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om this inducement is given by way of favour. Various rations, and I got introduced by an old customer of the accidental supply that might support them for six months, jes multiply the chances of the adventurers, that is to house, who had paid dearly for that kind of consideration and will be lost in an instant." the chances against the adventurers. A dancing, which he seemed to enjoy there. The company was nu- By the profound silence which reigned at the table, we m joins the principal saloon, and is always at the dis- merous, and I had reason to hope that I might be able to judged that something of importance must be going on, al of the customers, who are not over-scrupulous with make my observations without being observed by him and we approached. Both colours were covered with gold ud to their female-partners and fellow.dancers. The who was the object of them. I saw Leon approach the and notes. Leon had all his money on black : the banker u frequenters of this singular place are mostly people mistress of the house, by whom he was received as an ex- turned up thirty-one for that colour, and the partisans I the provinces, who wish to enjoy all the pleasures of pected guest, and in the most affectionate manner: he of red were in agony; but the cards went on, and the metropolis : officers on half pay, who have the same talked familiarly with her, leaning on the back of her same number turned up once more; consequently, the ations; and sharpers, of both sexes, who speculate on chair, until a new deal was announced, when he sat down game was a drawn one. The most prudent among the credulity of the former, and the carelessness of the near the banker. The crooper left to him the honour of players withdrew one-half of their stakes ; the rakes were I. They all lose their money as gaily as possible. cutting, gave three knocks upon the table with his rake, set in motion, and another deal was commenced, when, nty women, sitting around the roulette-table, endea- and then the priests of that god of numbers, whom they lo! the result was another drawn game. The uproar in
to double at this game the money which they have called Thirty-one, pronounced their oracles. Leon was a den of robbers cannot be more alarming or hideous ied at another; and, after having seen the whole of it once more successful, and was highly complimented by a than the scene which took place after that event. The ppear under the fatal rake, they return to the ball, in crowd of worn-out gamblers, who have no other means of red and black partisans gave vent to their fury in a hunr to aim there at less uncertain success. A third room subsistence but the tax which they impose upon the gene- dred different manners; some ran, swearing, up and down Lains a splendid sideboard, which invites the fortunate rosity of those who are favoured by fortune. I did not the room ; others broke their rakes on the backs of the yers to repair the fatigues of dancing, by means of ex. think proper to interrupt his triumph, and retired with chairs; some were nearly suffocated with rage, and silently site viands and delicious wines; whilst the wretched the intention of coming again the next night.
wiped their faces, whilst others tore their linen and smote is endeavour to sleep upon the surrounding benches, On that memorable occasion I found him sitting near a their breasts. If any thing can give an idea of the punishidst all the noise of music and dancing.
wonian, who was quite as handsome as a gambling femalement and the rage of the damned, it surely is the scene To. 113 is, in some measure, the sewer, or the sink, of can well be ; this lady interested herself in the most lively presented by the company of a gambling-house at such lar establishments; it is destined for gamblers of the manner in his play, and scerned to assist him in turning a moment. At last, the decisive verdict was pronounced ; st and the most unfortunate class. Three or four large it to the best advantage: fortune was still smiling on him, the black colour lost, and all Leon's money was poured s, shabbily decorated, are scarcely sufficient to con- and the bankers waited until he had placed all his stakes into the banker's chest. the crowds of journeymen, and fathers of families, to his satisfaction, before they pronounced the irrevocable I watched the young man narrowly. He had a large come to lose there the greater part of the daily wages words of—The game is closed. A triple row of players brooch, with a miniature of his mother set in diamonds, souglit to furnish subsistence to their wives and surrounded the table, and, whilst they were engaged, I and a valuable repeater. One of the attendants lent, upon ren," but of which an unfortunate throw of the dice sat down among the wounded, to hear what my guide had these two articles, about the fifth part of what they were Ives them. Here gaming shows itself in all its to say about some of the most distinguished characters of worth, and the produce was likewise added to the bank. us deformity. The countenances of the bankers, the the place.
Leon was in despair, and addressed himself to a man of ers, and the dealers, are alike sinister, though dif- “ You see," said he to me, “this thin tall man, whose the most gloomy appearance, who went with him into a t in expression. Serong, colossal constables walk scanty gray hairs stands as it were upright on his fote. corner: my guide told me who that individual was, and
the room, and their ferocious looks seem to forbid head; nature had done every thing for him: he was gifted I saw that it was time for me to interfere. I scarcely le victims of chance even an expression of regret. with a good person, a good understanding, and even a think that the sight of Medusa's head could have prohe fixed posture of the head banker and his assist- good heart; but gambling has led him to the commission duced a stronger effect, on the unfortunate young man, s particularly frightful. Equally deaf to the cries of of a shameful action, to which the attending circum- than my sudden appearance. I saw big tears stand in his ir and to the bursts of joy, they scrape up the money stances have given the tincture of an atrocious crime. eyes, and he was unable to speak. At such a moment the same unshaken coolness with which they distri- He is of respectable descent; and, at the time when our every reprimand would have been unseasonable, and he it, in the almost certain expectation that they shall prisons were filled with the most noble victims, a cousin would, perhaps, have been much less sensible to ren'final possessors of the whole. Losses are here more of his, to whom he was much attached, was likewise proaches than he was to the consolations which I offered ly felt than elsewhere; for nothing is seen but arrested. The fate of the prisoner was scarcely doubtful, him, by restoring his brooch and watch, which I had hedness disputing a morsel of bread with avarice : for the revolutionary tribunal was seldom known to acquit. taken care to release immediately, by means of a reason
here without its charms; it appears only to give M. learned, however, that a sum of ten thousand franks able allowance to the lender of the money. respite to despair.
