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and review, to a series of questions appended to each page.

Experience in teaching geology indicates that nothing so much encourages the pupil and facilitates his progress, as frequent use of sections on a large scale, to illustrate both the actual modes of occurrence of geological phenomena, and theoretical views. The map recently prepared by Professor Hall is admirably adapted to this purpose.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

DESIGNED AS A BASIS FOR REVIEW AND EXAMINATION.

66

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PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. Atmospheric agents—mechani-

Geology defined,

& 1 cal, chemical,

14

Object of Geology,

1 Winds, dunes,

15

Descriptive Geology,

1 Frost-talus,

16

Theoretical

1 Aqueous agency—-chemical-

Practical

1

mechanical,

17

Adjunct sciences,

1 Rivers—waterfalls—Niagara, 18

The Simeto,

19

CHAPTER I.

Example of torrents,

20

GENERAL CONSTITUTION AND Transport influenced by buoy-

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH.

ancy

21

Planetary relations of the earth 22 River deposits,

22

Figure of the earth-length of Deltas—of the Rhone, Nile,
diameters,

3 Ganges, Rhine, Mississippi,
Density of the earth increase

Po, Amazon,

23–28
of density within,

4 Incrusting springs, tufa, 29

Temperature of the globe-of Silicious deposits,

30

the surface influenced by lat Land slides,

31

itude-isothermal lines-in Glaciers,

32

crease of temperature be Icebergs,

33

low,

5 Agency of the ocean,

34

Surface outline---height of Waves,

35-37

mountains-mean height of Tides,

38

the surface-of continents Currents, drift and stream, 39

-ocean depths,

6 Gulf Stream,

40

Distribution of land and water, 7-its temperature,

41

Crust of the earth,

8 Arctic current.

43

Means of Geological investiga- Tides and currents reproduce

tion,

9 land,

44

Elements-their number, 10 General result of atmospheric

Minerals which compose most and aqueous agencies, 45

rocks,

11 Igneous agency

46

Incessant changes,

12 Volcanoes--submarine, extinct,

Nature of agents of geological intermittent, solfataras, 47
changes,

13 Their numbers--in bands, . 48

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379

1783,

60

frequency,

Phenomena of eruptions, 2 49 Circular atolls, lagoons, their

Greatest eruption of modern origin,

i times,

50 Reefs raised above the ocean

Of Skaptaa Jokul in 1783, 51 level,

80

Vesuvius,

52–53 Formation of soil on reefs,

Etna,

54 shore platform,

81

Volcanoes of America, 55 Infusoria, their nature, size,

-of Mexico,

56 number—tripoli,

82

Origin of Jorullo,

57 Rapidity of multiplication of

Kilauea,

58 infusoria, red snow 83

--its eruptions,

59 Shell fish, mode of life, depth

Instances of submarine volca of water, temperature adap-
noes,

ted to, their exuviæ, 84

Lava, its constitution and va Remains of vertebrates 85

rieties,

61 Number of species of plants,

-- Earthquakes, kinds of motion, animals, extinction of, no
sound, progression, duration, introduction of,

86

62 Distribution of plants, animals,

of Lisbon,

63 flora, fauna, of different re-

---of Calabria and Ullah Bund,64 gions,

87

of South America and Mis Arctic fauna, temperate, trop-

sissippi Valley,

65 ical,

88

Ilot springs, phenomena of the Local faunas,

89

Geysers,

66 Man's agency in modifying

Gradual elevation and depres surface-on beasts of prey-

sion of earth's surface, pil seals,

90

lars of temple of Serapis, 67 Human skeletons at Guada-

Rise of shores of the Baltic loupe—implements—human

raised beaches-rise of South remains in peat, engulfed, 91

American coast--depression Products of human skill pre-

of Greenland,

68 served, coins,

92

Organic agencies—their import- General result of modifying

ance,

69

agencies

93

Marine plants, peat,

70

CHAPTER II.

Rafts, driftwood,

71

The most efficient agents, 72

THE STRUCTURE AND POSITION OF

Corals—their nature, size, po-

ROCKS.

lyps, zoophytes, their per Rock defined, stratified rocks,

petuation, budding, 73 strata,beds, origin of strata,

Genera of zoophytes, Caryo laminæ, ripple marks, . % 94

phyllia, Meandrina, Astrea, Strata result from mechanical

Madrepore, Flustra, 74 action,

95

Color of corals, their beauty, Concretionary structure, sep-

tubipora,

75 taria, ironstones,

96

Coral reefs, their extent, live concentric structure-nuclei

in shallow water,

76 illustrated in New South

Fringing reefs,

Wales,

97

Barrier reefs,

78 Sand, lime, and clay groups, 98

.

