Sidor som bilder

inspired them with manly sentiments, and formed Is it not more judicious, therefore, to admit these bodily, versely, that the cultivation of the body, alone, makes the into heroes. Similar exercises were the general exercises and recreations into a system of education, than mind 'rude. This is incontrovertibly true: but does it tion of youths; and most families had places appro- to leave them to the caprice of children? Love child follow, that we should neglect the body, and cultivate the ted to bodily exercises in their habitations, and at their hood; encourage its sports, its pleasures, its amiable in mind alone, at the expense of our health and strength, stry seats. Thus should it be in all nations that would stinct. Which of you has not sometimes regretted that thus producing in the end weak and diseased minds, sink under the despotic sceptre of refinement. age, when the mouth is ever decked with smiles, and the through the reaction of bodily infirmity ? Surely, no man Kerculiaris, who wrote his celebrated work on gymnas. mind continually at peace ?

will maintain this. “ Thjat man is too learned, who is so not for the antiquarian alone, but, as a physician, to Even the innocent sports of children wül promote the at the cost of his health."* On the other hand, will any. e his contemporaries to revive the beneficial exercises development of the mind, and lay the foundation of that tutor of sound understanding seck the improvement of the we ancients, as the means of improving the bodily harmony between the corporeal and mental faculties, from body alone? Certainly not. It is astonishing thrat such gth and health of mankind, expresses himself thus: which, probably, arises what we term a sound understand objections should be made. The ancients had so high an opinion of gymnastics, ing. Children will remain more apt for instruction, if we This is not the place to say more; and therefore I shall Plato aud Aristotle, not to mention others, considered do not break the spring of their capacity for it by too early conclude with the apt words of Rousseau : “ It is a sad mmonwealth as defective, in which they were neglected, overstraining. Nay, they may enjoy it perpetually, if mistake, to suppose that the exercise of the body is injuindeed, justly; for if the improvement of the mind we have but the art of intermixing it with their bodily rious to the operations of the mind; as if the two actions De accomplish anything of worth and importance, exercises.

ought not to proceed in concert, and one always to be a out the aid of the body, assuredly it is incuinbent on 4. Ridicule.-It is true that the singularity of gymnastic guide to the other." promote the health and dexterity of the body, that exercises would, in some places, attract notice, and might up be capable of serving the mind, and assisting, in-excite laughter; but if this may be deemed a sufficient

• Tipot. of impeding its operations. For this reason Plato, reason for neglecting what our reason approves, as proper rotagoras, calls him a cripple, who, cultivating his to be done, we must relinquish every improvement in the Biographical Notices. alone, suffers his body to languish through sloth least striking for its novelty:-" Whatever people may inactivity." In this passage is inculcated much im- say or do,” says Stowe on this very subject, “: no man of ant truth. May parents, tutors, and magistrates at probity sliould suffer himself to be deterred from the

HENRY JENKINS. th lay it to heari!

direct road to a great and important end." An intelli: OBJECTIONS TO GYMNASTICS ANSWERED. gent schoolmaster will undoubtedly encourage his scholars,

The following account of Henry Jenkins, of Ellerton, We have no places suited to the purpose. Where both by precept and example, in every thing that respects in Yorkshire, is from Caulfield's Characters of Remark? ang us are to be found the magnificent edifices of the the care of the body, from a sense of duty.

able Persons; at gymnasis, palæstra and amphitheatress

In fact, the manner in which we set about it may be so " When I first came to live at Bolton, I was told several e do not want them; for the objects of gymnastics ordered, as to take off much of the glare of novelty. This particulars of the great age of Henry Jenkins ; but i be attained without erecting edifices appropriated to is very easy, if we begin with exercises that are already believed little of the story for many years, till one day he uzpose. Almost all our public schools and academies well known, and gradually proceed to the more uncom coming to beg an alms, 1 desired him to tell me truly how spacious courts as well as gardens, where bodily ex. mon; at the same time familiarising men's minds with the old he was ? He paused a littie, and then said, that to the s may be practised, at least for the present, without object of bodily exercises. When gymnasiasts, whose best of his remembrance he was about 162.5; and I arade, till the people at large are gradually accus- beards were already grown, began to amus: themselves in asked what Kings he remembered? He said Henry the I to the sight; and whiere no other place offers, there a publie part of my native town with playing at fives, or Eighth. I asked what public thing he could longest ree open fields: the requisite implements for the pur- without the gates at football, no one saw any thing ridi. member?. He said, Floddenfield. I asked whether the 08t very little: they are far from being

out of the culous in it: the passers by stood still, and expressed the King was there? He said no ; lie was in France, and the of the ordinary allowance ot pocket-money to chil. pleasure they took in beholding the recreations of youth. Earl of Surrey was General. I asked him how old he

setioolsi How readily would sensible parents dis. How easily may we proceed from these to the proper might be then? He said, I believe I might be between the necessary expenses, which are scarcely worth gymnastic exercises, in almost every town and village ! ten and twelve; for, said he, I was sent to Northallerton paing, if the heads of schools, and the government,

This I believe to be the best mode of introducing what with a horse-load of arrows, but they sent a bigger boy vought by all means to encourage gyinnastic'sports, is certainly to be wished among youth. The welfare of a from thence to the army with them. All this agreed with promote the seheme by their recoin mendation !

great town is but half consulted when theatres and con- the history of that time ; for bows and arrows were then Punt of Teachers. -Without becoming the pane certs are open to the

inhabitants, if no opportunity

for used, the Earl he named was General, and King Henry of what I have done myself, I may' venture to af bodily exercises be afforded them.

the Eighth was then at Tournay; and yet'it is observable, hat the descriptions of gymnastic exercises given in

5. Danger.—This seems to be inseparable from gym. tlrat this Jenkins could neither write nor read; there ond part of this work, are more full and practical nastic exercises; but long experience has convinced me were also four or five in the same parish, that were retë elsewhere to be found either in any ancient or that it merely seems so. For seven years I have been in puted all of them to be one hundred years old, or within

writer. I trust they will be found sufficient to the habit of seeing a considerable number of children and two years of it, and they all said he was an elderly man the beginner with every necessary instruction for youths, weak and strong, little and big, awkward and ex. ever since they knew him; for he was born in another g them into practice.

pert, almost daily engaged in gymnastic exercises, from Parish, and before any registers were in churches, as it is ho will voluntarily undertake the business?' The be lowest degree to the highest and apparently perilous, said; he told me then, too, that he was builer to the Lord tutor is urged to it by the most pressitg necessity and to this

day not one of them has received any injury." Conyers, and remembered the Abbot of Fountain's Abbey ant of occupation for his pupils. If he reside in This is a stronger argument than any reasoning upon the very well, before the dissolution of the Monasteries.