might save his friend. He solicited most anxiously the We were just going out when a terrible uproar 'threw opportunities for gambling are amongst the most assistance of his acquaintances and relations, and he suc- the whole place into the utmost confusion and terror. rous seductions that are held out to young men. ceeded in raising the necessary sum : but the person, in all the lights were extinguished, and the bankers cried ience and satiety will often aid them in resisting whose hands the fate of the accused lay, had appointed a out :-"Stop every one ! Shut the doors !” The guard Tactions of other pleasures, and nature preseribes late hour for the meeting, and time hung heavily upon arrived, and soldiers took possession of the doors. The
which even the most careless will not always in. M. Habit and impatience conducted him to a gaming- croopers cared neither for the wounded, nor for the women , but the passion of gaming feeds upon itself, and house, where he was induced to sport a few dollars; hav- who had fainted away; they only looked to the strong s more violent with every excess; its excitements ing lost them, he risked a larger sum, in order to get box, and their ferocious looks seemed to discover a conpowerful in the heart of an old man as in that of a them back, but he was still unfortunate: one sudden spirator in every one present. Suspicion fixed, at last, bne; and the great charm which separates inno- stroke of fortune might repair the whole of his losses--he upon some infamous characters, among the number of rom crime on most other occasions, affords no pro- again ventures, and loses again : now he grows warm and which was one with whom Leon had become acquainted against its állurements: an honest man may be forgets himself: the money entrusted to his care is no the day before, and whom he had invited to breakfast for villain in one day, if he once yields to the temp- longer considered sacred, and his fortune, his honour, the the following morning.
life of his beloved relation, are all placed upon a card; the When we finally made good our retreat, a man followed lon is intimate with a young officer whom an awful banker dames it, and his sentence condemns two victims behind'us, who heaved, from time to time, sighs which las lately cured of an inclination that would, in all at once-the one to death, the other to everlasting infamy. seemed to come from the bottom of his heart. He fol. lity, have led to his ruin. He had been recom- “ I need not nanie to you the fine old man with white lowed us through one of the alleys in the garden, and then I to me by his father, who made him a very hand. hair, who sits at one end of the table: you have known addressed Leon with a voice which I shall never forget :lowance besides his pay: but Leon wished to sur. him yourself twenty years ago, when his splendid enter. “Young man,” he said, “ remember the lesson which I
splendour of all his fellow-officers, and he eagerly tainments, his luxury, and his scandalous love-affairs am now giving to you: it is fifteen years since I entered i to the pernicious counsels of a casual acquaints were the common topics of conversation all over the town. these premises for the first time, and I was then witness who infased into him the hope that the gaming. He has lost the whole of his fortune at play, and, reduced of a suicide which deprived an individual of his hondur rould supply his extravagance. He actually did to the most shameful wretchedness, he has not blushed to and his life at the same time; that example has not corasiderable sums; and, when I went to remonstrate accept an end of the table ; that is to say, the place of an rected me, but let my own fate operate more powerfully m on the alarming change in his manner of living, under-crooper, whose occupation consists in watching the upon you.” On finishing these words he held a pistol to rely pointed to the heaps of gold which he had stakes, and seeing that they are properly made and kept. his mouth, and, before we had time to stop him, he pulled before him:"these were arguments against which “ The stout red-faced man, who is just coming in, ber the trigger and blew out his brains. re objections could be of no avail, and I had the longed - formerly to an honourable profession; he has This terrible catastrophe, added to the events which cation of being obliged to withdraw, for that time, squandered the property which he got with his wife, and had preceded it, agilated us to such a degree, that we ace.
the poor woman is obliged to wash silk shawls, in order were unable to utter a connected senterice before we quired about the place where he carried on his ope.' to maintain her four children ; whilst he is risking an parted : but I hope that Leon has not been warned in vain.
TO THE EDITOR
TO THE EDITOR.
SPANISH AND GERMAN LANGUAGES. COUNTRY WAKES, OR RUSHBEARINGS.
waggons and carts, the same fantastic heaps as our rustic
countrymen do at present is very doubtful. The rush. Wakes are of very high antiquity. The time of cart, as it is called, is so unlike any thing with which we
SIR,-Being desirous of attaining a knowledge of their origin cannot be ascertained ; but institutions very are conversant, that no description could make it intel. German and Spanish languages, you, or any of your ar period considerably anterior to the mission of Austin, the wakes generally take place towards the close of summer, an obligation by giving me, through the medium opet monk:t That celebrated churchman, who was deeply the rushes are found very comfortable to the feet in the Kaleidoscope, a list of the authors in those languages at acquainted with human nature, and, with the powerful severity of winter.
are best suited for progressive study, commencing with influence which hereditary prejudices and local associations The drunken and licentious revels, for which these earliest rudiments. Being also anxious for general iska possess over the mind, did not attempt to root out the su- annual meetings are loudly condemned by the religious mation, a list of our own authors from whom I might be perstitious customs of our Saxon ancestors. He well knew portion of the community, render them very unfit places glean it, would greatly oblige,
Yours, &c. that such an attempt would either prove fatal to the cause for the resort of the young. Habits of dissipation are, it of bis mission, or at least greatly retard its success. He, is to be feared, there acquired, which no future prudence therefore, wisely consecrated some of those customs to the can wholly destroy : and yet the admirer of ancicnt ob. To Correspondents
. use of the Christian church, and, among them, the wake. servances would pause before he wished the abolition of In conjunction with Mellitus (the abbot) his friend and one which has existed in this country for more than twelve GRAMMATICAL QUERY.-If Sifter will point et ses the pe companion, he obtained a bull from the reigning pontiff, hundred years: he would rather see it subjected to certain ticular passages in Hume, which he tells us Chiens
carping at, we shall be then enabled to ansser bis dry, Gregory the Greal, which directed that the wake should salutary restraints. A small number of constables would
which we cannot now do, except by observing party continue to be held, not as a Pagan rite, but as an in- be sufficient to preserve the peace at these assemblies.
