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ture and obligations of religious ed in the flames, and others dragvows; my next will contain an ged into theatres, and compelled application of this subject, in se. to fight each other like gladia. rious and persuasive addresses to tors, or rather like savage beasts. several classes of persons, who From Egypt pass into Greece; are under solemn vows to Gon. there you will find that in one

T. assault, or rather in one massa.

cre, which was committed upon

the Jewish people, it is comput. THE CALAMITIES OF THE JEWS, ed that 50,000 of them were de. CONSEQUENCE stroyed.

From Greece proceed to Bab.

ylon and Mesopotamia ; there Translated for the Panoplist, from the you behold the same spectacle, French of M. SAURIN. Written in

but still more deeply encrimson. the beginning of the last century.

ed with blood : even to such a Luke xxiii. 26–31. degree that those who have de. “His blood be upon us and scribed it, declare it to have been upon our children,” said the the most dreadful massacre that Jews to Pilate, reason history had ever before recorded. why he should permit them to But passing over other parts imbrue their hands in the pre- of the world, let us fix our cious blood of Jesus Christ. At station in the country of Ju. their intreaty Pilate consented to dea, as the most astonishing the. the horrid murder, and the dread.

atre of the divine vengeance, ful calamities, which they impi

and there behold a literal com. ouslyimprecated, came upon them mentary upon all the predictions and upon their posterity to the

of Jesus Christ concerning this uttermost.

devoted people. Under the gov. Forthe purpose of contemplat. ernment of Judas, you will obing these calamities, transport serve the prevalence of that fam. yourselves in imagination into ine, which Josephus styles, by way Egypt. There was, according of eminence, the great famine; to Philo, a million of Jews in and which had been predicted by that country.

The Alexandri. the prophet Agabus (Acts xxi.) ans profaned their Oratories, by To Judas succeeded Cumanus. erecting in them the statues of He stationed, during the Pass. the most unworthy emperor, who over, a cohort of his troops ever disgraced the throne of the round the temple to prevent the Cæsars. I speak of Caligula, disorders, which so great a mula who to the numerous other ex. titude might excite. A certain cesses, to wisich he was addicted, soldier committed an immodest added the desire of being adored action. The Jews exclaimed not as a God, even when he was un. only against him but against the worthy to be respected as a man. governor,

who had sent him. From that time this kingdom be- governor was incensed; he came a place of executions, where caused his troops to approach; these wretched victims were sac. terror pervaded the Temple ; rificed in great numbers. Some each one eager to escape from a were slaughtered, others consum. place where he expected to be sac.

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rificed, met his destruction in dicted, but the beginning of sorthose very steps, which he took rows, was but a prelude to those for his safety. There was accor. bloody tragedies, which Provi. ding to St. Jerome, Eusebius, dence had reserved for this mis. and Orosius, more than 30,000 erable people. persons

crushed to death in the I hasten to that fatal period in crowd.

which the Jews had the presumpUnder Felix who came after tion to wage war with the Ro. Cumanus, a false Prophet assem- mans and to undertake to con. bled 30,000 Jews, among whom quer the conquerors of the whole were 4000 assassins, who plun. earth. From that time Judea dered and murdered indiscrimi. becamea perfect slaughter-house, nately all those who could not and not a city could be found like themselves erect the standard which did not flow with the blood of rebellion against the Romans; of its inhabitants. The cruel and they continued their robbe- ravages which were committed ries under Festus, the successor there, served as a signal for the of Felix.

destruction of the Jews, to all Albinus, who followed Festus the other nations of the earth. did perhaps more injury. There. You will dispense with my

not membrance of his barbarities pursuing here the order either of was effaced only by those of Flo. times or of places. The imagi. rus, his successor who came into nation is confounded, by the Judea to gratify all those sordid multitude of tragical objects, and passions by which he was actuate the memory is overwhelmed by ed ; among which those which the myriads of people slaughterheld the highest rank, were an ed, burnt, or drowned. At Cæinsatiable thirst for gold, and a sarea the Syrians butchered thirst if possible, still more insa. 20,000 Jews. At Ascalon, Tyre, tiable for blood. He was sup- and Polemais, the people marchported by a woman still more ed over their carcasses.