'Henry Jenkins departed this life, December 1670, at nitry, what excellent opportunities do the plain subject, wood afford him for various exercises of the body time be spent in bodily exercises, the youth so educated, denfield was fought December 9th, 1513, and he was

6. Alienation from sedentary employments. If much Ellerton upon Swale, in Yorkshire ; the battle of Floddo doubt. All private tutors are of an age, in with their robust bodies, will not afterwards accommodate about twelve years old when Floddenfield was fought; so be capability of such exercises still remains, and themselves to sedentary

occupations, to which, however, that this Henry Jenkins lived one hundred and sixty-nine ination to them exists, or can easily be excited. they are frequently destined! They will neglect their years, viz.-sixteen years longer then old Parr, and was

the oldest man born upon the ruins of this postdiluvian est all schools there are young men of the like business, or incur disease from confinement!" let me add that this would completely remedy

The much in this objection should be too much ; and world. In the last century of his life, he was a fisheructive effect, which their sedentary way of life has then, it is evident, it would not be altogether without rea. man, and used to trade in the streams. His diet was own health. On this head I shall subjoin the fol- isonBut what avail such misrepresentations? Do we course and sour, but towards the latter end of his days he passage from Prank's Medical Police :-" In all wish absolutely to debar youth from all mental, or even begged up and down. He hath sworn in chancery and zich are the native seats of inactive life, either the sedentary occupations, and employ them wholly in cor other courts to above one hundred and forty years' meof the lower schools should accompany all their poreal exercises, like

the savages of Canada ? What ra- mory, and was often at the Assizes at York, where he (without exception) into the open field, regulate tional man would desire this? The true proposition is, generally went on foot; and I have heard some of the rts, and superintend their exercises ; or, which I make a judicious distribution of time, and then there will country gentlemen afirm, that he frequently swam in ther advise, a particular master of gymnastics be enough for the improvement both of body and mind: the rivers after he was past the age of one hundred years. appointed, who should have the sole charge of mental labour will then sufficiently babituate the youth In the King's Remembrancer's Office, in the Exchequer, ises of youth. With regard to the health of chil- to abstract

and sedentary employment, so that he will be is a record in a deposition of a cause, by English bill, chool, the office of such a master would assuredly capable of submitting to his future condition as a mar; between Authony Clark and Smirkson,

taken 1665, at Eerior importance to none that the good of the way, the full health and strength of his body will render Kettering, in Yorkshire, where Henry Jenkins, of Ellerton

upon Swale, labourer, aged one hundred and fifty-seven Dands, in places where the children of a very the exertions of his mind more effective. 3 class of citizens are brought up, at great ex.

7. Rudeness of Mind. We will admit, that the cultiva- years, was produced, and deposed as a witness. - be for the most part infirm beings, and useful tion of the mind, alone, is destructive to the body; and con.

short period of life.”
rt of time.-For what is usefal and necessary, be struck with the advisableness of providing useful and pro-
In reading this assertion of Saltzmann's, we must surely

find time. It is our daty. These four words
ficient answer to the whole objection. But i per employments for boys out of school hours; when, very

VAPOUR BATHS. what pretence there can be for urging this want activity, is the cause of the very disgraceful practice prevalent

probably, the neglect of giving a right direction to youthful In the first place, it is scarcely necessary to say at our public schools, where boys are allowed to fight with

TO THE EDITOR. ren cannot do without recreation. If it be ad. en that the cultivation of their minds ought to at Eton, to the utmost risk of life; whilst the bad passions are ever open to hints for the public good, allow me to

one another, as we have recently seen in a lamentable event SIR, -As the columns of your entertaining miscellany ged,

it would still be true, that the extercise of are excited, and religion and morality set at defance be bore ask, through the same medium, whether any of the va. and that of the mind always serve as relaxations time here for those quarrels

, which
generally arise from the pour baths

in our town, are supported by public subscripher.

want of duc superintendence and employment of their leisure tion, so as to be accessible to our poorer neighbours, who are Emilius. time.

otherwise unable to take the benefit of their use, on account

of the charge by the proprietors, which, I believe, in the whole, or at least a large fraction of the credit of in van. address of the original correspondent, would forthwith ge lowest instance, is half-a-crown* (against whom, by the bye, tion on “his friend and respected neighbour Dr. Bell.”

them in, to the gratification of the successful plagiare

who had played off the hoax, and the infinite merrie I do not mean to say they are any way overpaid by such The worthy member, Mr. Whitbread, was so much amazed

of every one whose reading had extended to Engels charge.) I have observed in my own family the great good at this extraordinary intelligence (observe reader, this hap.

Speaker, or the Elegant Extracts. If we should ever arising from the use of one, after a very severe attack of rheu- pened in 1807, about nine years after Mr. Lancaster's first a seat in Parliament, we would endeavour to obtain a matism, which, I may venture to say, was the first thing essay at improvement) that he requested the attendance of to punish with the tread-wheel, or the pillors, everyan under Providence to set the patient on his legs. What Dr. B. and Mr. L. at his house in Dover-street, London.

who should affix his initials to the compositions of another

a practice which, although we see it played off suggested these remarks, was the case of a poor female To this just and reasonable request the Doctor did not

our very noses," is most mean and dishonest. In feet, child, who is very much afflicted with rheumatism, or attend; he preferred giving in a written stalement, rather

know no character more pitiful than that of the plagiari some such severe pains, arising from cold in all her limbs. than meet Mr. Lancaster before so able and discriminating who, in the first instance, is a thief, for stealing at The medical gentleman who prescribed for her said, “You a judge as Mr. Whitbread.

people's thoughts, and a liar for calling them bis om had better try the vapour bath." On my asking, “ Have you Now, Sir, I hope this stubborn fact is again restored to

