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That the heart also is the first principle that acts in the living animal, or whether it be recently detached from it; as body, is evident from embryoes : that it is the last, is the heart of a viper or frog will renew its contractions, when evident from dying persons; and that it acts without the pricked with a pin, for many minutes of time after its exco-operation of the lungs, is evident from persons suffocated, | section from the body. -Does it act any where else ? -No; and from swoons. Hence it may be seen, that as the ex then it certainly exists in this part of space, and no where istence of corporeal life, in persons apparently dead, de- || else ; that is, it hath figure ; namely, the figure of the nerpends on the heart alone; so in like manner the mental life vous system, which is nearly the figure of the body. of those to be recovered from spiritual death, depends on the

Zoonomia, sect. xiv. pp. 109, 111. will alone: the will lives when the thought ceases, as the heart lives when respiration ceases ; consequently, the love or will is the essential, ever-during life of man.

1275.

“When the union of the body and soul SWEDENBORG's Divine Love, n. 399. is broken, it is conceivable that the one may be dissolved and

the other preserved entire. Why should the dissolution of

the one necessarily bring on that of the other ? On the con1273.

After the body of Bellingham (who suf trary, being so different in their natures their state of union fered, May 25th, 1812, for the assassination of the Right is a state of violence; and when it is broken, they both Hon. Spencer Perceval) was opened, his heart performed return to their natural situation : the active and living subits functions, or continued alive for four hours; its expand stance regains all the force it had employed in giving motion ing and contracting powers being perceptible till one o'clock to the passive and dead substance to which it had been united. in the day. He was executed, precisely as the clock struck The failings and infirmities of man make us sensible that eight in the morning.

man is but half alive, and that the life of the soul commences Public Prints. at the death of the body. We may readily conceive how

material bodies wear away and are destroyed by the separation of their parts ; but we cannot conceive a like dissolution of a thinking being: and hence, as we cannot imagine how it

can die, we may presume it cannot die at all. THB HUMAN SOUL.

ROUSSEAU.

1274. [Matt. x. 28.] Fear not them who kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul.

1276. [1 Thess. v. 23.] Those that will allow no soul in « This immaterial agent is supposed to man but what is corporeal, have to explain, how mere matter exist in or with matter, but to be quite distinct from it, and can make syllogisms, and have conceptions of universals, and to be equally capable of existence, after the matter, which invent speculative sciences and demonstrations; and, in a now possesses it, is decomposed. —Nor is this theory ill | word, do all those things which are done by man, and by no supported by analogy, since heat, electricity, and magne- other animal. tism, can be given to or taken from a piece of iron ; and

Boyle's Reconcileables of Reason most therefore exist, whether separated from the metal, or

and Religion. Works, vol. i. combined with it. From a parity of reasoning, the spirit of animation would appear to be capable of existing as well separately from the body as with it. -—" By the words, spirit 1277. [Jude 10.] The doctrine of the human soul has of animation or sensorial power, I mean,” says Dr. DAR two parts, the one treating of the rational soul, which is WIN," that animal life, which mankind possesses in common divine (2 Pet. i. 4): the other of the irrational soul, which with brutes, and in some degree even with vegetables.” we have in common with brutes. Two different emanations This "may consist of matter of a finer kind”; and be that of souls are manifest in the first creation, the one proinferior part of us, that spiritual body, of which St. Paul ceeding from the breath of God, the other from the elespeaks " in the 15th chapter to the Corinthians," where he ments : As to the primitive emanation of the rational soul; " distinguishes between the psyche or living spirit, and the the Scripture says, God formed mau of the dust of the pneuma or reviving spirit.”

earth, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives.No one will deny, that the medulla of the brain and nerves But the generation of the irrational or brutal sout was in has a certain figure ; which, as it is diffused through nearly these words, “Let the water bring forth, let the earth the whole of the body, must have nearly the figure of that bring forth.” And this irrational soul in man is only an body. Now it follows, that the spirit of animation, or living instrument to the rational one; and has the same origin in principle, as it occupies this medulla, and uo other part us as in brutes, namely, the dust of the earth. We will (which is evinced by a great variety of cruel experiments on therefore style the first part of the general doctrine of the living animals), it follows, that this spirit of animation has human soul, the doctrine of the inspired substance : And also the same figure as the medulla above described. I the other part, the doctrine of the sensitive or produced appeal to common sense! the spirit of animation acts,—where soul. does it act? It acts wherever there is the medulla above See No. 152, &c. Fran. Bacon, as quoted in Barton's mentioned; and that whether the limb is yet joined to a

Analogy, p. 42.