The sordid and sanguinary than Greeks fell upon those at Scy. himself; whom the favor of thopolis and massacred 13,000. Poppea, the wife of Nero, bad At this spectacle one of the misrendered intolerably insolent. erable victims in the sight of his By such a fury he suffered him. murderers, killed his father, his self to be directed ; and after mother, his wife, and children, having exhausted the houses of and then plunged his sword into private individuals ; he had the his own bosom. At Alexandria, impious audacity to hunt after the Roman legions destroyed gold in the Temple itself, and to 50,000. At Antioch, the massa. plunder it of 16 talents; and when cre was more general, so that histhe Jews came to him in torians were not able to com. body to conjure him to respect pute the number of those who that sacred place; he ordered his perished. At Gadara all the in. troops to put them all to the habitants fell by the sword of sword; who slew 4,000 of them Vespasian's army; which marchin one attack, and crucified a ing to Josaphat, took it by storm, great number more. But all this and put to death 40,000. Veswas yet, as what Jesus had pre- pasian sent Trajan to Sapha


where 15,000 men were put to cle is this! Here I see the Idù. the sword by that general, and the means called in to the aid of Je. women and children sold for rusalem, who enter less in the slaves. Cerealis by his own order, spirit of allies, than of enemies, attacked the city of Joppa, every who signalize their entrance by heart was struck with terror, and the massacre of eight thousand the Jews to the number of 40,000, of those, whom they pretend attempting to escape in their ships, they came to assist. There I were swallowed up in the waves. see three different parties making He committed to his son Titus three intestine wars, ravaging the the seige of Gamala where 4,000 holy city, under a pretext of demen were slain, and 5,000 cast fending it, profaning the sacred themselves down a precipice. utensils, and polluting the sanc. Ah! thou sword of the LORD, tuary; they spare neither age, drunk with blood, return into nor sex, nor virtue, nor condi. thy scabbard; but the LORD tion; they tear infants from the hath given thee a charge against breast, strangle them in their craJerusalem. Jerusalem is about dles, murder the venerable fath. to present to our view a catastro. ers, massacre the women with phe far more terrible than all we child, and prove ten thousand have hitherto beheld or under. times more formidable within stood.

than the Romans do without! There was in this devoted city, Here I see wretches, seeking a rewhen it was besieged, no less treat from Jerusalem through subthan three millions of people. terranean passages, but discoverCestius Gallus gave information ed by Titus, and crucified by to Nero, that there was ordina. hundreds in a day, in the sight rily this number there at the time of the besieged, with a view to of the Passover. The priests reduce them by fear. There I formed an estimate of it from the see the soldiers ripping open the number of lambs wbich were bowels of certain fugitives, and slain upon this occasion, from searching in their yet palpitating the third to the fifth hour in the entrails for gold, which they sus. evening ; which was found to be pected them to have swallowed an hundred and fifty thousand to secure it from their avarice. and six hundred. One lamb serv. Here I see the pestilence aggra. ed for twenty persons at the rating the horrors of war, and most, and for seventeen at the famine aggravating the horrors of least: and to take this latter the pestilence, a famine so terricalculation only it will make ble as to compel husbands to about two millions, five hundred snatch from the mouths of their and sixty thousand ; to which if wives a few morsels of food hasyou add those who may have tily cooked by stealth, wires had some legal pollution; and snatching it from the mouths of for whom no lamb was sacrificed, their husbands, children from the you will find the whole amount- mouths of their parents, and paring to the number of three mill. ents from the mouths of their ions, who became so many vic. children; each one contending tims to the divine justice. Great for this miserable aliment, which God! what an amazing specta. could at the utmost, only pro