POLITICAL ECONOMY-W.D. G. has surprised us a little by done so," the answer was, with a sigh, “ No, Sir, because the credit of Mr. Lancaster, and that it will take more

note, from which it appears that he is not aware that my mother is too poor to pay for me.” Now, Sir, as it than seven years, thinking, speaking, and writing, from have published his report of Mr. M'Cullochi ketures would be necessary for a patient of this sort to go several Philoc, to convince the public that Mr. L., who was ac- foreign commerce, at full length, in the Kaleidotege de times, perhaps, before any lasting relief were got, and as it knowledged by the country, and declared in the House of

cember 28, 1824, page 217. Any further comunitnication

on similar subjects will be acceptable. would be more than many well-disposed individuals could Commons to be the inventor of the new system of eduafford to pay even for the benefit of one, would it not be cation," in the year 1807, is not entitled to the same credit VAPOUR BATHS FOR THE POOR. Having from the streets worthy the attention of the generous public of our good in 1825.

table sources heard so much of the efficacy d rapaz las old town, to raise an annual fund, under proper manage- But, Sir, Lancaster is not the only sufferer by the gigan

ing, we must approve of the suggestion of Sier, to extend

their benefits to those who cannot afford to pay at ment, and, by way of ticket, to give our indigent neigh- tic strides of Dr. Bell. Every ingenious man of the

crown, which, as our correspondent states, is the bours an opportunity of the use of the baths, which, I am present day, and of all future ages, are completely barred required at the baths of Mr. Coglan and Mrs svie. It convinced, in many cases, particularly of the chronic kind, out from any improvement in his way : even if discoveries sum we believe to be much lower than that required eu would be of essential benefit to them. By giving this a should be made, they must remain without credit, benefit, similar establishments in the kingdom; and we have been corner in your Kaleidoscope, you will oblige, yours, &c. or advantage.

that in some places more than twice the amounts

manded. We wish, of course, to have every besla April 25, 1825.

SIOR. The Doctor has enacted an eternal penal law against the and luxury of life at as cheap a rate as possible; but • See Notice to Correspondents.

progress of the human understanding. Should a great also, that those who supply us with them should lang improver of education arise in a century to come, and that remuneration and this we feel confident that they any of the descendants or fellow.disciples of Philoc. exist

tors of the vapour baths in this town do not receive 1 LANCASTER OR BELL SYSTEM.

opinion, on our parts, may appear somewhat super in 1925, they will have Dr. Bell's authority to state, that

tory, if not officious, as tending to raise the fee fer un such improvements, however great they may be, are only TO THE EDITOR.

useful, salutary, and, in many cases, almost indled SIR,_Your correspondent, who, for the sake of brevity, rivulets, which flow from, and owe their existence to the remedy; but as it is our opinion, we have note I will call Philoc. has entered upon his last letter “ with fountain head of improvement at Madras. Even at this the greatest reluctance,” and though he is well aware that day he claims the merit due to the celebrated Pestalozzi; LOTTERIES. When we last week declined the lates

Cool Calculator, we rather prematurely took it is he is a weak instrument, in a feeble cause, still he and there is not a well-conducted school in Paris, Lau

that it was a puff for an establishment of war attempts to frighten a citizen of the New World from his sapne, Geneva, or the Netherlands, in short, at home or

always disapproved, and one in which we deteta

farthing in our lives. post, by the following defensive quiver. Mark the last abroad, but he claims to be on his system.

Our correspondent pat are sinking effort of this “puny" scribbler. His letter con

In confirmation of this unjust and monopolizing prio

construction upon our apology, by supposing that

tery advertisements either prospectively of retrosper cludes with these words:" Whilst I can think or speak ciple, I beg to refer to Philoc's last letter, where he states,

had any influence over our determination. We I shall not cease to defend his claims to the utmost of my that Lancaster is now propagating the Madras system in

suffered such considerations to sway us from ou power.” Bravo! Mr. Philoc.: you my think and speak South America.

duty; and in proof of the sincerity of this aserta as much as you please, but for your credit's sake write very

Miracles will never cease-Lancaster teaching on Bell's have now to state, that, when, on reperusing the

A Cool Calculator, we found it to be in opposition little. Your last letter is a pretty specimen of your logic system! The reverse is the case, which, without "plun

not in support of, the system of lotteries, we ar and composition. “ If the Madras mode of tuition abound dering, t or any other intention but good will towards Dr.

mediate insertion, conspicuously, in the kacides in such prodigies of learning, and correct information as Bell, will do for the amiable and gentle Philoc.

the last number of which it appeared

AMERICAN. you seems to be, what a system of erudition!” and how your patron, Dr. Bell, will rejoice that he has, at this day, Sar and Garter, April 29, 1825.

ORIGINAL MUSIC.- The music of Mr. C. Harding,

words, “O'er the heart of Childe Harold," are prepari such a champion in Liverpool ! Philoc, from your puerile efforts I suspect you are one • This relates to the improvements of ingenious men, not

publication next week ; in the mean time we Fri

our correspondent to inform us, whether there are se the education of children. of the Doctor's " little boys," and when you become a

verses, and whose words they are.

Philoc. used the term "plundered” in his last letter. man, it is to be hoped you will “put away childish

FLUTB MUSIC.-We scarcely know how to reply things." Proceed, struggle hard in your boyhood, and

Violin, who proposes the introduction of fute med when you contend some years with American, you will To Correspondents.

are of opinion, that mere melody, however good then be “ at age,"_and there's ordination and a vicarage

would not prove very attractive; it never satisdad for you!

vated ear, which naturally expects harmony to MISUNDERSTANDING OF A CORRESPONDENT, &c. We do not

piece complete. The musical glasses produces “Though satire's not my weapon, yet I am not so discreet plead guilty to the charge of lacking courtesy brought That I can't run a tilt, at such as Philoc, when we meet;

pure and exquisite than almost any other instrums against us by T. H. S. of Fairfield; and, in the case of which

and yet, for the want of the requisite accons I only wear it in a land of Bellarian robbers, he complains, the evidence of facts will fully acquit us. In

they very soon pail upon the ear. If Vincent Thieves, supercargoes, rogues, and system-jobbers!" the Kaleidoscope of January 11, we published some lines,

favour us with a sight of any of the pieces ** I beg to apologize, Mr. Editor, for trespassing so far entitled “ The Glove,” said to be translated from Schiller.