1278.

Beasts have not thought, but instead of and passive, we may judge to partake of both. But be that thought an internal sight, which by correspondency makes as it will,” says he, “I think we have as many and as clear one with their external sight. But man can think within ideas belonging o spirit as we have belonging to body, the himself of the things which he perceives with his bodily substance of each being equally unknown to us; and the idea senses without himself; and can also, by his faculty of ration of thinking in spirit as clear as extension in body; and the ality, think superiorly of what he thinks inferiorly. In all communication of motion by thought, which we attribute other faculties, besides rationality and freedom, men are not to spirit, is as evident as that by impulse, which we ascribe men but beasts, and indeed from the abuse of these faculties to body.” worse than beasts. SWEDENBORG's Div. Prov. nn. 74, 75.

1281.

The spirit of man is in the body, in the

whole and in every part thereof; both in its organs of motion 1279. [Job xxxv. 11.) Many men do not know how to and of sense, and every where else. The (natural) body is distinguish between their own life and that of beasts, because the materiality every where annexed to it, adequate to the they in like manner are in things external, and at heart are | world in which it then is.-It is hence manifest, that a man solely concerned about terrestrial, corporeal, and worldly after death is equally in an active and sensitive life, and also objects. Persons of such a character believe themselves also in a human form, as in the world, but in a more perfect one. to be like the beasts in respect of life, and that after death

SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 4659. they shall be dissipated in like manner; for, having no concern about things spiritual and celestial, they are likewise without knowledge of such things. Hence comes the insane

1282.

The first contexture of the human form, or notion of the men of modern times, in that they compare the essential human form with all and singular its constituents, themselves to brute beasts, and do not see the internal dis exists from rudiments continued out of the brain by and tinction. But he that believes in celestial and spiritual throughout the nervous system. This is the form, into which things, or suffers spiritual light to flow in and act, sees a man comes after death. He is then called a spirit and au altogether according to a different view, and likewise dis- angel, being in all perfection a man, but spiritual. The matecovers his superiority above brute animals.

rial form, which is added and superinduced in the world, is not SweDENBORG's Arcana, n. 3646.

a human form from itself, but from the rudimental one ; being added and superinduced, that the man may perform uses in the natural world, and also carry along with him from the purer substances of the world a fixed continent of his spiritual

interiors, and thus continue and perpetuate his life. NATURAL AND SPIRITUAL BODIES.

SWEDENBORG's Divine Prov. n. 388.

1280. [1 Cor. xv. 44.] There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body. After stating at some length the 1283. (1 Cor. xv.41.) In regard to the human soul being imperfection of our ideas on the nature of cohesion, without the form of man, whatever duly organized portion of nialter which there can be no substantial form arising from the com || it is united to, it therewith constitutes the same man; so posite particles of any kind of body, Mr. LOCKE candidly that the import of the resurrection is fulfilled in this, that owns, “ that this primary and supposed obvious quality of after death there shall be another state, wherein the soul shall body will be found, when examined, to be as incompreben le again united to such a substance as may, with tolerable sible as any thing belonging to our minds; and a solid ex- || propriety of speech, notwithstanding its differences from our tended substance as hard to be conceived as a thinking im houses of clay,' be called a human body. material one, whatever difficulties some would raise against

See Boyle, on the Resurrection, p. 35. it.”—Again, says he,“ however we consider motion and its communication either from body or spirit, the idea which belongs to spirit is at least as clear as that which be 1284. [1 Cor. xv. 3–35.] It appears from microscopical longs to body. And if we consider the active power of observations, that in every seed there is contained a certain moving, it is much clearer in spirit than body ; since two minute part, which is the entire future plant in miniature, and bodies, placed by one another at rest, will never afford us the the immediate seat of that spirituous substance to be foundkin ideas of power in the one to move the other, but by a bor- || all seeds, and which, when the other parts of the seed are corrowed motion: whereas the mind affords ideas of an active | rupted, increases and displays itself by degrees. Thus, argues power every day of moving bodies; and therefore it is worth the Apostle, as it is not the seed with ail the same substance, our consideration, whether active - power be not the proper but the body of the new plant contained within that seed, attribute of spirits, and passive power of matter. Hence,” which can properly be said to come up or rise again; so, in he adds, “ may be conjectured, that created spirits are not the resurrection of man, not those grosser parts of external totally separute from matter, because they are both active | materiality consigned to the grave, but that ininutely forined and passive. Pure spirit, viz. God, is only active; pure || interior part (which is most properly the human body, as matter is only passive: those beings that are both active | being the immediate habitation of the soul) is what shall then

DEATH.