Proportion of the earth cover Leibnitz'classification of rocks,

ed with strata-order of Lehman's, Werner's,

succession, folded axis, & 99 The five classes, primary, pa-

Horizontality of strata-their læozoic, secondary, tertia-

dip,

100 ry and quaternary,

120

Clinometer, strike or bearing, Systems of the classes, 121

anticlinal line, synclinal, 101 Classification of the unstrati-

Mode of observing dip-es fied rocks,

122

carpment, outcrop,

102

CHAPTER III.

Formation defined conform-

PALÆONTOLOGY.
able; faults; gorge ; val-
ley,

103 Fossils characteristic of stra-

Thickness of strata, how de ta, medals of creation, . $123

termined; thickness of Eu Degrees of preservation ; Si-

ropean strata; fossiliferous, 104

berian mammoth,

124

Unstratified, igneous rocks ; Casts, moulds and tracks, · 125

modes of occurrence ; ef Petrifaction; affected by pres-
fects upon adjacent rocks ; sure, heat, chemical agents, 126
non-fossiliferous,

105 Plants bituminized; animal

Veins, dikes; age determined matter converted into adi- .

by their intersection; of se pocire,

127

gregation; resembling beds; Metallization of organic bo-
metaliferous,

106 dies,

Columnar structure; jointed, 107 Petrifiers,

129

Volcanic rocks; plutonic, 108 Requisite means for determin-

Metamorphic rocks, their po ing fossils ; fundamental

sition, structure, origin, 109 principle of comparative

Joints; master joints; their anatomy,

130

direction and origin, 110 Number of fossils,

131

Cleavage; its constancy of Marine, estuary, fresh water

direction and origin, 111 and terrestrial relics, 132

Systems of classification Situation in which fossils were

their points of agreement; formed; entire or broken, 133

of difference,

112 Species, varieties ; species be-

Age of rocks determined by come extinct ; genus, order,

position, mineral character kingdom, family and tribe, 134

and organic contents,

113 Distribution of animate be-

Difficulty of ubserving from ings in former periods, 135

absence of some strata, · 114 Duration of families, genera,

Determination by fossils; spe-

and species,

136

cies not identical through Periods when plants and ani-

out a formation,

115 mals began to exist,

137

Identity of mineral constitu Time when most of the chan-

tion does not prove rocks ges occur; evidence of ge-

contemporaneous,

116 ology respecting the devel-

Age of unstratified rocks de. opment hypothesis, 138

termined by their relations Fossils most unlike as they

to the strata,

117

are most remote in time, 139

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Fossil botany; plants, cel Coprolites,

3150
lular, vascular, crypto Classification according to
gamous, phanerogamous, animate types, protozoic,
monocotyledonous, dicoty mesozoic and cainozoic, 151
ledonous, endogenous and Prof. Agassiz' ages of na-
exogenous,

2140 ture; reign of fishes, of

Plants determined by ana rep es, of mammalia,

I tomical structure; leaves,

and of man,

152

flowers, fruits, trunks and

CHAPTER IV.

secretions, fossil, .

141

Geological position of cellu-

THE UNSTRATIFIED ROCKS.

lar plants, cryptogamous, The igneous rocks consist of

coniferæ, cycadeæ, endo feldspar and hornblende;

genous and exogenous, 142 differ in structure as they

History of fossil vegetation are cooled under slight or

not complete; number of great pressure,

8153

fossil species now known, 143 Granitic rocks—their struc-

Origin of the different forms, ture and position,

154

anthracite, bituminous Granite, its characteristic

and wood coals; bitu ingredients and colors;

minization now occurring, 144 graphic granite; porphy-

Fossil zoology ; Cuvier's ritic,

155

classification; four divi Syenite; syenitic granite, 156)

sions, .

145 Porphyry, its ancient signi-

Radiata, their structure ; fication and present use, 157
echinodermata, sea-ur Metaliferous veins, most

acalephæ, jelly abundant in the oldest

fishes; polypi ; sponges,

146 strata ; veinstone, gangue

Mollusca, structure; cepha or matrix; their produc-

lopoda, acephala, gastero tivoness influenced by

poda; univalve, bivalve, their direction,

158

multivalve and chambered Trappean rocks—significa-
shells ; geological posi tion of trap; origin, dif-

tion of the classes, 147 ference from granite, and

Articulata, structure; in mode of occurrence,

159

sects, worms, and crusta Greenstone, constituents and

cea, their geological posi color; diorite,

160

tion and number,

148 Basalt, constituents, color

Vertebrata, structure; mam and structure,

161

malia, birds, reptiles and Amygdaloid; wacke or toad-

fishes; Professor Agassiz? stone, .

162

classification of fishes, Trachyte, its composition;

ganoid, placoid, ctenoid tuff and clinkstone,

and cycloid; order of Serpentine,

164

their introduction and Trap dikes left prominent,

prevalence; reptiles, where or produce fissures, 165

first appear, birds and Heating effects of trap dikes

manmalia,

119. on adjacent rocks,

166

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