alludes, we will examine into their pretensione

We stated at the time, that it was our impression, that we upon your attention, with observations which nothing else

had previously met with an English version. Soon after should induce me to make but the uncourteous remarks of

this (how soon we cannot say precisely) T. H. $. enclosed


us another English version, translated by Mr. Steinhauser,

mental sheet or Local Letter-box of this day, the But to the point.-The incontrovertible facts stated in thus confirming our conjecture. This singular composi

ing report of this excellent establishment is to be tion, together with T. H. Si's prefatory note, appeared in

and we strongly recommend it to the perusaldo my last letter, in behalf of Mr. Lancaster, continue undis.

in town and country.

the Kaleidoscope of March 1 ; and it is not our fault that turbed, and will ever remain so. Philoc. attempts to show

they have escaped the eye of our quondam correspondent. that Mr. Whitbread's information was “incorrect," and -As for the trining delay which occurred between the We shall have a word or two to say to our friend F.11 favours us with a reported extract from his speech on an. interval of transmission and insertion, that arose from

Cymro shall be attended to. other occasion. When Mr. Whitbread pronounced the

editorial arrangements, which it would be unnecessary recorded eulogium on Joseph Lancaster, as the inventor

and uninteresting to particularize. We are not surprised ERRATA In the third line of the last paragraph But

that T. H. S. sbould succeed in finding some other willing the Observations on Sewers, inserted in the Los of the new system of education, some nameless member,

medium for his effusions. If they had fewer claims to

ment of the Kaleidoscope for May 3, after “ main who had the inspection of Dr. Bell's papers, waited on merit than they do possess, we could point out caterers read “a chimney to be built,* &c.; and, instead el Mr. W. and told him that the Doctor was a schoolmaster

for the public who would "jump at them:" literary gentle

read “ the base" to be twenty feet high. ia India some years before the Borough-road school was

men of so accommodating a disposition, that, if a copy of

Alexander's Feast, or Pope's Universal Prayer, &c. &c. were apened, (wonderful information!) and requested that he

offered them for insertion, with the initials A B C, or any Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAE would make another speech, and endeavour to bestov the other signature, and Liverpool, or any other town, as the E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord-street, Liverpool


Literary and Scientific Mirror.


s familiar Miscellany, from whichreligiousand politicalmatters are excluded, containsa varietyof originalandselected articles; comprehending Literature, Criticism Men and Manners, musement, Elegant Extracts, Poetry, Av dotes, Biography, Meteorology, the Drama, Artsand Sciences, Wit and Satire, Fashions, Natural History, &c.&c. forming a handsome Annual olume, with an Index and Title-page.--Itscirculation renders it a most eligible medium for Literary and Faskionable Advertisements.--Regular supplies are forwarded weekly to the Agents.

U. 255.- Vol. V.

TUESDAY, MAY 17, 1825.

Price 30

Natural History.

diminution of the waters of the ocean, found it chiefly cribed, namely, to the matter deposited by rivers at the

upon the appearance of traces of the abode of the sea upon bottom of the sea. LETTERS

the highest mountains. The mere consideration of this But although no reasons can be adduced, sufficient to IN THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE GLOBE. fact, unconnected with other circumstances, cannot but justify the opinion that the waters of the ocean have di.! BY M. ALEX. B.

give rise to a supposition, that the sea bas, at some time, minished, it is still more difficult to find satisfactory proofs

been generally diffused over all our continent, and that it of their progressive augmentation. It is true, that the La legère couche de vie, qui fleurit à la surface du globe, ne has made there a long and tranquil abode, until, in con- few authors who have admitted this supposition, have

sup. es que des ruinch-Paris: printed, 1824.

sequence of a succession of various causes, the summits of ported it by real facts; but they were facts, of which the uslated capressly for the Kaleidoscope from a recent French work. the highest mountains were, at length, lest dry.

true causes were unknown to them. This opinion has been rendered inadmissible, by new Thus, they affirm that several countries of Lower Egypt, LETTER XIV.

discoveries, proving that the parts of our continents have now below the level of the sea, and rendered sterile and OF THE MASS OF WATERS.

all been successively, and at several different times, left uninhabitable by the saltness of the waters, were, three

dry, after baving been covered by the ocean; then, that thousand years ago, above that level, and fertile. It s the total mass of waters has, by its change of place, they have been again invaded by it, after having afforded would, nevertheless, be wrong to conclude, from this in

perbaps, by an increase or decrease of bulk, been a the means of subsistence to terrestrial animals, similar contestable change, that the waters of the Mediterranean cipal cause of the revolutions of the globe, it is im- observations prove, incontestably, that the ocean has, in have risen ; that elevation would have produced upon all ant to observe it chiefly with respect to the agency its consequence of a change of its bed, inundated all the parts its coasts, effects too perceptible to be mistaken. 1 action may have in producing new modifications of of the terrestrial spheroid, one after another. Besides, it Besides, when we consider this great question of the resent order of things; we shall, therefore, consider must be remarked, that as the mass of waters occupies elevation, or depression of the level of the sea, it is exis point of view,

more than three quarters of the surface of the spheroid, it tremely important to admit, that the level of the contiThe ocean, or the mass of seas which have a mutual would suffice that one-third only of the land covered by it nents, far from remaining invariable, often undergoes nunication.

should be left dry, in order that it might be diffused over considerable changes, even in the course of a few centuries. d. The lakes of salt water, which have no outlet. all our continents.

This is evidently proved by the present state of several The currents of fresh water.

