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France, under the same circumstances, calculated the popu- 76. (Gen. iii. 19.] The peeuliar property of the corn-plant Jation, about the year 1774, to be to that of the latter, is that of being produced in some shape or other in every nearly as 17 to 1.

part of the world, from the rice of the Ganges to the barley Dr. LAMBE's Additional Reports on Regimen, p. 231. Note. of Finland.

It is however, very remarkable that it no where grows

spontaneously like other plants, so that Providence appears 74. (Gen. ii. 9.] The plantain alone, says Saint Pierre, \ to have devolved altogether on our species the charge of might have proved sufficient to supply the wants of man in a maintaining and extending its cultivation. priinitive state, for it produces the most healthful food in its | Bread is of all vegetable nourishment the most substantial mealy and saccharine fruits. No plant deserves so well the || and durable. name of Adam's fig-tree, its fruit being evidently intended St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, vol. i. pp. 22, 24. for human consumption; one of its clusters forms no inconsiderable load for a man, while its spreading top presents a magnificent shade, and its long green leaves may be easily 77. [Gen. i. 29.] In China, a single acre of land, sown adapted as temporary clothing.

with rice, produces sufficient for the consumption of five perIt is under this delightful shade, and by means of fruits sons for a year, allowing two pounds and a half a day to perpetually renewed, that the Hindoo Brahmin leads a life

each. of tranquillity, and, deriving a supply for all his wants from An acre planted with cotton, produces sufficient for the one of those trees situated on the margin of a brook, is said clothing of two or three hundred persons. frequently to attain the age of a hundred years.

BRETON's China, vol. ix. p. 29. A single fruit of plantain furnishes a meal for a man, and one of the bunches is food for a day. In the Molucca Islands some plantains have a scent of 78.

There is not indeed a single genus of plants, amber and cinnamon, and others of the orange flower.

but what, as varied in its species, presents food to man in They are to be found throughout the whole torrid zone, in some part or other of the globe. Africa, in Asia, in America, north and south, in the islands

ST. PIERRE's Studies of Nat. vol. ii. p. 466. belonging to each continent, and even in the most distant islands of the South Sea. The flavor of the plantain is such as to supply the want of butter, sugar, and spices. It sup

79.

- It is sufficiently evident, that, in whatever plies what may be called the delicacies of pastry.

part of the habitable globe man can exist, there vegetable Dampier observes that a number of families between the nutriment may either be found or be raised : that in no situatropics derive their support entirely from the plantain, and tion fit for the habitation of man is the earth devoid of prolific it is no doubt on account of its aptitude to meet the wants of power, sufficient to satisfy his wants, and even to gratify his man in a state of inexperience, that the Hindoos have called palate. it Adam's fig-tree. The taste of sugar, wine, flour, and Dr. LAMBE's Additional Reports on Regimen, p. 224, butter, found separately in other plants, appear to have been united in the plantain with the view of teaching man the propriety of conjoining them. A sheltered spot in the bosom . (Gen. ii. 9.] of a valley, and on the bank of a rivulet, is indispensable to The living herbs spring up profusely wild, the growth of this tree, and to the preservation of its tender

O’er all the deep-green earth, beyond the power leaves from the blasts of the tempests. It appears to be a

Of botanist to number up their tribes : species of flag.

But who their virtues can declare? who pierce Harmonies of Nature, vol. vi. pp. 9, 10,57,58, 59, 60, 61. With vision pure, into those secret stores

Of health, and life, and joy ? the food of man,

While yet he liv'd in innocence, and told 75. [Gen. i. 29.) In India, wheat, rice, barley, and other

A length of golden years unflesh'd in blood, grain proper for making bread, grow iu plenty, and are very A stranger to the savage arts of life, good; the wheat especially is more white and full than the Death, rapine, carnage, surfeit and disease ; English. The country equally abounds with the choicest

The lord and not the tyrant of the world. fruits; such as pomegranates, citrons, dates, grapes, almonds,