W. strument of Christian devotion.
that there are no works extant in which garnita
inaccuracies may not be detected. We never beet en
[To be continued.) We accordingly find that wakes were afterwards used
one dispute this fact except that egregious exets to commemorate the dedication of churches to their patron ". Juncus majoribus festis sparsus in ecclesiâ et alibi.”
bett, who, while he is perpetually dealing in here saints. On those occasions, multitudes assembled from
Cons. MSS. Aug. Lem. fd.
criticisms upon grammatical slips, may himself de feu “ Redolenti gramine templi
tripping as often as any writer extant. fle all parts to pass the whole evening in the parish church,
shippers doubt the fact, we can supply them in
Sternitur omne solum; ramisque virentibus arx.” in the exercises of watching, singing, and prayer. The
in abundance, from almost any of his Registers, say
Reg. Pap. Navgeargi. following day was distinguished by great feasting and
ways read them, although we heartily despise the web
This bullying boaster, sometime ago, wrote a petition rejoicing; and it may be easily conceived, that, however
House of Commons (we believe it was) which be dedan innocent these festivals might be in their design, many
be a model of perfect composition. We have noget excesses would soon attend them. The most disgraceful
take this paragon as a test, and we will wager s tritt scenes of drunkenness and debauchery were exhibited at
we will point out several blunders in this matetels
tion. There is a paragraph in the Register d these weekly meetings. This perversion of their original SIR,- I am greatly honoured by your prompt attention
which has this moment caught our eye, and design was laid at length before the ecclesiastical rulers to my dreams; to which, I must say, you have done shall transcribe as a specimen of the slips to in of the kingdom, and a canop made in the reign of Edgar ample justice. In reply to your invitation, to pursue the have adverted; and we could pledge ourselves top loudly condemned the irregularities to which we have subject, as it affects the rise of the port of Manchester on
hundreds of the same kind in the works of this valute alluded. Some statutes were made to restrain them, and the ruins of Liverpool, I honestly confess to you I never
The passage to which we now allude, is to be foundles
670, beginning in the 16th line. It is as folloes, "T a decree passed that the wakes should no longer be held dreamt of such an event. The idea, in fact, is too visionary
works of real science do they, or have they ever find weekly, but at much greater intervals. This decree was to form even “ the fabric of a vision ;"* for I would have their country?" Mr. Cobbett may criticise Hame; of essential service; it diminished the number of holidays you know, Sir, that these “ dreams” of mine are not will be at a loss to find such a blundering sentenes -a number so great as greatly to injure the interests of " such stuff" as you suppose them; but that they treat of
foregoing in the works of that celebrated philosopher
historian. agriculture and the arts; and it consequently prevented events which, in all probability, will be realized : in proof the idle and the inischievous from indulging so frequently of which, I ought to have mentioned before, what certainly Maxias FOR THE PRESERVATION OF HEALTH—He stel in their favourite vices. But, whenever the festivals were adds to the curiosity of the thing, that the principal part
week give a place to the extract from Sir A. Cooral celebrated, not all the authority of church and state could of that article (viz. 1855) was written more than two years
and also two other articles transmitted on a se
sion by H. with whose notions, as expressed in a keep the multitude in awe. The parish churchyard and ago, before either science or speculation had launched
note, we, however, by no means agree. We can the adjoining fields were, on the commemorative day, filled their thousand whimseys on the world. I except, of nise the propriety of calling a female * a blue se with the idle and the dissolute-with fiddlers, jugglers, course, that part which alludes to our friend Gerard, the because a popular and scientific writer thinks prepare
cate his works to her. We suspect our correspond prostitutes, and thieves. Booths were erected, under painter (in whose welfare, I am sure, you are no less inte
an antiquated bachelor, who has an overveening on which spirituous liquors, ale, wine, and, indeed, every rested than I am); and happy shall I be, if, at the same
the superiority of his own sex; but we can assure bis species of merchandise were sold. Not even Sunday was time that I excite a smile amongst your readers, I should it has fallen to our lot to be acquainted with females free from profaneness ; and many ages elapsed before the be the means of attracting their attention to the case of an opinions upon matters of taste, criticisin, and gener festivals on that day were abolished. This abolition, ingenious artist ; and more than that, a highly deserving, priety, we value more than those of any "Lord
tion" of our acquaintance; and yet these female which was effected in the reign of Henry the Sixth, was, but unfortunate, individual.
a jot of the blue stocking in their composition. however subsequently removed by the heads of the Refor. I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, mation. Both James the First and Archbishop Laud Bristol, March 5, 1825.
S. T. POLITICAL ECONOMY.— In compliance with the countenanced Sunday wakes ; not, indeed, with the pur
P.S.-I find Gerard is about to publish some poems.
A Constant Reader, we shall next week insert Mr.
Lecture on Population and Wages, as lately delire pose of encouraging immorality, but in opposition, perhaps, That part, too, of my dream then will come to pass !
Leeds Mechanics' Institute. to the absurd rigour of the Puritans. During the Commonwealth, the latter triumphed in their turn, and sup- names of these rival towns, which, in justice, 1 ought not to
• There are certain circumstances connected with the Country WAKES AND RUSHBEARINGS—The condetur
article shall be given next week, and, in the pressed these festivals, not only on the Sabbath, but also suppress here, great stress having been laid on them by the the injunction of the writer, conveyed in the pas on every other day ; but the restoration of the King Mancunian, and other conjurers, as highly portentous of shall be complied with. brought with it that of the wakes.