The opinions of the writers, who suppose that there has ancient monuments. Some of them appear to have been The mass of frozen waters.

been a gradual diminution of the waters of the sea, are sup- lowered or raised with the soil upon which they stood, ? ocean covers rather more than three quarters of the ported by a great number of facts, which appear, in fact, whilst others, being inclosed in the ground up to half of e of the spheroid ; its form is very irregular, and upon a cursory review of them, to prove, that, ever since their height, must either have been pressed down by their is upon the distribution of mountains and valleys; the commencement of the periods recorded in history, the own weight, or have been gradually surrounded by the ent is greater in the southern than in the northern sea has left dry many places, formerly occupied by it. soil near them, which may have risen in every part, except phere, and it has thence been concluded (without, These authors quoted, in proof of their assertions, the port that kept in its place by the pressure of the building. er, sufficient foundations) that perhaps the two of Frejus, formerly so celebrated for the harbourage whichThus, the ruins of the tomb of Theodoric, of Verona, pheres were not equal in weight: this assertion is it afforded to the Roman galleys, and now at a considera- King of the Goths, constructed in the year 495, near I to be erroneous, by the earth's rotatory motion, ble distance from the shore ; that of Aigues-Mortes, where Ravenna, in Italy, have sunk so deep into the earth, that could not be continued, if the two hemispheres Saint Louis embarked in the vessels which carried him to only half of this Gothic monument is now visible, the rest f unequal weight.

the east, and which is now also dry; the port of Brindisi being concealed under the soil. mpts have been made to calculate the mean depth now also abandoned by the sea; and, finally, the town of This fact is the more remarkable, as the monument, ocean, but the results that have been obtained vary Damietta, situated in the time of Saint Louis, on the sca which is of an enormous weight, has certainly been raised ingly. Some writers have, in fact, computed it to shore, and now nine or ten Italian miles distant from it.

upon piles. hundred metres, whilst others have extended it to They quoted, besides, a great number of similar facts, There are, in several parts of Scotland, remains of walls, thousand. This last computation is prodigiously which, though well attested by historical tradition, can built by the Romans in the second century of the Chris. rated, since it is proved, as well by all arguments not be considered as proofs of their assertions; since, as tian era, which divide this country from sea to sea ; but d upon speculative opinions, as by the result of re. all the sea-ports mentioned above, are situated at the they are now sunk into the earth, and it is necessary to iservations, conducted with the utmost care, that mouths of great rivers, which, like the Nile, Loire, and make excavations in order to find them. pth of the ocean does not exceed seven or eight Rhone, deposit a large quantity of sand and earthy matter Another wall of earth, built by Adrian, towards the id metres, that is, about a league and a half; so upon their shores, there is evidently every reason to be year 125, which extended across England, from Newcastle we supposed the mass of the waters uniformly dif- lieve, that the ports of the bed of the sea, near them, have to Carlisle, has also sunk into the earth. It was, in 432, ver the whole surface of the terrestrial spheroid, not been left dry, in consequence of the retreat of its waters, rebuilt of brick, by Aetius, a general of the Roman Emusand metres, or one league, would be the utmost but that they have been gradually raised above its level; pire, and was then made eight feet thick, and twelve feet of its depth.

in one of these ports (that of Brindisi) it is very percepti- high. the mass of the waters progressively diminish, and ble that the operations of nature have been aided by the It may be supposed that this wall has been demolished 2 therefore anticipate that our globe will be at some works of men.

in the places where there are now no vestiges remaining of time left entirely dry ? Or does it, on the con- The Baltic is the only sea which seems really to dimi. it; but what must we conclude, when we perceive that, in ontinually increase, as some authors have imagined, nish in depth ; but, according to all appearances, this di. other places, it is completely buried in the ground ? Either ust consequently suppose that we are threatened minution is a local phenomenon, depending upon the the whole mass of the wall must have sunk under ground

second deluge? Finally, does the bulk of the elevation of its bed. We shall, Madam, in a short time, by its own weight, or the surrounding earth must have ontinue nearly the same in the course of a succes- be more capable of deciding upon this point: since the risen so much above its ancient level, as to cover it enages, and are the revolutions of the globe produced beginning of the eighteenth century, every possible pre- tirely. ere change of its bed? Such, Madam, are the im- caution has been taken to remove all remaining doubts. From either of these suppositions this consequence may questions, respecting the solution of which I am If, as it is most probable, the apparent diminution of the be drawn, that there is no fixed point upon the continents o acquaint you with the opinions of the men whose waters of the Baltic be occasioned by the elevation of its by which it may be ascertained what changes have taken ic knowledge is the most esteemed.

bed, this effect must be attributed to the same cause as place in the level of the seas; since we cannot be sure ors, who support the opinion of the progressive that to which the changes abovementioned have been as that any rock, upon which the measure is taken, has not

sunk into soil of a softer nature beneath it, or that it has small town in Burgundy, of a noble family: destined to Selected by Buonaparte to accompany bin to Egypt

, he not been raised upon the soil. Observe, Madam, that the shine in courts, he was at first appointed Page of the by turns wielded the sword and handled the penci, and walls built by the Romans, which I have just mentioned Chamber. The King, at an early age, appointed him was difficult to say whether he excelled in arts or area to you, cannot be supposed to have

been covered by ruins Gentleman in Ordinary, and soon after, Secretary of Em- His stock of gaiety never left him, even in the greaza and rubbish, accumulated above them, in the course of bassy, and in this capacity he accompanied Baron Talley- reverses, and under the severest privations: it was Dot en tilling the surrounding land, as the parts of the country, rand to Naples, and during the absence of the ambassador insensibility to suffering, but an enlightened philosophy, where they are situated, have never been cultivated. remained as Chargé d'Affaires, in which post he had seve that bore him up under evils for which there was them

Buildings, more ancient than the walls of Adrian, situ. ral opportunities of displaying a rare superiority of talent, medy. Many instances are recorded of Denon's humanity ated in the midst of commercial towns, and cultivated and a depth of conception, which lying concealed under and feeling, m crossing the Desert Those who hater lands, still remain uncovered : thus, the square house at an inexhaustible fund of wit and humour, was not even sited his cabinet at Paris

, will recollect the terrifie petang Nismes, built under Augustus, has the same appearance suspected to exist, till the wit and courtier vanished, to of the Arab dying in the desert of hunger and thirst: which it always had. This circumstance tends to prove, make room for the profound diplomatist. His wit and sketch was taken from nature by Denon

, whese medsp that the present state of the Roman walls cannot be attri. gaiety were proverbial; the ridiculous never escaped him, would not suffer the painter to tell the whole of the step, buted to the last-mentioned cause.