THOMSON, cocoa-nuts, and that most excellent plum called the mirabolan ; plantains, which grow in clusters like long slender cucumbers; the mango, in shape and color like an apricot, but much 81. [Gen.i. 29.] The diet of the first race of men differed larger; and the anana, which resembles our pine-apple, and | according to the different productions of their respective counhas a most exquisitely pleasing taste. In the northern parts tries : the Atheniaus lived on figs; the Argives on pears; and they have variety of pears and apples, lemons and oranges. the Arcadians on acorns. (Alian. Hist. Var. lib. iii. c. They have also very good musk-inelons, and water-melons : 39.)- And we are told by modern Travellers, that in the insome as large as poinpions, which they resemble in shape. terior parts of Africa, there are several nations who now live

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi. p. 208. chiefly on dates.

e

of their store , lived ning amon

82. —

The Brahmins among the old Indians, were noble image of the Deity have been so shamefully defiled all of the same race, lived in fields and in woods after the with brutalities. TRYON's Way to Health, 8c. p. 329. course of their studies was ended, and fed only on rice, milk, or herbs. The Brazilians, when first discovered by the Europeans, lived the most natural original lives of mankind, so

89.

- The natives of Sierra Leone, whose clinate frequently described in antient countries, before laws, or pro- || is said to be the worst on earth, are very temperate ; they porty, or arts made entrance among them : they lived without subsist entirely on small quantities of boiled rice, with occabusiness or labor, further than for their necessary food, by sional supplies of fruit, and drink only cold water : in congathering fruits, herbs, and plants ; they knew no drink | sequence, they are strong, and healthy, and live as long as but water ; were not tempted to eat or drink beyond common men in the most propitious climates. thirst or appetite; were not troubled with either public or

Month. Mag. July 1815, p. 528. domestic cares, nor knew any pleasure but the most simple and natural. Sir William TEMPLE.-See Sir John Sinclair's Code 90. [Gen. ii. 16.] In Upper Egypt many families subsist of Health, vol. iv. p. 333.

almost entirely on dates ; in Lower Egypt they do not eat so many, rather choosing to sell them.

HASSELQUIST's, Travels, p. 261. 83. (Gen. i. 29, 30.] The chief food of the Japanese is rice, pulse, fruits, roots, and herbs; but mostly rice, which they have in great plenty and perfection, and dress in so many 91. I cannot persuade myself, says Dr. Lambe, that even in different ways, and give to it such variety of tastes, flavor, | the high northern latitudes it is necessary for man to support and color, that a stranger would hardly know what he were his own life by the destruction of other animated beings. eating.

See his Additional Reports on Regimen, p. 222. See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 62.

and videos the mostomo megetable

92. [Gen. i. 29.] The nations that subsist on vegetable 84. (Gen. i. 29.] The philosophers of India also eat nothing diet are of all men the handsomest, the most robust, the but rice, fruits, and herbs.

least exposed to diseases and violent passions; and they BARTOLOMEO's Voy. by Johnson, p. 287. attain the greatest longevity. Such are in Europe, a great

proportion of the Swiss. The negroes doomed to labor so

severe, live entirely on manjoc, potatoes and maize. The 85. - The four most antient orders of priests, the Brahmins of India, who frequently survive a century, eat Rahans, the Brahmins, the Magi, and the Druids, confined nothing but vegetables. From the Pythagorean school, themselves to vegetable food; as did also the Athenian prince Epaminondas issued forth so renowned for his virtues ; Triptolemus, who established the Eleusinjan mysteries, and Archytas, so celebrated for his skill in mechanics ; and Milo prohibited by law all injury to animals : His words are, Zou of Crotona, for his strength; copying the virtues of their me siresthai, let not animals suffcr.

founder, who was allowedly the first rate genius of his day, Month. Mag. Feb. 1812, p. 21. the most enlightened by science, the father of philosophy

among the Greeks.-As vegetable diet has a necessary con

nexion with many virtues, and excludes none, it must be of 86. The Syrian Christians (in 1812) assimilate much to || importance to accustom young people to it, seeing its influthe Hindoo, in the practice of frequent ablutions for health | ence so powerfully contributes to beauty of person and tranand cleauliness, and in the use of vegetables and light quillity of soul. The children of the Persians, in the time food.

of Cyrus, and by his orders, were fed with bread, water and Christian Researches in Asia, p. 121. cresses : and Lycurgus introduced a considerable part of the

physical and moral regimen of these children into the cduca

tion of those of Lacedemon. Such diet prolongs infancy, 87.