“coming events." What do you think the word Liverpool is For centuries before the Reformation the vigils were
derived from? What, in short, does it mean? Sir, I grieve ELOQUENCE AND PULPIT LEARNING.We cannot reply to tell you; but the truth must out. "Tis neither more nor
tively to Zenes until we see the dissertation to wa discontinued, and the festivals only observed. Rushes less than leave our pool, the Manchester interpretation of
alludes. Whatever may be its merits, it will be were brought to the parish church, and scattered about which is, that they, the men of Manchester, will LEAVE ticable to give it in the Mercury, even in sareem our pool (that is, your pool) or dock, or docks, of which
tions, while Parliament is sitting. The Kaldur In Latin vigila, from the nocturnal watchings in the they say the recent project is in part a fulfilment.
sents a much more convenient, and, indeed, eligitales Another circumstance has great weight with them; and I am
for giving publicity to such a communication and
essay on perusal appears to us likely to interest the + " Hæc eadem sunt quæ apud ethnicos Paganalia diceban- willing to own augurs no good to you; it will cause your tur.----SPELLMAN.—With all due reverence for the autho- the name of their own town, as influencing in a material de BURNING OF Widows. We have just received 83 trade to go to Dee quay, and make you pray for Mersey. Even
of our readers, our columns are at Zenes's service. rity of this great man, the classical reader will not easily perceive that our Wakes are the same as the heathen Paganalia, an omen (or, as my informant had it, an omnium) in favour of gree the future destinies of Chester, has been tortured into
the Calcutta John Bull of Nov. 5, containing the pare though the former were unquestionably derived from the their ultimate success, Manchester meaning, literally, to make
of a recent suttee, detailed at considerable length latter. a Man of Chester! I am sure you will agree with me (to use
in reserve for early publication. * We have not at present any means of ascertaining at the words of our immortal bard, doubtless in reference to this what period these Wakes began to be celebrated annually; event)
Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY certainly long before the Reformation.
“ This, this was the unkindest cut of all!"
E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord-street, Liverpool
Literary and Scientific Mirror.
familiar Miscellany, from whichreligiousand politicalmatters are excluded, containsa varietyof originaland selected Articles: comprehending Literature, Criticism, Men and Manners, musement, Elegant Extracts, Poetry, Anecdotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Arts and Sciences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c. &c. forming a handsome Annual olume, with an Index and Title-page.--Itscirculation renders it a most eligible medium for Literary and Fashionable Advertisements.—Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents
0. 248.– Vol. V.
TUESDAY, MARCH 29, 1825.
by one of the great revolutions, so often experienced by Val d'Arno than in any other part of Europe; they are so ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBR.. the globe, and, in the course of some millions of centuries, common there, that the peasants use them, promiscuously BY M. ALEL B
to be succeeded by others, the latter would not possess with stones, for the construction of their houses. Since,
even such traces of our ephemeral existence, as those fur. however, they became acquainted with the value attached La legère couche de vie, qui peurit à la rerface du globe, ne pished to us by the remains we have discovered of the to these relics, they preserve them, in order to sell them to were que des ruinee-Paris: printed, 1824 animals destroyed by the last revolutions.
travellers. Thus, M. Cuvier bought at Incisa an atlas of
large dimensions, offered to him whilst he was changing wsleted aprusiy for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French work.
horses there. This celebrated naturalist relates, that he LETTER IX.
has seen so large a quantity of fossil bones of elephants OP ELEPHANTS.
collected together in the neighbourhood of Figline, that OP FOSSIL ANIMALS.
two rooms were filled with them. This prodigious dum. Bones of fossil elephants have often been discovered be- ber completely refutes the opinion of those who would the preceding letter, my object in laying before you fore the present period, but their nature was never under maintain, that these bones are merely traces of the passage result of researches made, by the most distinguished stood till lately. Former discoveries of this kind gave rise of Annibal's army through this country. History, it is tralists, in the soil of our neighbourhood, was, to give to many fabulous histories of the disinterment of the trie, informs us that this great general, after having won some idea of the inanner in which the different for corpses of ancient giants. At the time that they were the battle of Trebia, crossed the Appenines; but Titus, ions succeed each other in every part of the alluvial made, men had made but little progress in the study of Livy, and Polybius, have agreed in stating, that although
since there exists a striking analogy in the position anatomy, and, as the elephant is one of the animals, whose he had thirty-two elephants when he entered Italy, he had beks, with respect to each other, all over the surface skeleton most resembles the human skeleton, they eagerly only eight after the battle of Trebia ; that he lost seven of le globe.
seized hold of these events, to give sanction to inventions these animals in a vain attempt to cross the Appenines he nature of the subject, which I intend to treat in which gratified their love of the marvellous. A whole during the winter; and that, in the spring, having at letter, and those following, will, I trust, indemnify volume might be composed of the histories of fossil bones length succeeded in his painful enterprise, when he arrived for the dryness of my last letter. I shall now give of great quadrupeds, that have been affirmed by ignorance at the uppet Val d'Arno he had only one remaining. ome account of those precious remains of animals, or fraud to be the skeletons of human giants. The most There is no better foundation for whatever conjectures i nature seems to have preserved in the bosom of the celebrated is the history of the skeleton, supposed, under have been advanced to account for the origin of these
in order to prepare us for the disasters of which the reign of Louis XIII., to be the remains of Tento- bones, in the supposition that they are not of greater arselves may, at any moment, become the victims. bachus, king of the Cimbri, who fought against Marius. antiquity than the times of which we have historical rehall no longer confine myself to the description of The following is an account of the event which gave rise cords. Besides, you will presently perceive how ridiculous rehes made in any particular place, but shall acquaint to this story :
it would be to attempt to ascribe to a single cause, what. with the observations that have been made in all On the 11th of January, 1613, some bones, several of ever it may be, a phenomenon so general as the existence ries It is, in this case, necessary to embrace general which were broken by the workmen, were dug up from a of these bones. They are found in England, in Germany,
because a knowledge of the resemblance of the sand pit, near the castle of Chanmon, between the towns and, in fact, all over Europe. Those discovered in Ger. $ found in various climates, or of the differences of Montricoux, Serres, and Saint Antoine. A surgeon, of many have been more frequently and more attentively ig between them, leads to the most curious results. the name of Mazurier, being informed of this discovery, observed than any others. It is impossible to suppose peaking to you of fossil animals, I shall follow an got possession of the bones, and invented a scheme to turn that the Romans can have taken elephants to the north of directly contrary to that which I adopted in de them to his profit. He declared that he had found them that country. Many bones have been found in the most g the different layers; that is to say, I shall begin in a sepulchre, thirty feet long, upon which was written northern parts of Ireland, in Scandinavia, Norway, and le animals found in the most superficial layers, and Tentobachus rer, and added that he had discovered, at the even in Iceland. Some have also been discovered in het proceed to the most ancient. You will not fail same time, about fifty medals, impressed with the likeness Poland, and they particularly abound in Russia, although urk, that the fossil remains, contained in the most of Marius. All these stories were inserted in a pamphlet, the climate of that country is now so ill adapted to the rial layers, all belong either to species now living, by means of which the public curiosity being excited, he nature of the elephant. In what provinces of Russia do clephant, the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, or to succeeded in obtaining money for exhibiting the bones of you suppose, Madam, that they are found in the greatest i nearly allied to these species, as the different the pretended giant, in Paris, and other towns. Gassendi quantities? In the coldest parts of Siberia. But, bowmtes; while those, found in the deeper layers, mentions a Jesuit of Tournon, as the author of the pam- ever common they may be in these rude climates, they xistence must have been separated from ours by phlet, and demonstrates that the antique medals were are still more so in some islands of the Frozen Ocean, an one cataclysm, form, for the most part, gener a counterfeits ; as for the bones, they were bonés of an ele- to the north of Siberia, which, with the exception of a few different from the genera with which we are ac-phant.
