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and review, to a series of questions appended to each page.

Experience in teaching geology indicates that nothing so much encourages the pupil and facilitates his progress, as frequent use of sections on a large scale, to illustrate both the actual modes of occurrence of geological phenomena, and theoretical views. The map recently prepared by Professor Hall is admirably adapted to this purpose.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

DESIGNED AS A BASIS FOR REVIEW AND EXAMINATION.

14

15

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43

Means of Geological investiga- Tides and currents reproduce

tion,

9 land,

44

Elements—their number, 10 General result of atmospheric

Minerals which compose most and aqueous agencies, 45

rocks,

11 Igneous agency

46

Incessant changes,

12 Volcanoes--submarine, extinct,

Nature of agents of geological intermittent, solfataras, 47
changes,

13 Their numbers--in bands, . 48

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Phenomena of eruptions, 2 49 Circular atolls, lagoons, their

Greatest eruption of modern origin,

379

times,

50 Reefs raised above the ocean

Of Skaptaa Jokul in 1783, 51 level,

80

Vesuvius,

52–53 Formation of soil on reefs-

Etna,

54 shore platform,

81

Volcanoes of America, 55 Infusoria, their nature, size,

-of Mexico,

56 number—tripoli,

82

Origin of Jorullo,

57 Rapidity of multiplication of

Kilauea,

58 infusoria, red snow

83

--its eruptions,

59 Shell fish, mode of life, depth

Instances of submarine volca- of water, temperature adap-
Does,

60 ted to, their exuviæ, 84

Lava, its constitution and va- Remains of vertebrates. 85

rieties,

61 Number of species of plants,

- Earthquakes, kinds of motion, animals, extinction of, no
sound, progression, duration, introduction of,

86

frequency,

62 Distribution of plants, animals,

of Lisbon,

63 flora, fauna, of different re-

--of Calabria and Ullah Bund,64 gions,

87

--of South America and Mis- Arctic fauna, temperate, trop-

sissippi Valley,

65 ical,

88

Ilot springs, phenomena of the Local faunas,

89

Geysers,

66 Man's agency in modifying

Gradual elevation and depres- surface-on beasts of prey-

sion of earth's surface, pil- seals,

90

lars of temple of Serapis, 67 Human skeletons at Guada-

Rise of shores of the Baltic- loupe-implements—human

raised beaches-rise of South remains in peat, engulfed, 91

American coast-depression Products of human skill pre-

of Greenland,

68 served, coins,

92

Organic agencies—their import- General result of modifying

ance,

69 agencies

93

Marine plants, peat,

70

CHAPTER II.

Rafts, driftwood,

71
The most efficient agents, 72 THE STRUCTURE AND POSITION OF
Corals—their nature, size, po-

lyps, zoophytes, their per- Rock defined, stratified rocks,

petuation, budding, 73 strata,beds, origin of strata,

Genera of zoophytes, Caryo- laminæ, ripple marks,

phyllia, Meandrina, Astrea, Strata result from mechanical

Madrepore, Flustra, 74 action,

95

Color of corals, their beauty, Concretionary structure, sep-

75 taria, ironstones,

96

Coral reefs, their extent, live Concentric structure--nuclei

in shallow water,

761 illustrated in New South

Fringing reefs,

77 Wales,

97

Barrier reefs.

78 Sand, lime, and clay groups, 98

2 94

tubipora, the

-es-

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Proportion of the earth cover- Leibnitz'classification of rocks,

ed with strata-order of Lehman's, Werner's,

succession, folded axis, & 99 The five classes, primary, pa-

Horizontality of strata—their | læozoic, secondary, tertia-

dip,

100 ry and quaternary,

120

Clinometer, strike or bearing, Systems of the classes, 121

anticlinal line, synclinal, 101 Classification of the unstrati-

Mode of observing dip

fied rocks,

122

carpment, outcrop,

102

CHAPTER III.

