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skin, the wine contained in this apparent animal was called blood, and the pouring out slaughter, as if the beast were then immediately under the operation of being killed.

See Archeologiæ Atticæ, lib. vi.

sect. ii. cap. 4.

902. [Lev. ii, 1.] We are told also by Alexander Sardus, that the Egyptians originaily used no other offerings iu their temples than frankincense and libations, accoinpanied with suitable thanks and praises.

BRYANT.

897. Lev. i. 3.) That the Supreme Being would impe-| 903. [1 Chron. xxii. 8.) The custom universally prevalent riously require of mankind bloody victims, and even point out in the East, which prohibits persons polluted with blood to the particular animals that were to be immolated on his altar, perform any offices of divine worship before they are purified, is to me, says Dr. Geddes, highly incredible.

is so antient and universal, that it may almost be esteemed a precept of natural religion, tending to inspire an uncommon dread and horror of bloodshed.

See BURDER, vol. ii.p. 168. 898. [Lev. i. 2.] According to the vulgar notion that real animals were killed in these sacrifices to God, we can, in the language of Dr. A. CLARKE, “look on the tabernacle and temple of Jerusalem only as slaughter-houses, whose victiins, 904. [Lev. i. 14.] The Boodhists, who were Hindoos, blood, and fat, are more proper to inspire disgust than carrying into China many ceremonies practised in their own religion.”

country, positively forbad the immolation of cattle. Buddha himself forbad all sacrifices of caille.

Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. i. 899. [Exod. xxix. 18.] People must have very gross con

pp. 107, 293. ceptions of God, to imagine that he is of so cruel a nature as to be delighted with the butchering of innocent animals; and that the stench of burnt Alesh should be such a sweet smelling 905. [Lev. ii. 12.] The burnt-offerings, used by Brahmins, savour in His nostrils, as to atone for the wickedness of men; always consist of flour, or other vegetable matter. and wicked no doubt they were, when they had such an atone

See Buchanan, in Pinkerton's Coll. ment at hand. So that the harmless were burnt to save the

vol. viii. p. 684. hurtful; and men the less innocent they grew, the more they destroyed the innocent beasts. Christianity as old as the Creation, p. 78.

906. (Lev. i. 2.) Accordingly, no sanguinary sacrifices of any kind are offered on the Hindoo altars. —Exclusive of the

temple for public worship, in most of the Guzerat villages is 900. [Exod. xii. 21.] In one year, at the Passover, there

a sacred burr, or pipal-tree ; under which, among other things, were not fewer than 256,500 lambs offered. (See Univer.

is a vase containing (not fire, but) a plant of the tulsee, or Hist. vol. x. p. 444.)-It is not at all likely that the blood

sweet basil, growing on the top of the altar. of so many lambe could be shed and sprinkled at one altar,

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iji. in the course of one day, by all the priests in Jerusalem, or

pp. 11, 14. indeed in the Holy Laud; since they had but that one altar (of burnt offerings) where they could legally sprinkle the blood of the sacrifices. See 1 Kings viii. 63.

907. [Exod. xxix. 23.] A kind of sweet paste, or candied See No. 580. Dr. A. Clarke, on the Eucharist, p. 17. ||

cakes made from dates, is still used among the Gentoos.

See EBN HAUKAL, p. 153.

908. [Lev. i. 2.] Among the antient Egyptians, those offerings only were considered as morally good and acceptable to the Deity, which consisted of things without life.

SMITA's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 95.

901. [Lev. i. 2.) MACROBIUS says, the Egyptians never offered any bloody sacrifices or slaughtered animals to their gods, but worshipped them only with prayers and frankincense. (Saturnal. lib. i. cap. 7.) — PORPHYRY also tells us, that the sacrifices, with which they worshipped their gods, were cakes and the fruits of the earth; and that the Syrians, who were next neighbours to the Egyptians, and agreed with them in many things, offered in sacrifice to their gods NO LIVING CREATURE.