For more than 1600 years, even till after and of consequence the duration of human life. I have seen, the delage, mankind lived on vegetable food only; and says Saint PIERRE, an instance of it in an English youth of though they exercised a gentle dominion over the brute crea fifteen, who had not the appearance of being so much as tion in training them to useful services), they did not use twelve. He was a most interesting figure, possessed of their flesh for food.

health the most vigorous, and of a disposition the most Nicholson's Primeval State of Man, p. 6. gentle : he performed the longest journies on foot, and never

lost temper whatever befel him: His father, whose name

was Pigot, told me he had brought him up entirely under the If a vegetable diet had been still observed, vegetable regimen, the good effects of which he had learned man had not contracted so many diseases in his body and cruel | by his own experience. He had formed the project of emvices in his soul, by making his throat an open sepulchre, | ploying part of his fortune, which was considerable, in estawherein to entomb the dead bodies of beasts, nor would the blishing somewhere in British America a society, who should

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employ themselves in training, under the same regimen, the pears, nectarines, and grapes whose juice is as sweet as that children of the American colonists, in the practice of all the of the sugar-cane, yet, so weak that it will produce neither arts connected with agriculture. May heaven prosper such a wine nor vinegar ; but the most abundant and useful of all plan of education, worthy the most glorious period of antiquity ! their fruits, are their dates, which support and sustain many Studies of Nature, vol. iv, p. 357. millions of people who make them their daily food, and are

wonderfully nourished by them.

CAPTAIN HAMILTON.-Pinkerton, part xxxii. p. 291. 93,

With us, says Dr. LAMBE, a parent will correct his child for eating a raw turnip, as if it were poisonous. But the Russians, from the lowest peasant to the 98. [Gen. iii. 23.) The custom of flesh eating, as much highest nobleman, are eating raw turnips all day long. We as that of covering our persons with clothes, appears to have may be certain then, that there is no harın in the practice. arisen from the migration of man into the northern climates,

But further, there is every reason to believe, particularly where the productions of the earth are not, as in south latifrom the observations of the navigators in the Pacific Ocean, tudes, spontaneous. that those races of men, who admit into their nutriment a Newton's Defence of Vegetable Regimen, vol. i. p. 81. large proportion of fruit, and recent vegetable matter, unchanged by culinary art, have a form of body, the largest, of the most perfect proportion, and the greatest beauty ; that 99. (Rom. xiv. 4.] The inhabitants of the Atlantic Islands, they have the greatest strength and activity, and probably || unacquainted with all animal diet, never eat ought that has that they enjoy the best health.-This fact alone is enough | been endued with life. to refute the vulgar error, (for it deserves no other name),

Dr. Tissot. that animal food is necessary to support the strength. Additional Reports on Regimen, p. 173.

100. (Lev. xi. 8.) I see, says MICHAELIS, from Russel's

Natural History of Aleppo, p. 50. that there the Jews and 94.

The strongest men, and the most beautiful Turks never taste the flesh of cattle. women perhaps in the British dominions, are to be found in See his Commentaries on the Laws of Moses, by Smith, the lower rank of people in Ireland, who are generally fed

vol. ii. p. 406 with that excellent root (the potato). No food can afford a more decisive proof of its nourishing quality, or of its being peculiarly suitable to the health of the human con 101. (Lev. xi. 3.) He that feeds on any kind of meats prostitution.

