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If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe if I tell you of heavenly things.

John iii. 12.



Science and Religion.


T H E Holy Scriptures, independently of their divine l an unerring parity of reason between them through all its origin, contain, among other excellencies, more sublimity and own conceptions and notions, together with all its regular beauty, and finer strains of poetry and eloquence, than can

judgments, and positions, and deductions concerning thein; be collected from all other books, in whatever age or coun without glancing at the real nature or true properties of try they may have been composed.

what must be allowed entirely unknown, otherwise than by Sir W. JONES. this semblance and analogy. — Thus all nature within our

direct view, becomes a large and spacious field of divine as 1363. [Gen. i. 1.] In reading this sacred Book, you can

well as of human knowledge, abundantly sufficient for all the not proceed immediately “to any direct perception, or sim

purposes of religion in this life: And they who are not conple apprehension, or (internal) consciousness, or purely || tent with this kind and degree of it, must in effect renounce spiritual ideas of things divine and supernatural.” Look

all religion as well natural as revealed. for them in things natural and humai). Observe here below,

Bp. BROWNE's Analogy, p. 205. “how our little system is an epitome of the universe, and man a remote image, and picture in miniature, of the Divine Being himself. --- How it is by looking into this world, and more particularly into ourselves, that we can have any con 1364.

It is a pious Jabor, says St. Jerom, but ception at all of things divine and supernatural ; which are || it is likewise a dangerous presumption, that he who should there alone to be discerned, and that by reflection only aud | be judged by every one, should take upon him to be every similitude: but as truly and clearly, as the substance of a one's judge, to change the language of the Antients, and human face is by a clear and lively resemblance of it in a bring back the world, already grown old, to the first lessons glass. - How the knowledge by that image only, is true, and of children. For what person is there, whether ignorant or ital, and useful; though a man had no power to turn' about knowing, that, taking this Book and finding it to differ from (Reo. i. 12.) and view the substance itself : And so likewise, that which he had previously learnt, will not instantly cry how our knowledge of sun, moon and stars, appearing to us | out, « The author is guilty of forgery and sacrilege, in in the water only, would be thus far and sufficiently well ing dared to add to the Sacred Writings, or to change and grounded; though our eyes were naturally so prone and fixed correct them.' (Pref. in Evan. ad Damas.)--The Hebrews to tbis little globe of ours, that we could not look upward for call the Bible, MIKRA, — what is to be read. the least direct and immediate view of them. -- How this is

See Essay for a New Translation, p. 36. a sure and solid foundation of all the divine knowledge we have ; and low therefore it is here the mind begins to exert | Mr. Psalmanczar wrote the account of the Jews, in the the noblest and most exalted of all its operations, in substi || first volume of the Universal History. (Dr. A: CLARKE.) tuting its conceptions of things natural and human, for repre Yes, but he wrote also, the History of the Celtes, and Scy. senting the correspondent, but undiscerned, substance and thians, of the Greeks at the early periods, the antient Spareality of things divine and supernatural : And in carrying on niards, Gauls, and Germaus.



In the first Chapter of Genesis, we have CARIST (who, in every degree of the Divine Glory, is the an account of the first Creation, produced out of the Infinite express or refracted Image of the Father's Person) as to his Human; in which all things are good. In the Second Chap- appearance in the first of the seven Spirits of God, is called ter, after man was created, we have another account of | the Beginning of the creation of God. Rev. ii. 14. — plants, trees, animals &c., of a middle nature; produced Rudiment : Eth (Hebr.) is left untranslated in the common out of the combined spirit of Infinite and finite man. The English Bible, and in all the Antient Versious, except the Tree of Life was of the first creation ; the tree of knowledge Syriac, where it is rendered esse, an essential principle, or was of the second : of course, the former represented what first radiment. It would be highly absurd to suppose this was purely of God; the latter, what was of God and man, important word to be here a mere particle, as the only apwhen spiritually joined. - In the second creation, God in propriate particle ka, which could be wanted, immediately fused a right spirit into man's inverted soul; and in the follows as prefix to the qualified term shamim, heavens ; third, shewed man's proper nature, by creating it specifically which with the prefix ha in hashamim signifies these (visible) into unclean, savage, and abominable creatures. From the heavens, or the skies. spirit, so infused, arose Paradise : from man's inverted na Verse 2.— Empty and void) as a mere rudimental sketch, tore, Hades went up as a misty darkness. The former was to unfilled up with minerals, and unadorned with either vegetable be the immediate receptacle of good souls ; the latter, of evil or animal production. ones. The First SHECHINAH, having effected this double work See No. 25. of redemption and salvation, as he stood manifested on our earth, proceeds by an emanation from Himself, to elevate a portion


The word cælum, whence our term of the good spirit of Paradise to be a heaven in the angelic

cælestial comes originally from koilos (Grk.), concavus, sun; and to cast down of the evil spirit of Hades to be a

because the heaven forms a concare canopy over our heads. hell for the final reception of wicked souls, beneath the earth

CREIGHton's Dict. of Scripture Proper and the natural sun, in the lower hemisphere of the solar

Names, Preface, p. 24. system. -- As the spirit of water, Oxygen and Hydrogen, can enter and assume water from its natural state, constituting thereby vital atmospheric air; so the INFINITE HUMAN


- The word bara (Hebr.) is never used SPIRIT, the Divine Love and WISDOM, penetrated and bat for the simpple creation or production of matter in atoms. raised around our earth a glorified spirit from man; which The atoms of the heavens were created, and in the same act being thus vivified, the males of the human race were to coucreted into small grains called spirit, v. 2. (Hutchinson's receive it back inmediately from the Lord; and the females, Principia, part ii p. 5.) — All the atoms of matter were mediately, through the men. But, to obtain this accoinmo created at first.