Formation defined-conform-
able; faults ; gorge ; val-

PALÆONTOLOGY.
ley,

103 Fossils characteristic of stra-

Thickness of strata, how de- ta, medals of creation, · 2123

termined; thickness of Eu- Degrees of preservation; Si-

ropean strata; fossiliferous, 104

berian mammoth,

124

Unstratified, igneous rocks ; Casts, moulds and tracks, 125
modes of occurrence ;

ef-

Petrifaction; affected by pres-
fects upon adjacent rocks ; sure, heat, chemical agents, 126
non-fossiliferous,

105 Plants bituminized ; animal

Veins, dikes; age determined matter converted into adi- .

by their intersection; of se- pocire,

127

gregation; resembling beds; Metallization of organic bo-

metaliferous,

106 dies,

128

Columnar structure ; jointed, 107 Petrifiers,

129

Volcánic rocks; plutonic, 108 Requisite means for determin-

Metamorphic rocks, their po- ing fossils: fundamental

sition, structure, origin, 109 principle of comparative

(Joints; master joints; their anatomy,

130

direction and origin,

110 Number of fossils,

131

Cleavage; its constancy of Marine, estuary, fresh water

direction and origin,

111

and terrestrial relics, 132

Systems of classification- Situation in which fossils were

their points of agreement; formed; entire or broken, 133

of difference,

112 Species, varieties; species be-

Age of rocks determined by come extinct; genus, order,

position, mineral character kingdom, family and tribe, 134

and organic contents,

113 Distribution of animate be-

Difficulty of observing from ings in former periods, 135

absence of some strata, · 114 Duration of families, genera,

Determination by fossils; spe-

and species,

136

cies not identical through- Periods when plants and ani-

out a formation,

115 mals began to exist, 137

Identity of mineral constitu- Time when most of the chan-

tion does not prove rocks ges occur; evidence of ge-
contemporaneous,

116 ology respecting the devel-

Age of unstratified rocks de. opment hypothesis, 138

termined by their relations Fossils most unlike as they

to the strata,

are most remote in time, 139

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THE UNSTRATIFIED ROCKS.

Fossil botany; plants, cel- Coprolites,

3150
lular, vascular, crypto- Classification according to
gamous, phanerogamous, animate types, protozoic,
monocotyledonous, dicoty- mesozoic and cainozoic, 151
ledonous, endogenous and Prof. Agassiz' ages of na-
exogenous,

2140 ture; reign of fishes, of
Plants determined by ana- reptiles, of mammalia,
I tomical structure; leaves,

and of man,

152

flowers, fruits, trunks and

CHAPTER IV.

secretions, fossil, .

141

Geological position of cellu-

lar plants, cryptogamous, The igneous rocks consist of
coniferæ, cycadeæ, endo- feldspar and hornblende;

genous and exogenous, 142 differ in structure as they

History of fossil vegetation are cooled under slight or

not complete; number of great pressure,

% 153

fossil species now known, 143 Granitic rocks—their struc-

Origin of the different forms, ture and position,

154

anthracite, bituminous Granite, its characteristic

and wood coals; bitu- ingredients and colors;

minization now occurring, 144 graphic granite; porphy-

Fossil zoology; Cuvier's ritic,

155

classification; four divi- Syenite; syenitic granite, 156

sions,

145 Porphyry, its ancient signi-

Radiata, their structure ; fication and present use,

echinodermata,

Metaliferous veins, most

chins ;

acalephæ, jelly abundant in the oldest

fishes; polypi; sponges, 146 strata ; veinstone, gangue

Mollusca, structure; cepha- or matrix; their produc-

lopoda, acephala, gastro- tiveness influenced by

poda; univalve, bivalve, their direction,

158

multivalve and chambered Trappean rocks—significa-
shells ; geological posi- tion of trap; origin, dif-

tion of the classes, 147 ference from granite, and

Articulata, structure; in- mode of occurrence, 159

sects, worms, and crusta- Greenstone, constituents and

cea, their geological posi- color; diorite,

160

tion and number,

148 Basalt, constituents, color

Vertebrata, structure; mam-

and structure,

161

malia, birds, reptiles and Amygdaloid; wacke or toad-

fishes; Professor Agassiz? stone,

162

classification of fishes, Trachyte, its composition;

ganoid, placoid, ctenoid tuff and clinkstone, 163

and cycloid; order of Serpentine,

164

their introduction and Trap dikes left prominent,

prevalence; reptiles, where or produce fissures, 165

first appear, birds and Heating effects of trap dikes

mammalia, .

119. on adjacent rocks,

166

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