[Heb. ix. 27.] It is appointed unto men once to die.

be raised, and will discover itself in its proper form. --This il body, on account of its subtilty, may deserve the denomination of a spiritual body, and may be supposed to resemble those ethereal vehicles ascribed by Platonists to immaterial beings. Nor can it well be conceived, that the highest perfection of human souls in a better world should consist in their being eternally linked to bodies of flesh and blood; bodies, of which the wisest of the philosophers have complained as of prisons or living sepulchres of the soul. Agreeably to which, says the Apostle (2 Cor. v. 4), We that are in this tabernacle (or body) do groan, being burdened : not for that we would be unclothed (or stripped of all body) but so clothed upon, that mortality may be swallowed up of life.

COLliber's Christian Religion founded

on Reason, pp. 139, 140.

1288. [Matt. ix. 24.] The phenomena attending death are these :-Rigidity of the muscles gradually encreases until the whole body hardens and freezes. Freezing first appears at the extremities, whence it extends to the centre. If taken to thaw in milder air, the parts acquire their former pliancy, but the animal will not revive. Its death is in consequence of the solids being frozen. At a certain degree of cold, the muscles grow rigid, and the irritable power is destroyed; thence proceeds their apparent death. Cold more intense freezes the muscles ; 'freezing destroys the power of irritability, and real death is the consequence. -The muscular flesh is then discovered to be full of ieicles; and, when one attempts to twist or bend it, fracture ensues, as of a friable substance.

DALYELL’s Spallanzani, vol. i. p. 97.

1285. - In truth, the particles of every substance in nature appear to possess private laws and affinities, whereby they proceed to unite, and to arrange themselves in regular forms, when all things necessary combine to assist this tendency ; that is, when by any means whatever, the particles are removed to a sufficient distance, and afterwards suffered to approach słowly and regularly according to their various laws of action.

Pinkerton's l'oy. and Trav. part xiii.

pp. 902—911.

1289. — If the breath of man

Once overpass its bounds, no force arrests
Or may constrain th' unbodied spirit back.

Cowper's Iliad, vol. i. p. 283.

Vi faction.

ON THE RESURRECTION.

1286.

At this day it is believed, that the body 1290. [Luke xxiii. 43.] And Jesus said to him (the lives from itsell, not from its spirit. Wherefore, unless a thief on the cross), Verily I say to thee, To-day shalt thou (carnal) man could now have faith that he is to rise again with be with me in paradise. the body, he would have no faith in the resurrrection.

As soon as a man dies, and the corporeal SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 7802. parts grow cold, he is raised up into life; and, on this occa

sion, into the state of all his sensations :, so that, at first, he scarcely knows any other than that lie is still in the body.

The sensations in which he is, lead him so to believe. 1287. — Every salt, in crystallizing, invariably

But, when be perceives that he has sensations more exquiassumes its own peculiar form. You may dissolve common

|| site, and especially when he begins to discourse with other salt, or saltpetre, a thousand times, and crystallize them as

spirits, he then takes notice that he is in the other life, and that often by evaporating or cooling the water in which they are the death of his body was the continuation of the life of dissolved, yet will you still find the common salt will be

his spirit. constantly crystallized in the form of a cube, and the salt

There are few that, wben they come into the other life, petre in the form of a prism; and if you examine with a mi

instantly enter heaven. They tarry awhile beneath heaven, eroscope such saline particles as are not visible to the uaked

that those things of terrestrial and corporeal loves, which eye, you will observe these particles to be of the same shape

they have brought with thein from the world, may be wiped with the larger masses. The definite figure appropriate to

away; and that they may be thus prepared to be capable of every particular species of salt, may admit a little variety

being in society witli angels. --The case is similar with the from the accidental admixture of other bodies, or from some

men of all the earths. After their decease, they are at first siugular circumstances attending the evaporation and crystal

beneath heaven, among spirits. When they are prepared, lization of the solution ; but these varieties are foreign to the

they then become angels. nature of the salt, and are not greater than what attend almost

In the other life, the passage from world to world is effectevery species of vegetables, and even of animals, from change

ed in a moment; and they who have been, in the world, in of food and climate.

any conjunction by love, by friendship, or by veneration, ineet Watson's Chem. vol. i, p. 87. |

together and discourse when they desire it.