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tract for a few moments the re. en hundred and forty thousand, mains of a wretched existence. exclusive of those who were in. There I see a mother committing terred. I recollect in this place a fact the most barbarous to a reflection of Titus Livius the which despair and famine could historian respecting the Æqui, impel, tearing to pieces with her ancient enemies of the Romans: teeth, and nourishing herself with "It may appear very surprising," the flesh of her own child, caus. says he, "that after so many vic. ing those to tremble with horror tories obtained over that nation, at a deed so unnatural, who had and after such numbers of them long forgotten to tremble with

were destroyed, I should still in. fear; verifying in this manner troduce them upon the stage, as the prediction of our Savior : one must believe that not a sin. Blessed are the barren! blessed gle individual of them remained are the wombs that never bare, upon the face of the earth.” In and the paps that never gave like manner it should seem that suck. Here I see the Roman after such torrents of blood had battering-ram shaking the towers streamed from the Jewish nation, and the walls to their foundatiou, it must be entirely extinct ; but overthrowing them with violence, we find it still existing after the and crushing thousands to death victories of Titus, and seeming by their fall. There I see people to revive from its ashes, only, weary with burying the dead, however, to serve as a constant casting them over the walls of object of the wrath of heaven, the city, to deliver themselves and a perpetual verification of from their contagion, and to an, the fatal predictions of our text. noy their enemies by this unheard. In the reign of the emperor of species of combat; driving Trajan, the Jews taking up arms them back by the putrid exha. in Egypt, in Thebais, and Lybia lation of the dead, since the power Cyrenaica, rendered themselves of the living is utterly insufficient formidable to their enemies; of to repel their assaults.

which they destroyed, according But letus draw a veil over these to the account of Dion, more sanguinary objects. The number than two hundred thousand in of Jews, who perished in this final Lybia, and more than a hundred desolation of Jerusalem, could and forty thousand in the isle of never be exactly ascertained. It Cyprus. They supported a war is even impossible to compute, against the Romans for three what multitudes the combination whole years, until Adrian having of plagues which appeared to fall besieged them anew in Jerusalem, upon this devoted city, during put five hundred and forty thou. the siege, swept away.

But à sand of them to the sword; and certain person by the name of sold an innumerable multitude of Manous, who was commissioned them for slaves at the fair of Teto pay the wages of those who rebentha. He also burnt fifty cast the carcasses over the walls, of their castles ; and nine hunassured the emperor Titus that, dred and forty-five of their prin. from the 14th of April to the cipal villages, caused the founda. first of July they cast over elev. tions of the temple to be torn up

by the plough, and forbid them innumerable number in the West ever to approach Jerusalem any Indies; but every where dragmore for ever!

ging out a life of wretchedness; But notwithstanding this con. banished from England under tinuation of massacres, we have Edward I. in 1290, from France seen them multiplying in every in 1307, under Philip the fair, part of the world, and perpetu. from Spain, in 1402 by Ferdi. ating themselves down to the nand, from Portugal by Eman. present period. If I may be uel in 1497; and from Sicily in permitted to mention as credible, 1539, under Charles I. the account which has been fur. Happy nation! If after all nished by themselves, they have they would make these temporal still fifty synagogues and twenty miseries subservient to their eterthousand families in the Holy nal salvation. But, if I may be Land; in Turkey, or in Barbary allowed the expression, faith is more than two hundred syna. more terrified at their spiritual gogues and thirty thousand fami. calamities, than sense and imaglies; an hundred and fifty syna.

ination are at those natural cal. gogues and forty thousand fam. amities which enveloped them. ilies in Germany; in France Their infidelity rises even to a thirty synagogues and ten thou. prodigy. It seems to be a con. sand families ;

thirty syna. sequence of the righteous judg. gogues and ten thousand families ment of that God, who sends to in Italy; five thousand families those who resist the truth, strong in the Low Countries, or in your delusions, that they should be ; provinces; two hundred in Great lieve a lie (2 Thess. ii. 11.) and Britain; more than fifty thou. indeed the desolation of the Jews sand under persecution in Portu. should be sufficient to dispel their gal, Spain, and the Brazils; and an delusions.

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From the Rule of Exercises of Holy LIVING, by JEREMIAH TAYLOR, D.D.

RESTITUTION is that part of the right owner's prejudice; then justice to which a man is obliged he that took them at first without by a precedent contract, or a leave, is the same thing in every foregoing fault, by his own act instant of his possession, which or another man's, either with or the debtor is after the time in without his will." He that bor. which he should and could have rows is bound to pay, and much made payment. For in all sins more he that steals or cheats. we are to distinguish the tran. For if he that borrows and pays sient or passing act from the re. Dot when he is able, be an unjust maining effect or evil.

The act person and a robber, because he of stealing was soon over and possesses another man's goods to cannot be undone, and for it the

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