See De Abstinentia, lib. ii. sect. 59;

and lib. iv. sect. 15.

909. [Leo. xi. 7.] Some Egyptians, however, on certain occasions, make figures of swine with meal, which, having first baked, they offer on the altar.

See Herodot. Euterpe, n. 47. times usual for their own feasts and what they deemned the feasts of their gods, the sacrifices, to consist of the same materials.

Bell's Pantheon, p. 217.

910. [Lev. i. 9.]
While with pray’r, and libations, Circe ply'd
Jove, who acquits the suppliaut homicide;
Without her door a train of Naiads stand,
Administ'ring whate'er her rites demand;
Within, the flames that round the hearth arise,
Waste, as she prays, the kneaded sacrifice.

See Fawkes' Appollonius Rhodius. |

917. (Lev. i. 2.] The gradations by which mankind were led from offering to the gods the produce of the earth, to their sacrificing of animals, are related by PORPHYRY, in his second book, De Abstinentia.

911. [Lev. i. 6,9.] When the Egyptian priests sacrifice an or, stuffed, it seems, with fine bread, honey, raisins, figs, frankincense, and various aromatics; they burn part of it, pouring on the flame a large quantity of oil. Whilst the victim is thus burning, the spectators flagellate themselves, having fasted before the ceremony ; and the whole is completed by their feasting on the residue of the sacrifice.

See Herodot. Euterpe, n. 40.

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912. [Deut. xviii. 3.] In the same way, we have the

919. [Lev. i. 3—9.] Should a priest, say the Laws of fullest assurance, that the Athletic triumphs among the Greeks

| Menu, have a desire to taste flesh-meat, he may form the always concluded with feasts made for the victors, their rela

image of some beast with clarified butter thickened, or tions and friends; either at the public expense, or by indivi

he inay form it with dough; but never let bim indulge a duals who regaled not only their families and friends, but often

wish to kill an animal in vain (that is, when not necessitated a great part of the spectators.--Empedocles of Agrigentum,

to do so in his own defence). having conquered in those games, caused an ox to be made

Sir W. Jones's Works, vol. iii. p. 204. of a paste composed of myrrh, incense, and all sorts of spices, of which pieces were given to all who were present. See ATHENÆUS, lib. i. p.3: Or Preface

920. [Lev. xi. 5, 6.] At the celebration of the feast of to Rollin's Antient History,p. 84. ||

ll the fourth moon, the Chinese send to each other cakes, and

hares made of paste, nuts, almonds, kernels, sugar, and other

ingredients. 913. [Lev. ii. 12.] At Ophrynium, Xenophon sacrificed

Breton's China, vol. iv. p. 122. according to the antient Attic rites, by scorching (or roasting) ROGS WHOLE; which, according to Thucydides l. i. c. 126 — as explained by his scholiast, were probably CAKES FORMED

921. [Lev. ii. 1.) Flour, formed into little images of paste,

was offered by the Greeks as a substitute for animals even in IN THE SHAPE OF Hogs. See MITTFORD's llist. of Greece, p. 428;

their hecatombs. (See BURDER's Oriental Customs, vol. ii.

p.53.) —But this eating of unclean animals in effigy, after or SPELMAN's Anab. l. 7. c. 8. $ 3.

the manner of the Heathens, is particularly forbidden in Lev.

chap. xi. throughout. Compare Acts x. 9—16. 914. [Deut. xviii. 3.] Suidas informs us, that by the Athenian law, it was usual to sacrifice an ox made of bread

922.

As to the origin of such hecatombs, in corn or meal, in their religious services. Potter's Grecian Antiq. vol. i. p. 258.

Egypt all the animals (so represented), both those that are wild and those which are domestic, are regarded as sacred, and fed accordingly, by certain religious devotees. (See

HERODOT. Euterpe, n. 65.) —This superstition also, is dis915. — Pythagoras on the discovery of one of his

tincily prohibited in Leo. xi. 26, &c. Theorems, offered to the gods a hecatomb, or a sacrifice of a

See No. 114, &c. hundred oxen. Plutarch, however, says it was only one ox, made of flour (or paste).