SWEDENBORG's Arcana, nn. 4622, 8029, 9104. 1291.

Every man after death first enters the 111296. [1 Cor. xv.35.] The determinate hour of death, says world of spirits, which is in the midst between heaven and Seneca, is not the last to the soul, but to the body : his hell; and there goes through his times or states, till he is words are, Hora illa decretoria non est animo suprema, prepared according to his life either for heaven or hell. So sed corpori. And, as Lactantius tells us, Chrysippus used to long as be abides in that world, he is called a spirit : he affirm that after death, within a short period of time, we shall who is taken up froin that world into heaven, is called an be restored into the same form in which we now are, angel; but he who is cast dowu into hell is called a satan “eis ho nun esmen apokastastesesthai schema" (Grk.). or a devil. So long as the same are in the world of spirits,

See KNATCHBULL, on 1 Pet. iii. 20, 21. he who is preparing for heaven is called an angelic spirit; and he who is preparing for hell, an infernal spirit. The angelic spirit, in the mean time, is in conjunction with heaven; and 1297. [Matt. xii. 36.] A man, after death, does not lose the the infernal spirit, with hell.

smallest portion of any thing which has ever heen either in his SweDENBORG's Divine Love, n. 140.

exterior or interior memory: so that no circumstance can be couceived so small and trifling, as not to be reserved with

him. He leaves nothing behind him at death but the bones 1292. [Luke xxiii. 43.] Respecting the resurrection, the and flesh, which, during his life in the world, were not anidoctrine of the Essenes was this, That bodies are corruptible, mated of themselves, but received animation from the life of and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but his spirit, annexed for that end to his corporeal parts. that souls are immortal, and continue for ever, that they come | 1 Cor. xy. 50. SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 2475. out of the most subtil air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward.

1298. [1 Cor. xv. 51. We shall all be changed] ReJoseph. Warš, vol. v. b. ji. chap. viii. $ 2. collecting here the change which takes place in the life of

Caterpillars, silk-worms, &c. by the casting of their exter

nal bodies, the intelligent reader will be pleased to see the 1293. (Luke xii. 2.] When a man comes out of the natu

idea of man's change by death still further illustrated by the ral into the spiritual world, which takes place when he dies,

following description of a most singular insect. —" Towards he then leaves his externals with his body, and retains his

the mouth of the river Maese, and in the Leck, the Wahal, and internals which he had treasured up in his spirit; and then,

other branches of the khine, is annually found an extraorif his internal has been infernal, he appears a devil, even dinary sort of insect, called an Ephemeron, remarkable for such as he had been as to his spirit, when he lived in the

the shortuess of its life, which the name implies. It is a World.

kind of ily, having four wings, six legs, and two straight SWEDENBORG's Divine Prov. n. 224.

hairy tails. Midsummer is the usual time of its appearance, and it lives only five or six hours, being born about six in

the evening, and dying about eleven at night; but it must 1294. [1 Cor. xv. 35.] How are the dead raised up?

be observed, that before it assumes the figure of a fiy, it and with what body do they come ? --All the religious of

lives three years under that of a worm, in a little cell of clay. the East, says LOUBURE (in his Hist. of Siam), do truly | It begins its change by shedding its coat, which being believe that “there remains something of a man after his

done, and the animal thereby rendered light and nimble, it death, which subsists independently and separately from his

spends the few hours of its life in playing about the surface body. But they give extension and figure to that which

of the waters; on which the female drops her eggs, and then remains; and attribute to it all the same members, all the

expires. same substances, both solid and liquid, which our bodies are

SMITH's Wonders. composed of. They only suppose, that souls are of a matter subtil enough to escape being seen or handled.”

PRIESTLEY.

1299. (1 Cor. xv. 44.] The institutes of Mena assert, that the vital souls of those men who have committed sins in the

body, shall certainly, after death, assume another body, 1295.