hibited by the Mosaic law, with the persuasion in his mind Ibid. p. 220. that he may be wrong in so doing, is condemned by his

conscience for doing that which he has reason to think God

has forbidden. 95. (Gen. ix. 4.] The Japanese, however divided in other

Dr. A. CLARKE, on Rom. xiy. 23. religious principles, agree in the five following laws, as absolutely binding on all: 1. Not to kill, and not to eat any thing that is killed; 2. Not to steal; 3. Not to defile another man's # 102. (Gen. i. 28.) Man, in quitting the nutriment on which bed; 4. Not to lie; 5. Not to drink wine.-Their chief if alone Providence had destined him to enjoy a state of perfect liquor at their meals is water made a little warm; but, as | health, has debased his physical, and consequently his moral soon as they have dined or supped, they drink a pretty large and intellectual faculties, to a degree almost inconceivable. quantity of tea, which they use as their common drink or Real men have never been seen that we are aware of; nor refreshment whenever they are thirsty, weary, or faint. has history, nor even poetry, depictured them. It is not See Modern Part of Univer. Hist. vol. ix. pp. 17, 62 | man we have before us, but the wreck of man.

See Newton's Defence, 8c., vol. i. p. 66.

96. (Exod. xx. 13.) Herodotus says, that in India is a set of people, who put no ani,nal to death, sow 10 grain, 103.

The unwholesomeness of animal food is more have no fixed habitation, and live solely on vegetables. These evident, if possible, than its pernicious effects upon morals.-In were no doubt, says Forbes, Yoyees, Senassees, and wan works which have been some time before the public, says the dering Gymnosophists, who live entirely in the same man learned and scientific Dr. Lambe, I have maintained on the ner at me present day.

authority of adduced facts, that, whilst the predisposition to Priental Memoirs, vol. i p. 400. the various forms of deceased action is congenital, and depen

dant upon varieties in the radical organization of the frame,

the more direct causes are to be looked for in the agency of 97. Gen. ii. 8, 9.) On the banks of the Euphrates, par foreign substances on the body, and principally of those which ticularly near Bassora, they have plenty of delicious fruits, || are used as food and as drink.-In water, for instance, the as pomegranates, peaches, apricots, quinees, olives, apples, \ putrid or putrescent matter, the animal or vegetable sub

104.

stances in a state of decomposition, is that which is actively 108. [Gen. ii. 17.) In antient times the medicines of the mischievous; it being immediately and directly deleterious. Indians consisted chiefly, according to Strabo, in regularity, - Fish does not impart the strength of animal food; but it is temperance, and the choice of food. as oppressive to the stomach as flesh; and it is more pu

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnson, p. 423. trescent, as may be concluded from the nauseous and hepatic eructations of the stomach, after it has been eaten.--On the contrary, the disuse of fermented liquors, the relinquishment 109. -- I lay it down, says Bruce, as a positive of animal food, and the use of purified (or distilled) water, rule of health, that the warmest dishes the natives of the all increase the appetite, and appear to strengthen the di- || tropical regions delight in, are the most wholesome strangers gestion.—And as in every period of history it has been | can use in the putrid climates of Lower Arabia, Abyssinia, known, that (fruit and) vegetables alone are sufficient for the Senaar, and Egypt itself; and that spirits, and all fersupport of life, and that the bulk of mankind live upon them mented liquors should be regarded as poisons. at this hour; the adherence to the use of animal food is no Dr. Lambe's Additional Reports on Regimen, p. 261. more than a persistence in the gross customs of savage life; and evinces an insensibility to the progress of reason, and to the operation of intellectual improvement.

110. (Luke i. 15.) A Mr. Slingsby, says Dr. Stark, Dr. LAMBE's Additional Reports on the effects of a pecu (p. 93.) lived many years on bread, milk, and vegetables, liar Regimen, pp. 15, 39, 161, 269, 243.

without animal food or wine; he had excellent spirits, was very vigorous, and from the time he began that regimen, was

free from the gout, with which he had been particularly Dr. Alphonsus Lercy, of Paris, has published afflicted. Dr. Knight followed the same plan with equal an essay on certain diseases of men, which he traces to the

success. animals on which they had fed; and he establishes the doctrine generally, that many diseases with which mankind are aflicted, are communicated by eating the flesh of animals.