Nicholson's Encyclopedia.

1 923. [Acts x. 14.] In imitation of such representative

figures, the Yule-dough, in our own country, was a kind of

baby or little image in paste of the child Jesus, which our 916.

- For many ages the Athenian offerings con bakers used formerly to bake at Christmas, and present to sisted only of the produce of the earth ; but no sooner did men their customers, in the same manner as the Chandlers gave leave a vegetable diet, and betake themselves to animal, than || Christmas Candles. They are still called yule-cakes in the they began also to change their sacrifices; it being at all county of Durham. I find, adds BRAND, in the antient calendar of the Romish Church, that at Rome, on the vigil || cake Boun; and that the Cross-bun which is baked on Goodof the nativity, sweetmeats were presented to the Fathers || Friday, was a substitute for the cakes used in the worship of in the Vatican, and that all kinds of little pastry images idols ? The etymology of the word and the curious custom were to be then found at the confectioners' shops. (See of marking the symbol of our faith in opposition to idolatrous Observations on Popular Antiquities, by Mr. J. BRAND, symbols, mutually confirm the conjecture. p. 163.) —Compare Deut. xxviii. 53–57, where the chil

Gentleman's Magazine. dren, &c., that would be eaten“ in the siege and in the straitness," were evidently such pastry images, the consecrated Lares of the family.

927.] Exod. xxix. 14.] When the king of Ethiopia inquired of the Ichthyophagi on what food the Persian monarch

subsisted, and what was the longest period of a Persian's life ; 924. [Lev. ii. 1.] Among the Israelites, says JOSEPHUS, the king, they told him, lived chiefly on bread : they then who in his youth was a priest employed, probably, in knead described to him the properties of corn ; and added, that the ing the sacrifices and baking them in appropriate skins,—the longest period of life in Persia was about eighty years. “I fine flour, for a Lamb, was one tenth deal ;t for a Ram, two; || am not at all surprised,” said the Ethiopian prince," that, and for a Bullock (or yearling Calf), three : the oil for the subsisting on dung (or simple paste), the term of life is so Bullock, balf a hin; for the Ram, a third, and for the Lamb short among them.” –“ In Ethiopia, the majority of the peoa quarter of the same measure. These, he says, were re ple," he further said, "lived to the age of one hundred and spectively mingled and consecrated on the altar. —They || twenty years, while some exceeded even that period; their used, he adds, in each sacrifice as much wine as oil, pouring meat being baked flesh (made of dough kneaded after the also wine (or blood), as a libation about the altar. (See Jewish + manner), their drink milk.” Leo. ix. 8, 9. Ecclus. L. 15.) -But, he further remarks, if Lev. i. 6-9. See HERODOT, Thalia, nn. xxii. xxjü. any one (being poor, Leo. xiv. 21) did not offer a complete sacrifice of the animals, but brought the fine flour only for a vow, he threw a handful on the altar as its first-fruits, 928. [Lev. ii. 1.] As to the Divine law enjoining, that the while the priests took the rest for their food, either boiled, or pastry of all sacred offerings should be baked with olive-oil, mingled with oil, but made into cakes of bread.

it was infallibly calculated to induce the Israelites to use See Antiq. b. iii. ch. ix. § 4. universally that oil-pastry, with which, says Michaelis,

whoever is once acquainted, will always prefer it to such as is

made with butter. Accordingly, in the whole Hebrew Bible, 925. [Deut. xiv. 26.] Lay-persons also, during the great which contains so many other economical terms, we do not festivals, attended to sell IN THE TEMPLE, various articles once find, he adds, the word for bulter. - It would therefore of appropriate food and liquids, put up respectively in the appear, he concludes, that butter had been as rarely to be skins of oxen, sheep, &c. to such as came from distant parts seen in Palestine, as it now is in Spain; and that the people of the country. Compare Deut. xiv. 24–26. with John ii. had made use of nothing but oil in their cookery, as being 14, 15.