rocks, are almost entirely composed of a mixture of sand d.
Similar observations gradually becoming more precise, and ice containing fossil bones. I animals are beings of an ancient creation, of in proportion as they are more recent, continued to be made The Russiau Captain Kotzebue found many fossil bones ature we can judge only by some osseous remains till the beginning of the eighteenth century. At that pe upon the coast of America, beyond the polar circle: they , preserved by time. Their soft parts have been, riod, the improvement in natural sciences no longer per were so common there, that his sailors often burnt them. y few exceptions, replaced by the malicales of the mitted men to be so grossly deceived, and these bones M. Adalbert de Chamisso, a naturalist, who accompanied which they are found.
were discovered to have belonged to elephants; but it was Kotzebue, brought to Europe a tusk, four feet long, and expression of fossil animals has been substituted supposed that they had been buried under the soil in the tive feet broad, in its widest part. M. Cuvier discovered a of petrified animals, to distinguish the action to time of the Romans.
great resemblance between this bone and those dug up hey have been subject from that now often exer- The circumstance most tending to confirm this opinion near Paris, in excavating the canal de l'Ourcq. von substances, which, when plunged into certain is, that the bones first found in our country were deposited The inhabitants of Siberia are so accustomed to find of water, are, in a short space of time, incrustated near the Rhone ; that is to say, in places where they might these monstrous remains buried under the ground, that mny malicales. This process is particularly dis- have been buried by Annibal, who is known to have taken they account for their presence there by a fable, which ied by the term petrifaction. Fossilisation is very elephants with him in his expedition against the Romans; will not astonish you when you consider the ignorance of
Nature, in her present state, is, as I have and by Domitius Anabarbus, who also conducted some of the people by whom it was invented. They believe that told you, incapable of forming fossils ; so that, if these animals into Gaul against the Allabroges.
their exists in their country an animal of the size of the sting races of men were to be suddenly destroyed More fossil bones of elephants are found in the upper' elephant, also fiurnished with tusks ; but that, like the
mole, it cannot support the light of the day. They have Minsula Pontificum bullas, indutaque multis
The service done, they eyther to the taverne fast do fie, given it the name of Mammoth, and they call the fossil Sustentat signis, festum celebrantibus illud,
Or to their neighbour's house, whereat they feede unresa lusks, horns of the Mammoth. Concessa: Idolum quoque patroni ostia circa
ablie: The frozen temperature of these climates has preserved Sustinet haec eadem mendicans; quod quia mutum est, For sixe or seven courses they unto the table bring, them so well, that they are applied to the purposes for Aut nondum populi linguam oraque barbara novit, And for their suppers may compare with any heathen king which new ivory is used, and constitute a very important Assidet interpres quidam, clamansque rogansque,
The table taken up, they rise, and all the youth apace, article of commerce in that country. You must acknow. Intrantes atque egredientes, munera-praestent
The minstrell with them called to go to some conveni ledge, Madam, that nature has granted to these people Patrono, et nummis redimant indulta paparum.
place; a very singular indemnification for the sterility of the Pastor pastores alios invitat, et ipsa
Where when with bagpipe hoarce, he hath begon his mul country they inhabit. Scorta jubet simul adduci, turbasque nothorum.
fine, It is remarkable that the same fable has been invented Undique conveniunt quoque vicini atque remoti
And unto such as are preparde to daunce hath given signa by the Chinese, who call the pretended subterranean Ruricolae, pars sponte suâ, partimque vocati.
Comes thither streight both boys and gyries, and meat animal tien-schu-in. It is mentioned in many of their Arma ferunt omnes gladios, venabla, secures,
aged bee, treat 'ses upon natural history. In one of them, it is re
Bombardas, fustes ferratas, atque bipennes.
And maryed folkes of middle age, there also comes to se, marked, that this animal is found only in the coldest re
Adveniunt juvenes culti, comptaeque puellae;
old wrinckled hagges, and youthful dames, that måste gions, and that its flesh is very wholesome. We may Adsunt et mimi, mendicique atque choraules.
daunce aloft. iherefore suppose that the curious phenomenon of the pre
Institor exponit nitidas ex ordine merces.
Then sundrie pastimes do begin, and filthie danzas at: servation of Aesh is not uncommon in cold countries.