111. [Ruth ii. 14.] “Vegetables in the form of sallads Monthly Mag. for Junc 1815, p. 446. |

are more powerful than when prepared by fire ; and I know for certain,” says Dr. LAMBE," that the rob of lemons and

oranges is not to be compared to the fresh fruit. Raw 105. [Num. si. 20.] The late Sir Edward Berry pre

potatos have been used with advantage in the fleet, partivailed with a man to live on partridges, without vegetables ;

cularly by Mr. Smith of the Triton, who made the scorbutic

meu eat them sliced with vinegar, with great benefit.” but after eight days trial, he was obliged to desist, in con

Additional Reports on Regimen, p. 178. sequence of strong symptoms then appearing of au incipient putrefaction. See Sir John SINCLAIR's Code of Health, vol. i. p. 425.

112. [Gen. ix. 4.] The man who forsakes not the Law, and eats not fleshmeat like a blood-thirsty dæmon, shall

attain good will in this world, and shall not be afflicted with 106. [Matt. viii. 2.] The use of swine's flesh, in union maladies. with ardent spirits, is in all likelihood, the grand cause of Laws of Menu, in the works of Sir W.Jones, vol. ii.p.206. the scurty, which is so common in the British nations, and which would probably assume the form and virulence of a leprosy, were our climate as hot as that of Judea. .

113. [Dan. i. 8.] ,
Dr. A. CLARKE.

Happy the man, who, studying Nature's laws,
Through known effects can trace the Secret Cause :-

He feeds on fruits, which, of their own accord,
107: [Num. xi. 20.] It is a remarkable fact, that at The willing ground and laden trees afford.—
Heimaey, the only one of the Westmann Islands, which is in Simple his bev'rage, homely is his food,
habited, scarcely a single instance has been known during the The wholesome herbage, and the running flood.
last twenty years of a child surviving the period of infancy.

See DRYDEN's Virg. Georg. ii. l. 698,-iii. l. 790. In consequence, the population, which does not exceed 200 souls, is entirely kept up by emigration from the main land of Iceland. The food of these people consists principally of 114. {Lev. xi. 4.] In regard to man's allowed or sea-birds ; fuliners and puffins; (procellaria glacialis & alce interdicted food from the animal creation ; equally in the arctica of Linnæus.) The fulmers they procure in vast laws of Mosts and in those of Menu, eating the milk of a abundance, and they use the eggs and flesh of the birds; and camel, or of any quadruped with the "hoof not cloven," salt the latter for their winter food. There are a few cows was strictly forbidden. (See Burder's Oriental Customs, and sheep on the island, but the inhabitants are said to have vol. ii. p. 56. And Levit. xi. 4, 7.)-And as the milk of an No vegetable food.

unclean sow occasioned leprosies : “This was the reason," Dr. LAMBE's Additional Reports on Regimen, p. 197. says Plutarch, "why the Egyptians entertained so great an

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aversion for that animal.”-Of the ass also, the Jews durst on cows' milk. Sheep, indeed, furnish excellent milk but in not taste the milk; nor is this indeed usual among ourselves. small quantities, and only for a short time. But it is a cu(SMITH's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 389.)—But who, emphati rious fact, that in all the nations where milk constitutes a chief cally asks the apostle Paul, feeds a flock (of clean beasts, part of their diet, it is eaten in a state of acidity. The he evidently means), and eats not the milk of the flock? Tartars always ferment their milk. The Russians reckon 1 Cor. ix. 7.-"Be thou diligent then, to know the state of their butter-milk a specific for consumptions. The Caffres thy flocks, and look well to thy herds. The lambs are for keep their milk in sheep-skins, which they never clean, in thy clothing, and the goats are the price of the field. And order to preserve the substance that ferments it; they exthou shalt have goats' milk enough for thy food, for the food pressed the utmost abhorrence, on seeing Europeans drink of thy household, and for a maintenance for thy maidens." some fresh milk; and said it was very unwholesome. Even