(more wholesome, as well as) more delicious. -The Israelites, even at this day, avoid using butter in their food. (SMITH's

Michaelis, vol. iii. pp. 138, 242.) – In cool climates, how. 926. [Jer. vii. 18.] Mr. BRYANT, in his Antient Mytho ever, fresh butter when carefully made, and with a small prology, vol. i. p. 371, informs us, that the offerings, wbich portion of salt, more especially if the cow be fed on natural people in antient times used to present to the gods, were ge pastures, is a most delicate sort of food ; but the longer it is nerally purchased at the entrance of the Temple, especially kept, and the more it is salted, it becomes the more un wholeevery piece of consecrated bread, which was denominated some. When melted it is well calculated to accompany such accordingly. Those sacred to the god of light, Peon, were vegetables as are naturally dry of themselves, for it gives called Piones, &c. &c. &c. One species of sacred loread, | them the properties of rich oily substances. which used to be offered to the gods, was of great antiquity

Sir John Sinclair's Code of Health, and called Boun. HesychiuS speaks of the Boun, and de

vol. i. p. 413. scribes it as a kind of cake with a representation of two horns. DIOGENES LAERTIUS, speaking of the same offering, describes the chief ingredients of which it was composed : “ He offered 929.

It is thus that the Olive Tree yields an one of the sacred cakes called a Boun, which was made of | oil of almost universal use in food. —To extract it, the olives fine flour and honey." See Jer. xliv. 19. -Can there be are bruised under a mill-stone, and reduced to a paste; any doubt that the English word Bun is derived from the which being mixed with hot water, and afterwards pressed, the

oil swimming uppermost is easily separated. This is what In that sense it is with great propriety called in Hebrew, The || Milk is the principal oblation at this festival, in which they Fat of the oil-or more correctly, The Fat of the OLIVE. || implore a blessing on the year. (See Cruden's Concordance, art. Fat. and Num. xxviii. 12.)

we call Sallad Oil, and in those countries where olives grow, + About half a peck of our measure. (Dr. GEDDES.) ---This quantity of four it is commonly used (as Michaelis observes) instead of was brought to the altar in the lamb-skin; and when kneaded with tbe oil and

butter. (Wonders of Nature and Art, vol. i. p. 154.) . wine above specified, was “roasted" or baked in tbe same skin (Sec n. 953), and became the flesh or “body” eaten by Jesus Christ and his disciples at the Last Supper, ---Where it is also expressly called “bread;" Malt. xxvi. 26.

+ See No. 924.

Historical account of Russia, —Pliny mentions a honey Aowing spontaneously from the

vol. iii. p. 273. olive tree in Syria. Nat. Hist. xxii. 4. Compare 1 Sam. xiv. 25.

935. (John vii. 37.] At the Passover, in particular, the

Jews offered an omer of fine flour to obtain from God his 930.

But, when the olives are suffered to fer blessing on their harvest ; at Pentecost, their first-fruits, to ment before the oil is drawn, the oil is invariably bad : this

request his blessing on the fruits of the trees; and in the process, says Dr. Rees, can only be used for oil that is

Feast of Tabernacles they offered water to God, to solicit the intended for the lamp, or for the soap-boiler. - In that case,

blessing of rain on the approaching seed-time. These waters or when by fermenting, the oil “ dieth of itself” in the skin they drew out of Siloam, and brought them into the temple "of ox, or of sheep; or of goat ;” such fat, and the fer || with the sound of the trumpet and great rejoicing. mented grape-juice, are equally interdicted to man, by the

BURDER. benevolent ShechINAH: “ It shall be a perpetual statute for your generations throughout all your dwellings, that ye eat neither Fat nor blood;-It may be used in any other use; 936. [Lev. xvii. 6.] On the eighth day of the feast of but ye sball in no wise eat of it." - Lev. iii. 17.-vii. 24. Tabernacles, the Jews also presented at the Temple the

first-fruits of their latter crop,—that is, of such things as were the slowest in coming to maturity; they also drew

water out of the fountain of Siloam, which was brought into 931. [Exod. xl. 13.] Besides the vast use of olive-oil in

the temple, and being first mingled with wine (the blood food, and in the Divine institutions; it was much used among

of the grape) was poured out by the priests at the foot of the Jews and Gentiles, as a medicine for bruises, wounds, and altar of burnt offerings. sores ; for curing the leprosy, healing the sick, and eradicat

See Calmet, - Article, Feast of ing the poison of vipers and other venomous creatures.