Canpo disponit mensas, et pocula profert
When drunkards they do lead the daunce with tray and blog Fossil bones are generally mixed with the bones of seve. Omnia venturis: neutrum spes fallit avara;
fight, ral wild animals, of varipus sizes. An entire skeleton is,
Namque fere referunt summa ex hoc conimoda festo That handes, and eares, and head, and facere tume is twofa bowever, seldom found ; they are, in some instances, placed Prae cunctis aliis. Igitur post sacra peracta, 12
plight. vnder layers of fresh water depositions, in others, they are
Aut ad cauponem properant, notosque sodales,
The streames of bloud runne downe the uns, tad tas covered by the remains of marine bodies. We may, by Explenturque omnes laute vinoque cibisque.
times is seen, these circumstances, judge what was the nature of the
Octo solent septemque interdum ponere missus,
The carkasse of some ruffan slaine is left upsn ta pe catastrophe which changed the face of the country where
Pontificumque nihil veterum concedere eænis.
Here many, for their lovers sweete, some debutie ting they lived. Sublatis tandem mensis consurgitur, et mox
buie, When we consider, Madam, the prodigious number of
Orchestram juvenes adeunt ascaule vocato:
And many to the taverne goe, and drinke for companie, these bones, their mixture with the skeletons of wild ani.
Qui postquam insonuit raueum signumque choreis Whereat they foolish songs do sing, and wagen gut
Utre dedit, veniunt illuc pueri atque puellæ, mals, and the dispersion of bones belonging to the same
make: Longærique senes, mediâque ætate mariti. animal, we cannot but reject the supposition that they are
Some in the meane while play at cardes, and see the
Spectatum the remains of animals buried by me, and we are comTum rarii sucedunt turpesque chorée 029
do shake. pelled to admit that revolutions, of which we behold every A madidis vec, non tivæ pugneque ergentærf whom when they have, they thinke their game mine
Their custom also is, the priest into the house to på, where proofs so evident, must have taken place.
Fervent, ut digiti, palmce, calcentur et autes, 11 ann at full;toom art shum to di I must now remind you of the elephant of Mr. Adams,
Et capita et facies et brachia sanguine manent; and request you to refer to the history I have given you of
He fane in noyse exceedes them all, and eke in drie
Nonnunquam et coesus mediâ linquatur arena. it, in one of my preceding letters.
The cuppes, a prince he is, and holdes their habe Bones of elephants are also found in America, a càntiMulti, quod placeat, cupidoe mercantur amicæ.
spewing lie. nent in which living elephants have never been known Insipido adjuncto canta, clamoreque summo.gaan Multi cauponam repetimt, potantque gregatim, 3.
Endosh ; since it was discovered by the Europeans. As these ani.
Luduntque interea chartis, rapidoque fritillo.
tako 3 79The Investigator. mals certainly never can have been destroyed by the feeble
In cauponam etiam est pastorem accersere moris, and thinly scattered people who inhabited America before
Quo præsente putant compleri denique ludum. the period of its discovery, we have a new and unanswera
Is superat clamando omnes, calicesque frequentes
MR. MARSHALUS LECTURE ON POPULATIS ble proof of the antediluvian antiquity of these remains.
Siccando, rex quidam est: vieinoque vomenti,
lebat Jant , WAGES, A circumstance, worthy of remark is, that whilst the Sinciput apprendit, nimium officiosus et æquus, mesto
a won fles At the Leeds Mechanics' Institute fassil bones of elephants are so common in climates that
Et tenet, ima quoad stomachi fundamina verti. could not be supported by these animals, none are found
Hinc est vicinis gratus, charusque sodalis:
On Thursday evening se'nnight a Lecture vat in the countries where they now exist. To account for
Cui si quando nocent Euantica dona vicissim,
at the Mechanics' Institute, by John Marshall, this singularity, we must not forget, first, that the present Debilitantque gradum, ne possit adire Penates 1970 Vice-president, “On the true principles and mut state of things no longer permits of fossilisation ; seconil, Ipsi illum (quod non rarò contingere notum),
tion of Population and Wages.". This interesting that the temperature of the coldest regions must have
Quadrupedem grati vice versâ in tecta reducunt.
of economical science was very clearly illustra changed suddenly, probably at the time of the great revo- Catholicum hunc servat veneranda dicatio morem. made level to every capacity. The natural te lution, which caused all these animals to perish; thirdly,
population to increase beyond the demand for bak that the fossil elephant having been provided by nature with the fur peculiar to animals living in cold countries, we
THE TRANSLATION, BY BARNABE GOOGE. W check given to population by the misery of the
effect of redundant population in reducing Pages may be sure that it was capable of supporting a tempera
diminishing their numbers, were explained in the ture much lower than that of the regions of Asia and The dedication of the Church is yerely had in minde, free
manner. It was shown that the labouring day Africa. The elephants now living in these continents are from out the steeple hie is hangde a crosse and banner fayre, comfortable and happy when the supply or liter
the demand; and, from this fact, Mr. M. Smoker ayre,
The pulpets and the aulters all that in the Church are seene, advise the younger part of his auditors to make Men and Manners.
And every pewe and piller great, are deckt with boughes of vision for the support of a family before they are green;
a connexion for life. The lecturer then spake of The tabernacles opened are, and images are drest,
which regulated wages.
He showed that the COUNTRY WAKES OR RUSHBEARINGS. But chiefly he that patron is, doth shine above the rest :
of labour was that which would enable the link A borde there stands, whereon their bulles and pardons thick maintain themselves and families, without eller they lay,
ing or diminishing their numbers; and that there (Concluded from our last.]