whether seated on the throne or dwelling in a cottage; but we hope, now that he is no more, that the ciruet. That you may not, Madam, be unwilling to admit that and under the glowing colours of his imagination it as.. stance will be painted as it occurred, and that we still here slaw and almost imperceptible changes have, in the course sumed shapes still more ridiculous: the line of Persius Denon, as the good Samaritan, raising the poor Arabi of ages, been produced upon the surface of the soil, I will may be applied to him :

head, and pouring into his parched lips the last dopol remind you of those that have, in so incomprehensible a " Quid

faciam nam sum petulanti splene cachinno ** water which he had for his own subsistence. The rear manner, taken place during the earthquakes described in

His wit, more than his politics, having the misfortune alone of the dying man could speak his gratinde; utara a former letter. I need not mention the extraordinary to displease the Queen of Naples

, Marie Caroline, at the ing tear gushed from their orbs, and he espace in the change which took place at Puzzuoli, where the Monte- period of the emigration, he incurred her royal disgrace,

arms of his noble and generoas friend. Nuovo, 2400 feet high, appeared in the course of a single and retreated from Naples and went to reside at Verice; that he spares a portion of his superfuities to relie

It is not when a map is at ease in his possessions

, en night. I cannot, however, refrain from relating to you a where he was known as the Chevalier Denon. His wit fact, still better adapted to illustrate the subject in question : and talents, his amiable disposition, and the elegance of wants of his fellow-creatures, that his benevolkuse ar be

In 1571, a tract of ploughed and meadow land in Here his manners, gave him a ready introduction to the cele- boasted of; but it assumes an heroic, a divine chann, fordshire, of twenty acres in extent, was observed to be brated Madame Albrizzi, and he soon became one of her when, like Denon, he hesitates not to sacrifice de separated from the adjoining mass, and to be gradually greatest favourites, and the

soul of her delightful parties. means of his own existence to save a strange ada transported, in the course of three days, to the distance of She has drawn his portrait in all the flattering colours of an enemy, who stands in need of it. 400 paces. The most singular circumstance attending this exalted and an Italian friendship. Devoted to the arts with

Denon returned with Buonaparte to France, and fact was, that no noise was heard ; but, when the moving

a passion that knew no limits, his mornings were entirely pared his immortal travels in Upper and Lower Big ground was fixed, the earth was suddenly swelled, and a occupied, in Italy, in improving himself in the study of during the campaigns of General Buonaparte: Bird very considerable elevation was formed.

the Fine Arts, and particularly in drawing, as if he had be totally unnecessary here to descant on the meriti When we consider facts so singular, and so well authen the presentiment that one day he would have the good work which has obtained the highest suffrages, ni tiçated, it no longer appears astonishing that more consi- fortune to render his talents of use to society, in rescuing translated into almost all the languages of Eampe derable chang=s should take place in a great extent of from the ravages of time, and the

still more barbarous poleon said one

day, on looking over Denon's wat country, although they may be effected in an imperceptible hand of ignorance, the treasures of remote antiquity, and I lost Egypt, Denon has conquered it.” manner, and in the space of several centuries. render that Egypt again an object of admiration, which

Napoleon rewarded our traveller's attachment ada It has, for instance, been demonstrated, that the surface was once the cradle of learning and science, and worthy, rior talents in appointing him Director and Adminican of Italy was, in the time of ancient Rome, very different from its wisdom, of giving laws to the world.

general of the Museums and Medal-mint. No from what it now is; this is proved by the present position

Denon, breu in courts, possessed a mind that revolted were allowed to be struck, of which the design andere of the

famous consular roads, parts of which are exceed at tyranny and superstition, and when the Revolution broke tion had not received the approbation of Decon ; ingly well preserved.

The Censor, Appius Claudius, began one of these roads out he adopted its principles, at least in appearance; for this cause is to be attributed the aniform superiunt 2168 years ago. It was 14 feet broad, and formed a straight cobin, who only made use of his revolutionary zeal for the we can hardly suppose the man really to be a violent ja. the Napoleon medals in beauty of execution otace

other collection in the world. line between Rome and Capua: in order to render it level,

of preserving many persons from the revolutionary

Pope Pius VII. having come to Paris to com he cut through several mountains ; one of which, named axe. Denon did not seek merely to preserve his personal rather to pronounce the Apostolic benediction on the Pisca Marina, near Terracina, still remains. It is exca- friends ; virtue and innocence were always regarded by nation of Napoleon, Denon was deputed to show his te vated to the depth of 200 feet, and every distance of ten him as friends and relatives, and he always sought to suc.

ness over the mint, the museum, and imperial feet is marked by Roman letters. The parts of the road cour them; and not only did he save their lives, but sent offices. In his presence, the Lord's Prayer in 150 lei near this mountain are so firm, and so closely paved, that them money to make their escape, while the name of their and dialects was printed and presented to him. The they are now as entire and solid, as at the period of their guardian angel was always kept from them with as much expressed his admiration, and turning to Denen set construction. It is impossible to insert even the point of a care as if he had been their enemy, and had to dread their thou hast not given me thy work.” “Your Helse sword between the stones. Nevertheless, the road is im- vengeance. The mask of revolutionary zeal, which, in should never have presumed to offer it to you, fra Fri passable, in an extent of more than 60 Italian leagues ; Denon, evaporated in words, was rendered of great service collect you excommunicated me for having area hat is, from Rome to Torre-della-more: finally, it dis- 1 to him in the formation of his cabinet.

prove in it, that the world was more than six tas appears in the vast and deep Pontine marshes; beyond

The author of the present notice, who had the honour years old.” “ Psha! thou didst thy duty and I am them, it is again in a perfect state. It may then be fol- of enjoying the friendship of this celebrated man, one day (tu fis ton mctier et moi le mien.) Give me the u lowed, without interruption, over a space of more than ten asked him how he had been able to form such a vast col- any rate." Italian leagues, to Saint Agatha, where it again becomes lection of curiosities of every kind, and of such extreme When it was proposed to erect a columa in to impassable.

rarity? He replied with his wonted frankness," At the Vendome in honour of the grand army and the [To be continued.)

period of the Revolution, when the palaces and mansions Austerlitz, which was to be compared of carne

of the great were pillaged, the objects of art which the from the enemy in that campaign, Denon was Biographical Notices. monsters did not destroy, were brought to the Hotel de to superintend its execution. The column of Tajian,

Bouillon (the Paris auction mart) to be sold by auction. Rome, was intended as the type, but Denn be BARON DENON.