Tabernacles.
See HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason
Recovered, pp. 139–147.

937. [Exod. xxii. 29.] The first-fruits were of six kinds;

barley, wheat, grapes, figs, dates, and olives: to which some 932. (Gen. xxvii. 28.] In the original there is but one | add apricots or peaches, and pomegranates. word for wine and oil, which word denotes whatever is

Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 217. expressed from fruit. See No. 529.

Dr. Geddes.

938. [Erod. xxiii. 16.] ARISTOTLE says, that the antient 933. [Exod. xxiii. 19.] The American Indians, whilst | sacrifices and assemblies were after the gathering in of the their corn is in the milk as they term it, that is, just before || fruits, being designed for an oblation of the first-fruits to it begins to ripen, slice off the kernels from the cob (or | God. "mother") to which they grow, and knead them into a

See Ethic. lib. viii. paste. This they are enabled to do without the addition of any liquid, BY THE MILK THAT FLOWS FROM THEM; and when it is effected, they parcel it out into cakes, and en- 1 939. (Exod. xxii. 29.] It was also a law immemorial in closing them in leaves of the Basswood-tree, place them in | Attica, that the gods should be annually worshipped with hot embers, where they are soon baked into an excellently first-fruits and libations. flavoured bread. (Carver's Travels in North America,

See PORPHYRY, De Abstinentia. p. 16.) - Bears and racoons are immoderately fond of this young corn, when the grain is thus filled with a rich milk, as sweet and nourishing as cream.

940. (2 Chron. xxix. 31-35.] Into the house of the Lord Bartram's Trav. p. 192. were brought, for burnt offerings, threescore and ten bullocks,

a hundred rams, two hundred lambs ; for sacrifices and thank offerings or consecrated things, six hundred oxen and three

thousand sheep! In all 3970! And Hezekiah said, Now you 934. (Gen. iv. 4.] Among the Tartars in Siberia, all the have filled your hands to the Lord With what ? -Had the professors of Schamanism celebrate a festival in the spring, congregation brought as many animals as are here enumeand another in the summer or autumn. Their year begins at rated, they would not only have filled their hands, but the the festival of the spring ; on which occasion they bring an Temple itself and the very extensive Court or Yard that offering of the first-fruits of their flocks, and of new grass. || surrounded it!--Credat Judæus !--- See Hosea xiv. 2.

941. (2 Chron. xxxi. 5, 6, 11.] On this occasion the mul- | arrived to perfect maturity : and every town celebrates the titude brought together all sorts of their fruits to the priests busk separately, when their own harvest is ready. When a and the Levites. The kivg also made garners and recepta towa celebrates the busk, having previously provided them cles for these fruits, and distributed them to every one of selves with new clothes, new pots, pans, and other household the priests and Levites, and to their children and wives. utensils and furniture, they collect all their worn out clothes And thus did they return to their old form of divine wor. and other despicable things, sweep and cleanse their houses, ship. (JOSEPH. Antig. b. ix. ch. xiii. § 3. col. ii.) —When squares, and the whole town, of their filth, which they cast Pompey and those about him went into the temple itself, together into oue common heap, and consume it with fire. whither it was not lawful for any to enter but the high-priest, Then the women go forth to the harvest field, and bring from they saw what was reposited therein, the candlestick with its thence new corn and fruits, which being prepared in the best Jamps, and the table, and the pouring vessels, and the cene || manner, in various dishes, and drink withal, is brought with sers, all made entirely of gold, as also a great quantity of solemnity to the square, where the people are assembled, spices heaped together, with two thousand talents of sacred apparelled in their new clothes and decorations. The inen money. (Ibid. Wars, b. i. ch. vii. § 6.) —Crassus after- having regaled themselves, the remainder is carried off and wards took away the two thousand talents which Pompey distributed amongst the families of the town. The women had not touched ; and when he had passed over Euphrates he and children solace themselves in their separate families, and perished himself and his army with him.