That given are to every one that keepes this holiday: temporary price of labour was affected by the
of the supply to the demand. He then short Great as are the excesses usually prevalent at these an- And beggeth fast, of every man, with pardons in his hande:
tages of leaving labour to find its own price nual assemblies, we have good authority for asserting that who for because he lackes his tongue, and hath not yet the restrictions on either the
employers or the
expressed his pleasure at the repeal of their before the Reformation they were both greater and more in common people's languages, when they speake well or 111,
Laws, for which he had petitioned,
and we frequent. The following extract from the Regnum Papis. He hath his own interpreter, that alwayes standeth by.
mended before the committee of the Housed ticum Nangcorgi is exceedingly curious, and was exceed- and unto every man that commeth in or out doth cry:
He took occasion to notice the attempts of ingly scarce previously to its insertion in the Popular Desiring them the Patron there, with giftes to have in minde, many places, to impose restrictions on their nas
odious than those they have themselves been the Antiquities of Brand. As the latter work is, from its bigh And Popish pardons for to buie, release of sinnes to finde.
and he showed that the attempts of the Glor price, inaccessible to most readers, and but little known on every side the neighbours come, and such as dwell not had resulted in their complete defeat, and had even by those who can afford to make expensive pur
heavy loss both to masters and workwe. chases of books, the republication of the extract in ques. Come of their own good willes, and some required to be there. smallest advantage to either. The following tion will probably be acceptable to the learned reader. An And every man his weapon hath, their swordes and launces it tant that the working classes should unders
has a , and old translation, by Barnaby Googe, is subjoined.
give entire : The young men in their best array, and trimmest maydes "I am told that some workmen in this town Templi sacrati celebrantur festa quotannis,
ing a combination to restrict their employers is Catholice nimis. E turri suspenditur alta
Both jeasters, roges, and minstrels with their instruments apprentices, or employing other men who bar Vexillum crucis, et redolenti gramine templi
brought up in the trade. Their object is to be Sternitur omne solum: ramisque virentibus arae: The pedler
doth his packe untruese, the host his pots doth fill, nopoly for themselves, by keeping others out of Suggestumque nitet, sellaeque omnesque columnae : Panduntur tabulae, idolorum armoria pictae.
Nor eyther of them their heape deceyves, for of the others all, It would be as much a monopoly, as that of the Prealpué vero sertis habituque patronus
To them the advauntage of this feaste, and gaine, doth Company, or any other, and just as selfish and Exeolicur diti, atque suâ resplendet in ara
fiable. It is casy to prove that all monopolis ar
Rave not to learn the usage I have borne, the true interests of the country: All history proves story of this poem is very simple. Udolph, the son of an i Look at the effects of the restrictions on trade in our Helvetian nobleman, held a post under Theodoric, then a For one true sister left me not forlorn;
And though you're absent in another land, porate towns, and their laws for excluding all but bur- famous commander in the Austrian army. The frequent ses or freemen from carrying on any business in them. letters which he sent home were filled with praises of his Sent from me by my own well-meant command sany town flourished under such restrictions ? On the leader, written
Your soul, I know, as firm is knit to mine
As these clasped hands in blessing you now joins atrary, has not every place which has kept up these in- “In such hyperboles of youthful style, ious restrictions gradually sunk into a state of insignifi- As made his parents dry their tears and smile:
Shape not imagined horrors in my fata Ice ? _and trade has taken refuge and flourished in those
Ev'n now my suff'rings are not very great; But differently far his words impress'd 29 where it was free and unconfined. From this cause A wond'ring sister's well believing breast;-
And when your grief's first transports shall subuldo,
I call upon your strength of soul and pride gnificant villages have risen up into great manufac. She caught the illusion, blest THEODORIC's name, ng towns, and become places of the first importance in And wildly magnified his worth and fame;
To pay my memory, if'tis worth the debt,
Love's glorying tribute_not forlorn regret: state
Rejoicing life's reality contain'd
I charge my name with power to conjure up
Reflection's balmy-not its bitter cup. Ithy and flourishing state. Not only must Government Whose love could make her proud; and time and chance ove restrictive laws, but manufacturers and their work. To passion rais'd that day dream of romance."
My pard'ning angel, at the gates of heaven
Shall look not more regard than you have given 1 must also cultivate a liberal spirit. When they un. The war was soon at an end, and Udolph returned to
To me; and our life's union has been clad stand the principles of economical science, they will his delighted parents. Julia's (his sister's) latent passion ceive that it is their interest so to act. Suppose a cer- for Theodoric was soon kindled into a devouring flame
In smiles of bliss as sweet as life e'er had.
Shall gloom be from such bright remembrance cast class of workmen should succeed in preventing others by her brother's enthusiastic conversation, of which he Shall bitterness out-flow from sweetness past? a being brought into the trade, and by reducing their was always the subject. Meanwhile Theodoric visited No! imaged in the sanctuary of your breast, abers below the actual demand, that they should obtain England
There let me smile, amidst high thoughts at rest; igher rate of wages. It is obvious that this would not
And let contentment on your spirit shine, se the rate of wages in general; but that, on the con. Where Nature, Freedom, Art, smile hand in hand:
As if its peace were still a part of mine: ny, it would depress it in other trades, because a greater Her women fair; her men robust for toil;
For if you war not proudly with your pain, mber of persons must enter into them. This, in the Her vigorous souls, high cultured as her soil;
For you I shall have worse than lived in valo. it instance, would be injurious to the workmen in other Her towns, where civic independence flings
But I conjure your manliness to bear des; but the greater plenty of hands and lowness of The gauntlet down to senates, courts, and kings:
My loss with noble spirit—not despair: ges would make those trades increase and flourish, Her works of art, resembling magic powers,
I ask you by our love to promise this, Ist the trade that was restricted by the injurious com. Her mighty fleets, and learning's beauteous bowers."