I took lodgings in the Hotel, and examined the immense surpassed his model. In casting the bronze has to

quantities daily brought in, and as both the plunderers many imperfections occurred in the plates, which pun (From the Literary Gagette.)

and the auctioneers were entirely ignorant of the value of M. Denon to remedy: he at length hit upon a plan

the subjects that were sold, I purchased a very large quan- perfectly succeeded, and he fancied himself the bar The ancients, when a great man died, always found tity of objects of all kinds at a very cheap rate, and thus (ventor for discoverer of the secret. A less enlightens some portent in the heavens corresponding with the event. laid the foundation of my cabinet. Fortune has since would, therefore, have felt mortified en finding the Deton's death was not signalized by atmospherical pheno- favoured me in every way; her favours have been conse- secret had been known and practised above to the mena, but the intelligence has shed a cold damp over the crated to the acquisition of fresh objects for my cabinet. years ; and the author of this article will never been literary and scientific world. There are men who should Sovereigns, nobles, the great, and the learned, have what delight the Baron related the anccdote of never die, so useful are they in their day, and so devoted all honoured me with marks of their munificence and made this discovery (so destructive of his fanend en to the noble purpose of doing good: of this rare class was friendship, so that ac length nay cabinet has become what inventior) on showing him the small antique est pe the Baron Dominique Vivant Denon. He was born in a you see it."

the method had been applied.

On the fall of Napoleon, Denon was maintained by over on Thursday morning last, and there are fourteen | The poor man, in his decease and interment, exhibits the puis XVIII. in his place; but on the return of the Ex. other chains in readiness to be drawn over, when the tide same picture every where; and the few tears shed for him zperor from Elba, our author could not resist the ties will serve, which will complete the line of suspension. who had no means of purchasing them, may be safely

This national and splendid specimen of British architec- pronounced genuine. The noble is conveyed to the mau. old affection and unbounded gratitude, and he of course ture will be a lasting monument to the discernment of the soleum of his ancestors with indifference'; for the mimic #bis place on the second return of the King. He has present Government, for having called into requisition the mourning which attends him may be bought in every ælived in retirement, enjoying the otium cum digni. iranscendent talents of Mr. Telford, who was present on street, and the heir is already exulting in the possessions ; in its fullest extent. His cabinet, open several days the occasion, and who has thus proved himself, in this line of the individual to whom, perhaps, he owes his being. he week, was the resort of strangers from all parts of which the various concomitant parts of this magnificent they are called, or persons of some property, is in Lon,

the first architect of the age. The masterly manner in But the decease of the majority of substantial people, as world; and his kindness and affability rendered him bridge have been executed will remain an indelible proof don, more than in oiher places, linked with long cherished most interesting object of his cabinet. For these last of the superior abilities of Mr. William Alexander Provis, hopes dependent upon the event. Scarcely is life extinct, 2 years he has employed the leisure moments stolen the resident engineer ; Mr. John Wilson, the contractor of when dutiful friends and relatives hasten to satisfy the n the offices of friendship, in the composition of a work the masonry; Mr. Hazledine, the iron-founder, Shrews- cravings of curiosity, and realize the thirst of profit. The the History of Art, with about 300 or 400 plates from neer of the iron and timber work. Upon the completion some solitary individual may now and then be found with oun cabinet. The subscription was closed in a short of the chain, three of the workmen,

namely, Hugh Da- anguish at their heart's core, while the rest only keep up ied after his intention was known. He resolved not to vies, stonemason, William Williams, labourer, and John a decent solemnity, to sanctify appearances. The officious it one copy more than was subscribed for, and the Williams, carpenter, had the temerity to pass along the attorney, who, in these days, viper-like, worms himself aber of subscribers was limited to 500. This work is upper surface of the chain, which forms an inverted curvi- into the most secret recesses of families, opens and reads

ture of 580 feet. The versed side of the arch is 43 feet. the will with a grave and important air. 'A visible grief zly finished, and the Baron intended publishing it in on the termination of the day's proceedings, each works begins to show itself in the

legatees, in proportion to the course of the present year.

man employed, about 140 in number, was regaled, by accomplishment of their pecuniary expectations. Those His loss will be very severely felt. He was the pro- order of the right honourable the Parliamentary Commis- who are disappointed look sullen, and soon steal off.--tor of rising merit, which he aided both by precept and sioners of the Holyhead road improvements, with a quart The undertakers and their hirelings, the gouls" of a Chris. imple. Many of the first French artists owe their be- l of the dimensions of the bridge :-the extreme length which may save trouble, by showing in open day the sor

The following is a summary account tian land, are ordered to make an ostentatious display, ing known to his interest and influence. Madame of the chain, from the fastenings in the rocks, is about row of surviving friends, the virtues of the deceased, aod, juotôi, the first painter on porcelain in Europe, and 1,600 feet

. The height of the roadway, from high above all, the wealth he has left behind him. Plumes are y other ladies, owe their success as artists to the ad. water, line, is 100 feet. Each of the seven small piers, multiplied on plumes, and escutcheon upon escutcheon, and fostering benevolence of the Baron, who himself from high-water line to the spring of the arches, is 65 feet. and mourners hired to bear about the mockery of woe. illed as an artist. His attachment to the sex was pro-pending piers is 52 feet above the road. The road on the dwellings, or walls easy of access to the resurrection-men ial, and his partiality to English ladies very flattering. bridge consists of two carriage-ways of 12 feet each, with (who do their best, like carrion flies, to remove the causes y of his fair English visitors will long live in the pro- a footpath of 4 feet in the centre. The carriage-road of fætid exhalations), the body is conveyed in theatrical ions of his pencil. He was born to be universally passes through two arches in the suspending piers, of the state_feathers, tinsel, and gold leaf, waving and glittering red, and will be long and deeply regretted by all who width of 9 feet by 15 feet in height, to the spring of the among the sables. In the mean time, the sexion issues • him, or had heard of his talents, and wete acquainted the iron from the effect of the change of the

atmosphere man Delver' of Shakspeare, bearing the image and super

arches. To counteract the contraction and expansion of orders to his deputies; for he himself is not the Goodthe amenity of his character; and the number com- in winter and summer, a set of rollers are placed under scription of his art about him, but a man of importance the enlightened part of the civilized world. He died cast-iron saddles, on the top of the suspending piers, where in his parish; he points out the spot where the strata of aris, on Thursday the 28th of April, aged 74 years, the chains rest. The vertical rods, an inch square, sus- coffins is supposed to be most decayed. Their actual state rring his gaiety to the last moments.