There exists, say the first spiritualists, composed of nerves, with five sensations, in order to be the a luminous, igneous subtil fluid, which, under the name of more susceptible of torment; and being intimately united ether or spirit, fills the universe. According to their account,

with those minute nervous particles, according to their distriwhen an earthly body is to be animated, a small round particle

bution, they shall feel, in that new body, the pangs indicted of this fluid enters and entirely fills it, until by death its gross in each by the sentence of Yamna. elements begin to dissolve, when this incorruptible particle

See FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 22. takes its leave, and, retaining the shape of the body, becomes a phantom or ghost, the perfect representation of the deceased. (VOLNEY.)

1300. s 1 John iii. 2.] The esse of an angel is that which See MACROBIUS, Som. Scip. passim. W is called his soul ; his existere is that which is called his body :

and the proceeding from both is that which is called the sphere of his life. By this trine an angel is an image of God.

SWEDENBORG, on the Athanasian Creed, I

n. 18. p. 43.

solid or aqueous matter that, by an extreme comminution, is capable of suspension in this aerial Auid.

Accum's Chem, vol. i. p. 14.

1301. [2 Pet. i. 4.] That all-pervading Spirit, that spirit 1305. [Rev. xxi. 18.] The atmosphere is composed of which gives light to the visible sun, even the same in kind twenty-seven parts of oxygen gas and twenty-three of azote am I, though infinitely distant in degree. Let my soul or nitrogen gas, which are simply diffused together, but return to the immortal spirit of God, and then let my body, | which, when combined, become nitrous acid. Water consists which ends in ashes, return to dust! (Extracted from the of eighty-six parts oxygen, and fourteen parts of hydroVedas, in the Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. vi. p. 425.) — gen or inflammable air, in a state of combination. It is also Pythagoras taught that human souls are portions of the probable, that much oxygen enters the composition of glass; Divine substance.

as those materials which promote vitrification, contain so See Cicero de Natur. Deor. l. i. -Minut. much of it, as mininm and manganese ; and that glass is Felix, p. 151. -LACTANT. I. i. c. 5. hence a solid acid in the temperature of our atmosphere, ag

water is a fluid one.

DARWIN's Temple of Nature, 1302. [1 Cor. xv. 52.]

canto iii. l. 13.
Heaven in loud thunders bids the trumpet sound,
And wide beneath them groaus the rending ground.
Pope's Iliad, b. xxi. l. 452—3.

1306. [Rev. xxi. 1.] No one gas is capable of retaining Those very elements, which we partake

another in water: it escapes, not indeed instantly, as in a Alive, when dead some other bodies make;

vacnum ; but gradually, as carbonic acid escapes into the Translated grow, have sense, or can discourse ;

atmosphere froin the bottom of a cavity communicating with it. But death on deathless substance has no force.

Dalton's Chem. Philos. part 1. p. 202. Ovid's Metamorph. b. xv. I. 394.

Consequently the different gases, all but one, rise to their | respective altitudes above the watery atmosphere.

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1303. [Luke xii. 56, 57.] As men are educated, they can neither understand, nor believe any thing; for of those things they are taught to believe, they do not begin with evidence to prove them, they do not so much as know, by what rules things are to be proved, but go upou other people's words, and so never come to any certainty in any point: they treat the Scriptures as they have been learned to treat Heathen Stories, to find out the constructions of words ; but offer not to seek for the evidence of the facts, or the intention of the Author, or what effects it is to have upon them.

HUTCHINSON's Religion of Satan, p. 83.

1308.

From observations taken with a sevenfeet reflector, Dr. Herschel thinks himself authorized to say that Saturn has two concentric rings; of which the outer must be, in diameter, 204,883 miles; elevated 2,839 miles above the inner or lower ring.

Vince's Astron, n. 490.

1309. - Within those rings, Mr. John HADLEY informed the Royal Society, that he had discerned with bis reflecting telescope two belts ; which, with the above-mentioned rings, will form round Saturn what Ezekiel saw around the earth, as four wheels or rings, one within another.

See Abs. Phil. Trans. R. S.

vol. vi. p. 666.

1304. [Isai. xl. 22.] Around our earth, to a great but unknown height, is circumfused an atmosphere of an impal. pable gaseous fluid, interipingled with portions of every

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