in the evening repair to the public square, where they dance, See No. 580, &c. Ibid, b. i. ch. viii. $ 8. vol. v. sing and rejoice during the whole night, observing a proper

and eremplary decorum. This continues three days, and

the four following days they rart ve visits, and rejoice with 942. [2 Chron. xxxi. 6–12.] The chambers of the Trea

their friends froin neighbouring towns, who have purified and sury under the Law, and the Bishop's house at the commence

prepared theinselves, ment of the Gospel, were the repositories of all such offer

BAHTRAM's Trav. p. 507. ings, as were not thought proper to be brought to the altar. Accordingly, among what are called the Canons of the Apostles, we find two to this purpose, “ That, beside bread and wine, nothing should be brought to the aitar but new ears of

945. [Exod. xxix. 24.] Waving the sacrifice before the corn and grapes, and oil for the lamps, and inceuse for the

LORD was performed in two ways : one was by waving it pertime of the oblation : But all other fruits should be sent

pendicularly, upwards and downwards; the other by waving eis oikon (Grk.), to the repository, or treasury it may be, as

it horizontally, towards the four cardinal points, to denote First-Fruits for the bishop and presbyters, and not be

the consecration of what was thus waved, to the LORD of the brought to the altar, but be by them divided among the

whole earth. deacons and other clergy. (BINGHAM's Antiquities, vol. i.

See JENNINGS' Jewish Antiq. vol. i. p. 291. p. 312.) – In Spain, immense are the hoards of all species of dried fruits, such as figs, raisins, plumbs, &c. They have also the secret of preserving grapes, sound and juicy, from

946. [Leo. xxiii. 11.) But, says Hutchinson, the wave one season to another. SWINBURNE's Trar. p. 167. I offering was also, in the Divine PRESENCE, elevated suc

cessively towards the east, the west, the north and the south. This motion was to be given to the gold, the brass,

the sheaf, the oil, the bread, the lamb; and in short, to what. 943. [2 Chron. xxix, 31–36.] In a fortress called Ma

ever was offered to God in his tabernacle or temple. sada, built by king Herod on a very high rock near the lake

See his Introduc. to Moses' Sine Asphaltitis, was laid up corn in large quantities, and such as

Principio, p. ccxliii. would subsist men for a long time : here was also wine and oil in abundance, with all kinds of pulse and dates heaped up together. These fruits, all fresh and full ripe, were in no way inferior to such fruits newly laid in, though they had been

947. [Lev. xxiji. 14.] At Staffa, in Scotland, the corn there little short of a hundred years, when the place was

is graddaned, or burnt out of the ear, instead of being taken by the Romans. (Joseph. Wars, b. vii. ch. viii. $ 4.)

thrashed : this is performed two ways; first, by cutting off the --Pliny and others affirm also, that provisions thus laid up

ears, and drying them in a kiln, then setting fire to thein on against sieges have continued good a hundred years.

a floor, and picking out the grains, by this operation rendered SPANHEIM.

as black as a coal. The other method is more expeditious, for the whole sheaf is burnt, without the trouble of cutting

off the ears. --Graddened corn was the parched corn of 944. [Lev. xxiii. 34.] Among the Aborigines of North || Holy Writ. It derives its name from Grad, quick; as the America, the busk, or feast of first-fruits, is their principal fes- | process is expeditious. tival : this seems to end the last, and begin the new year.

See Pinkerton's Voy. and Trav. It commences in August, when their new crops of corn are |

part x. p. 314.

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