And kiss those words where I have left a kis, ition would decay. Perhaps this may be best underHe was on the eve of departing, when at a jubilee, he
The latest from my living lips to yours." d by an example; and, to keep clear of local preju
Such is the outline of this poem. After the above an we will suppose a silk manufacture to be established saw a lady, who attracted first his attention, and afterbeeds, and that the workmen combined together to pre- wards his love. He was successful in his suit, and his quisitely beautiful extract, we can hardly find it in our any others froin learning the trade. As long as the marriage was only delayed whilst he revisited his master's hearts to say any thing to detract from the merit of the trade continued to be flourishing and prosperous the court, on affairs of importance. Loth to hurt the pride poem. It is not, however, in our
opinion, equal, as a submit to an advance of wages; but he could not in them. Personal knowledge far from diminishing Julia's of this inferiority, is the inferiority of its plot; but it may e his works for want of hands. We are now sup- passion for him, of whom before she had only heard, also, in a minor degree. be attributed to a want of con ng the trade to be prosperous, and, of course, there it soon increased, on personal acquaintance, to such an sistency in the style. This latter fault is, we think, occa be plenty of capital ready to be invested in it; and, extent, that he could not but perceive it. He felt bound, sioned by efforts at simplicity,
which often sink into insige cannot be invested in one place, it will be in some in honour and friendship, to disclose his circumstances nificancy, sometimes almost into puerility, of expression
His “ Řitter Bann," (the least deserving of his produa Instead of the silk manufacture being established and engagement to her. extended in Leeds, it would be driven out to some “* And yet with gracefully ingenuous power,
tions, which we are acquainted with, and one of the where the trade was free; and then capital would be Her spirit met th' explanatory bour :
smaller pieces in this volume) will support this assertion ted, and the trade would flourish. Then let us sup. Ev'n conscious beauty brighten'd in her eyes,
and many passages from the present poem might readily bad trade to come, as there are fluctuations in all That told she knew their love no vulgar prizes
be adduced, had we not in our view the more grateful Where the manufacture is most extended it is con- And pride, like that of one more woman grown,
object of selecting its beauties. d with the most skill, and to the greatest advantage. Enlarged her mien,-enriched her voice's tone.".
It is in his minor productions that Mr. Campbell is nnsaster manufacturer in Leeds, where the trade had He left them, having charged both herself and her mother rivalled
We consider," says an Ama injuriously crippled, would not be able to carry it on to eradicate this fruitless attachment from her breast, re- rican, critic, with great justness, in a life of this poet
, his wages below those of other places, he would con. For a time his happiness was perfect. Constance's rela: land,' and The Battle of the Baltic,' as two of the no or abandon the trade. tions were, however, unfortunately very different from her. blest national songs we have ever seen. They contain
sublime imagery and lofty sentiments, but are totally free am anxious to make this understood, because such “ Amidst her kindred there was strife and gall; set is highly detrimental to the town in which we
from that hyperbole and national rodomontade which ge Save one congenial sister, they were all
nerally disgrace this species of poetry.”. The following and to the prosperity and increase of its manufac. Such foils to her bright intellect and grace,
spirited song, from the present collection, indisputably disgraceful, and in the long run injurious, to the As if she had engrossed the virtue of her race, duals who practise it; and what, if it does not bring
merits the same praise. With it, we shall close these ra Her nature strove the unnatural feuds to heal,
marks. enactment of new restrictive laws, will, at least, Her wisdom made the weak to her appeal;
“Men of England ! who inherit
Rights that cost your sires their blood !
Men, whose undegenerate spirit
Has been proved on land and flood:
By the foes ye've fought uncounted,
By the the glorious deeds ye've done,
Trophies captured-breaches mounted,
Navies conquered_kingdoms won!
Yet, remember, England gathers Campbell, well known as the author of the Plea- agitated mind hastened to explain her intention of going
Hence, but fruitless wreaths of fame, of Hope, Gertrude of Wyoming, and numerous abroad with him. Meanwhile Udolph made his appear.
If the feelings of your fathers pieces, and also as the editor of the New Monthly ance, to inforni Theodoric that Julia was in a dying state,
Glow not in your hearts the same. zine, has lately published a poem, entitled Theodoric, and wished to see him before she expired. It was resolved,
What are monuments of bravery, Lestic Tale, of which we now purpose to give some by his wife's express desire, that Theodoric should attend
Where no public virtues bloom? Ito accompanied with a few critical remarks, which his friend, and should return as soon as possible for Con
What avall, in lands of slavery, aggest themselves to us. Most of the various fugi. stance. He went; and whilst standing by Julia's death.
Trophied témples, arch, and tomb? eces which follow in the same volume, have already bed, was recalled to England, to attend his dying consort.
Pageants !-Let the world revere us. led before the public, and will, therefore, the less Quite distracted, he returned home, frantically reproach2 our attention. ing himself for having ever blamed her inattention to him,
From our people's rights and laws
And the breasts of civic heroes now so many years since this gentleman attracted imagining that he had thus wounded her feelings, and
Bared in freedom's holy cause. admiration, by the first named of the above works, caused her malady. His wife had breathed her last in s talents are so well appreciated, that it will be use premature child-birth. It was but a poor consolation to Yours are Hampden's, Russell's glory, us to say much on his peculiar style and excel. find that her illness had been brought on by some savage
Sidney's matchless shade is yours, The better class of his poems is distinguished reproaches which her unnatural mother, angered at her Martyrs in heroic story, eat power and nervousness, united to the most intention of going abroad with Theodoric, had vented Worth a hundred Agincourts : al.conciseness and elegance. His verses are never, upon her. The poem concludes with a letter she had We're the sons of sires that bafiled I rarely, weak or diffusive: and yet they abound in written for him, which he receives after her death, and
Crowned and mitred tyranny fire and imagery: His intimate knowledge of which is, perhaps, its most beautiful part. In its style They dened the field and scaffold literature has enabled him fully to avail himself of and classical clegance, it reminds us of those almost ini.
Por their birthrightsho will wer xquisite models that language affords, so that his mijable epistles of the Roman poet, Ovid. We shall,
London, Feb. 1825. in a peculiar degree, possesses what is called though of some length, present it to our readers. eknesses of e
Mr. Campbell has written this line, "If the patriotism of expression. " Theodoric, this is destiny above,
As It stood, it was evidently in bad menant is to turn to the work we hate before a Tho Ow power to battle; bear it then, my lovel
wo bave therefore taken the Uberty of altering it.