pended from the chains, support the slippers for the floor. is ascertained by an iron rod, which is thrust into the earth ing of the road-way, the rods being placed five feet from as a grocer uses a.cheese-taster.'-There, deep or shallow,

each other. The chains, sixteen in number, contain five in proportion to the decay of the former possessors, the Scientific Records.

bars each ; length of the bar 9 feet 9 inches, width 3 inches employés dig the grave. The procession arrives at the

by 1 inch square, with six connecting lengths at each joint, same moment with half a dozen others, and the minister THE MENAI BRIDGE.

i foot 6 inches by 10 inches, and 1 inch square, secured consigns them to the soil, with a hurried repetition of the

by two bolts at each joint, each bolt weighing about authorized service. If the executors omit to place a hic (Prom the Chester Courant.)

56 lb., and the total number of bars, in the cross-section jacet over the body, it rests for a year, or perhaps two, of the chains, is 80.

till the progress of decomposition, which is said to be rapid

in the plethoric corses of well. fed citizens, allows it to be first chain of this stupendous work was thrown over

turned up, to make room for one who was once a next

SEQUESTERED BURIAL-PLACES. aits of Menai on Tuesday, April 26th ; the day was

door neighbour. Such are the ceremonies of a London nd bigbly propitious for the purpose. An immense

interment. Who would not declare for an undisturbed irse of persons began to assemble on the Anglesey

(Continued from our late Numbers.)

rest on the breezy hill that skirts the down,' or on the arnarvonshire shores about twelve at noon. Preat half past two o'clock, it being then about half. In proceeding with the articles.we promised in continu- rock with its head of heath ?"

“ Fortunately, in this climate the summer heat rarely ide, the raft stationed on the Carnarvonshire side, ation of this subject, we now lay before our readers the endures long enough to concoct fevers from the putrid reborth mill, which supported the chain intended following from the New Monthly Magazine.

exhalations of crowded burying-grounds. A lady of strong rawn over, began to move gradually from its moor.

good sense and high family, who died some years ago, deowed by foar boats, to the centre of the river, be


sired that her remains might be burned, and her ashes he two grand piers. When this was brought to its

placed in her tomb, as an example to lead the way in this e situation, it was made fast to buoys anchored in “ In London, where I see

salutary reform. Her monument, recording her motives nnel for that specific purpose. The whole of this "• Much that I love, and more that I admire, for so acting, may be seen in the burying-ground of St. was accomplished in twenty-five minutes. The And all that I abhor,

George's, Hanover-square. Nothing but a legislative the chain pending from the top of the pyramid on in London people are more regardless and negligent of enactment, forced by some horrible evidence of its effects, marvonshire side down to high-water mark was their places of interment, than in any other great city of will change the present mode of burying almost in the ade fast by bolts to that part of the chain lying on the civilized world. With reason and philosophy, strictly houses of a crowded city. The dread of iron coffins, , which was completed in ten minutes. The next speaking, the feeling of respect for a lifeless body amounts lately exhibited by certain parish officials, is easily ace was fastening the other end of the chain (on the to little ; it is but ashes and dust. Still there are associa- counted for-they kept corruption close, and retard the two immense powerful blocks, for the purpose of tions connected with the resting places of the dead, pleas- exhumation of the bodies for fresh interments; thus, by the entire chain to its intended station, the top of ing melancholy

, associations, ranking with those sensations using them generally, a means of supporting an extraimid on the Anglesey side. When the blocks were that fling the richest colouring over our existence, and are parochial dinner now and then would be lost, and larger cure to the chain, weighing 25 tons weight of iron, too amiable and virtuous to perish. It seems a sort of and more decent receptacles for the dead must be provided. stans, and also two preventive capstans, commenced sacrilege to treat the dead with disrespect, and regard We therefore despair of seeing extensive cemeteries formed 1, each propelled by twenty-four

men. The atten. them as sources of profit. Purse.pride, sordid purse-pride, at a distance from its crowded dwellings, until a plague the numberless spectators assembled on the occasion is the presiding deity in this vast city. Here ít literally has once more devastated the capital.” at this interesting juncture, all rivetted to the

nods in sable plumes, pectacle now presented to their anxious view. The Adorns our hearse, and flatters on our tombs.'

• Beings supposed in Eastern romance to feed on dead ose majestically, and the sight was enthusiastically from the Lord Mayor to the sexton—from the Gog and corpses.

by each individual. Precisely at fifty minutes Magog of the Guildhall to the remotest corner of the ar o'clock the final bolt was fixed, which completed charnel-house, where mortality is corrupting, and the Perspiration.-As soon as the leaves of plants expand, Ole line of chain, and the event

was hailed by the fungus springs loathsome from the festering carcaseit insensible perspiration takes place, which is very abundant acclamations of the numerous spectators present, pervades, directs, and governs. Can they have time to in some plants. The helianthus annuus, or sun power,

sd a beautiful effect, from the re-echoed sound oco consider the dead, who are absorbed in trafficking with emits seventeen times as much perspiration as the human by the heights of the opposite banks of the river. the living, in overreaching each other, calculating profit body, and the cornelian cherry, or cornus masculus, evaole process of the operation, from the casting off of and loss, and worshipping mammon with soul-destroying porates in twenty-four hours twice the weight of the whole to the uniting of the chain, took up two hours and idolatry? Hence death has become a source of public shrub. This process resembles the insensible perspiration minutes, which appears truly astonishing when the and private revenue, as well as every thing besides; and of the human frame, which carries off about five pounds ade of the work is considered, and which has not relatives, too often friends, undertakers, attorneys, sextons, daily, either from the pores of the skin or the lungs. Mr. 1 in the known world. A second chain was drawn and the Government, share in the spoils of the destroyer. Wheeler's Lecture at the London Mechanics' Institution.

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