Prov. xxvii. 23, 26, 27. among the poor people of Scotland, and in Ireland particu

larly, there is more milk eaten in an acescent than in a fresh

state. (Ibid. vol. i. pp. 269, 273, 275.)-Leavened or fer115. (Lev. xi. 4, 8.) “Whatsoever parteth the hoof and mented bread, indeed, is lighter in digestion, and passes easily is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cudmust necessarily, as | through the body; but unfermented bread does not go off so a “clean” beast, give pure and wholesome milk in couse easily, though it nourishes more, where the stomach can bearit. quence of well-digesting its food. The ruminants with HIPPOCRATES de Dieta, lib. ii. 2.-See also Exod. xii. 15. horns, as the bullock, sheep, &c. have two preparatory stomachs for the food previous to rumination, and one for the food to be received in after rumination, before it is digested in

In Barbary, the sheep and the goats the fourth or true stomach.-The ruminants without horns | as well as cows contribute to the dairies, particularly in as the camel, dromedary, and lama, have one preparatory the making of cheese. Instead of rennet, especially in stomach before rumination, and properly speaking, none in the summer-season, they turn the milk with the flowers of which the cud can be afterwards retained before it goes into | the great headed thistle, or wild artichoke; and putting the the digesting stomach. Those animals that eat the same curds afterwards into small baskets made with rushes, or kind of food with the ruminants yet do not ruminate, as the with the dwarf palm, they bind them up close, and press horse and ass, have only one stomach, but a portion of it them. Prov. xxvii. 27. is lined with cuticle, in which situation the food is first depo Shaw's Trav. in Barbary, Pinkerton's Coll. Ixiii. p. 620. sited, and by remaining there sometime is rendered afterwards more easily digestible when received into the other, or digesting portion.

120.

Milk is in part vegetable food; and as Phil. Trans. for 1806, p. 370. such is used by all pastoral nations, and serves in a measure

as a substitute for it. (Dr. Lambe's Additional Reports on

Regimen, p. 167.)—To prevent indigestion, “milk ought not 116. [Prov. sxvi. 27.] The Syrian goat is the common to be eaten together with flesh.” Exod. xxiii. 19. goat of Aleppo, the inhabitants of which it supplies with

Dr. WILLICH. milk. The same is the case at Cairo, where these goats are driven in small flocks, every morning, through the different quarters of the city, and every one sees taken from them 121. [Luke xi. 12.) Eggs contain a larger proportion of the quantity of milk that he wants.

pure nourishment, than any other food. They are a most SHAW's Zoology, vol. i. part 2. p. 374. valuable article, not only when consumed by themselves, but

when mixed with other things. When new laid, they are

peculiarly excellent; but when old, or hard boiled, they are 117. - In the northern countries the milk of the too astringent for most habits. The white part is digested goat is commonly made use of for medicinal purposes; but with more difficulty than the yolk. Raw, poached, soft in southern climates it is so abundant as to be destined for boiled, or in any way lightly cooked, they are gently laxa food.—Dolæus on the authority of Plautinus, mentions that ative, and sit easy on most stomachs. an old woman of 60 was, by the help of goats' milk, restored See Sir JOHN SINCLAIR's Code of Health, vol.i. p. 414. to a state of perfect health, notwithstanding a great decay of flesh and strength, a hectic fever and the stone. Sir John SINCLAIR's Code of Health, vol. i. p. 269. 122. (Gen. i. 29.) Fruit is that species of food which is

most suitable to man: this is evinced by the series of quad

rupeds; analogy, wild men; apes; the structure of the 118. (Deut. xxxii. 14.] Cow's milk, which is still in most mouth, of the stomach, and the hands. general use, was included among the principal articles of Dr. LAMBE's Additional Reports on Regimen, p. 176. diet, in very remote ages: Homer mentions a nation who principally lived on her milk; and in Hart's “ Diet of the Diseased,” p. 203, there are several instances also, of per- | 123. [Prov. xxiii. 20.] The moral effect of aliment is sops"in modern times, who have lived for many years solely ll clearly evinced in the different tempers of the carnivorous

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