the most neighbourhood, that the different depositions of fresh In the layers of later deposition, shells, more or less inclined of these valleys, and during its greatest inun. ter are more abundantly accumulated in the places similar to those of the gross calcarious earth, begin to ap-dations, has not power to displace a stone as large as a ere the gross calcarious earth had left valleys, than pear.

man's head. How could these currents of water, which n its elevated parts; this partial distribution of them These different depositions, particularly the large mass were often confined within a very narrow space, have carurally tends to render the surface of our soil horizontal. of sand, being extended over a soil, already rendered nearly ried away the lower layers to so great a depth, without tertheless, the ancient valleys of the soil of chalk were level by the great formations of sweet water, caused all its injuring the soft sandy soil, in many places projecting in entirely filled up, especially the deepest ; and the sur- remaining inequalities entirely to disappear. This is peaks above the valleys, at very considerable heights ?

of the basin of Paris still presented inequalities, proved by the circumstance, that, in all places from which How can it be imagined that no part of this broken soil ich, though not considerable, corresponded in some causes of recent occurrence bave not removed the mass of was ever precipitated into the streams of water, so as to Tee with those of the chalk.

sand, with part of the lower layers, the sand is constantly have produced at least some analogy between the layers lur soil, however, already began to assume an appear- found at the same depths.

found upon their beds, and those deposited upon the sure something like that which it now wears. When the

We must now, Madam, enter upon a part of the sub-rounding hills ? But the alluvial soil of the valleys is so of chalk formed the surface of the basin, the hills of ject of our investigation replete with difficulty. No ad- far from corresponding in quantity to the mass of matter atmartre, Sanois, and Montmorency, were not in ex- missible supposition has yet been made respecting the that must have been removed in the course of their forace, and the land which they cover constituted part of causes that can have formed upon this level surface, the mation, that their widest parts are often found to contain mense valley between the hill of chalk, then situated numerous deep valleys by which our soil is furrowed. lakes, or collections of water, that would certainly have ards the south, at Montrouge, Meudon, &c. and that

Two principal explanations have been successively ap. been filled up, if they had been formed in the manner we krds the north, at Beaumont-sur-Oise.

proved. One, proposed by M. Deluc, is founded on the have just been supposing. first the calcarious earth, and then different parts of supposition that the soil has, in many parts of the world, All these objections, absolutely unanswerable till now, fresh water formation, mentioned above, gradually been longitudinally depressed, in consequence of the prevent us from accounting for the formation of the valleys d the land at Montmartre, Montmorency, and enormous decrease of the substance composing the internal in our neighbourhood, either by the last hypothesis or that neux, forming in the space between them the valleys mass, occasioned by the numerous volcanic eruptions, suggested by M. Deluc. We are, therefore, compelled * Seine and Montmorency, which were scarcely per- whose productions form a considerable part of the mineral to admit that they were formed in a soil rendered level by ible at that time, if we may judge by the traces yet crust. The internal mass being, in this diminished state, the last marine depositions, without attempting to explain xining of the form of the basin, in that ancient order too small to fill up the vacancy within the earth, the solid in what manner this was effected. That these valleys were ings.

crust, by which it is surrounded, must in certain places excavated by some cause unknown to us, after the soil was he gross calcarious earth is the last formation, which have sunk in. Although the changes thus produced, may reduced to a level, is a fact that admits of no doubt ; it is ates a long abode of the ocean upon our country; and be very inconsiderable compared with the total magnitude proved by the rugged outline of their boundaries. The tesh water deposition, of which I have just spoken, of the globe, the causes that gave rise to them, may serve different parts of the sandy soil of which they are composed, ds proofs of its most prolonged absence. Since the to account for the existence of the valleys within the basin have so little mutual adherence, that it would be absurd ation of the latter, it appears that the sea has invaded of Paris. I am the more inclined to adopt this supposi- to suppose them to have been partially deposited upon ountry more frequently, but that its inundations have tion, because it affords very good reasons for the formation each summit.* less durable.

of the primitive mountains and their valleys. In fact, he return of the sea upon our continent, after its long the sharp ridges of granite which form their summits, and valleys is posterior to that of the soil in which they are exca

The most evident proofs, that the formation of certain nee, is first manifested by a very thin but equal bed of which wear every appearance of having been violently vated, are those enormous blocks of stone (usually of granite) II bivalvular shells

. These productions are soon re- broken-asạnder ; the inclined position of the layers dé- often found upon the summit of hills, composed of a soil quite ed by two distinct layers of oysters. The lower layer posited upon their sides, and the identity of the soil found different from them in nature. They

must, therefore, have pmposed of very thick large oysters, some of which upon the mountains and in the valleys between them; all been

rolled from some place more elevated than that upon at least four inches in length; the upper layer, sepa- these circumstances tend to confirm this opinion respect the rock from which they were detached, never fails to be d from the former by a bed of whitish marl, is com- ing the origin of the primitive mountains.

found in the neighbourhood ; but, it often happens, that this d of brown oysters, much smaller and thinner than

The soil at the bottom of our valleys does not, however, rock is separated from the hill to which the block has rolled, le of the lower layer.

resemble that found upon the surrounding bills, neither by a deep valley. It is obvious that the valley must have been "hese two banks are constantly found at the same depth are the layers deposited upon the sides of the hill, inclined excavated at a period posterior to the fall of the stone, which he hills round Paris, however distant they may be from towards the summits.

It may generally be discovered, by inspecting the angles of bother. M. M. Cuvier and Brongniart declare that Thus, the soil upon the plains of Grenelle and Point- a mass of stone thus displaced, from what distance it has faly have known them to fail only in one instance. du-Jour, and at the bottom of the Seine, at Sevres, is not

If it is much worn and rounded at the edges, it may be Besides, it is evident that they must have lived in the composed of the sand, the gypsum, or even the gross concluded that it has rolled during a long time, but if ist estiu ces where they are found, since they are fastened upon calcarious earth found upon the neighbouring heights, The correctness of these inferences has been confirmed by - another like those in the sea. Most of them are whole, ! although the latter, on account of its solidity, cannot be ' observation.

could not have rolled across it.


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