Ibid. p. 174. dated spirit of life, sacramentally received by eating the fruit Verse 2.] The word tehom, as it appears by usage, expresses and drinking the juice of the Palm, the tree of lives, the the condition of the primitive matter of our terraqueous globe, as first-born men, the priests of the Church, were to conjoin being then in aloms or small grains, loose aud apparently fluid, themselves in affectiou and thought primarily with the Lord ; (Ibid. part ii. p. 118.) -HUTCHINSON represents what he whilst the chief-women and their congregations, in thought calls the spirit as coming in at the pores of the solar orb in and affection, were to be subordinately conjoined with all that dark rays, and going out as light in the bright rays. The was good and true from the Lord in their preachers and hus Hebrew word, he says, which is mostly used for light, and bands. It was thus in the First Church, that the man, still sounds Aer, is used for what is just issuing from the fire, Adam, by the inhaled breath of lives, becaine a living soul; and is still acting in imitation of fire. This der, he argues, and that the interior of Eve, his wife, was actually, though divided into atoms at the sun's centre, is called fire; further spiritually, taken out of man. — Man being in this way only dispersed, he supposes it is fame; further removed, if not ina receiver, hai iniced through Paradise, and through Hades, terrupted by the way, nor too far dispersed, he calls it light, the ler:w.chud of good and evil; but was not to be acknow and also, if it pervade opaque bodies and be not too far disledged, or crit::unght of in sacred worship, as the source persed, heat. (Ibid. pp. 392, 393.) - How is this ? and why? (fciliur. Azing the worliies however, whose sacramental Spirii, j From Amos and Esdras (as quoted in the margin try, it seems, 194tze vine ; human teachers and rulers were of the text) it appears this spirit (the wind or air) was sot up in the Chwichs Gods, knowing good and evil from created, and its place is described as upon and around the thenschroe, independeutiy of any superior source. By adopt earth.

Ibid. p. 12. ing this idea, and its concomitant rituals, the Adamic Church Verse 3.] This light is afterwards described to be on the fill into that idolatrous worship of man, which has continued surface of the waters (or watery atmospheres). (Ibid.) – ever since, to be more or less, the direct counterpart of all || By expansion the motion of fire and light, at the orb of the true religion.

sun, moves the light in all the way bither, and that here, instantaneously.

Ibid. p. 223.

Verse 4.] Darkness was the first descriptive name of 1366. - In the beginning ] Bereshith (Hebr.) || (the opaque) airs. (Ibid. p 7.) — Then light will be the denotes the primary sphere of God Himself, in which He circumambient solar Quid above and around those airs; a conglomerated the radical essence of every heavenly body, and distinct, but visible fluid whey put in motion by the particularly that of our earth. - In this sense Jesus, the active rays of the sun. The airs without motion are called darkness ; in one degree of motion, called spirit; in all Ni On the 12th of October, the real breadth of the tail was farther, called light; in another, called expansion : as expan nearly 15 millions of miles. sion caused compression, that caused separation, that caused

Ibid. p. 124. the solidity of the earth and the clearness of the water. The real length of its tail, as seen Oct. 15th, must have (Ibid. p. 30.) — God did not create things perfect at once, been upwards of 100 millions of miles. but in atoms, to shew that it was His Spirit, and not the

Ibid. spirit of the world, which produced motion, &c.; that light is That the apparent tail of a comet is its off-side atmosphere not the issue of the sun, but the sun the issue of light; that illuminated at its edges by the solar rays that pass externally the origin of all bodies was from impalpable dust; that of the nucleus, may be considered as established by obserHis Wisdom and Power infused into an invisible thin fluid a vation, — “two brilliant streams having been actually seen at power to act, before there were two atoms of solids together; the borders of the tail in the same diverging situation during and to sort, form, unite and keep them together, place and a motion of the comct through more than 130 degrees.” keep them in proper situations, &c.: and thereby (to shew) His

Ibid. p. 136. continued dominion and operation on matter, which conld not From the complete resemblance of many comets to a numbave appeared so plainly, if He had made and only revealed ber of nebulæ I have seen, says Herschel, I think it not that He had created all things perfect, or in the state they unlikely that the matter they contain is originally nebulous. were in when formed. Ibid, p. 45. See No. 7, 16, 22, 47.

Ibid. p. 142, (Verse 6.] The Archbishop of York in the margin of his Translation of the PENTATEUCH, printed in 1574, opposite the word expansion, writes Heb. a stretching forth or sending out.)

1371. [Gen. i. 1.] The New Comet (another incipient Verse 20.] The atoms of the matter, which creatures are made earth) passed Aldebaran in Taurus about the 15th of January, of, are neither atoms of the heavens, nor of the earth, nor of 1812 ; and was then advancing northward, nearly at the rate the water. – No atom, as being a solid unit, can ever aug of a degree per day. (-- This, and the great comet of 1811, I ment or diminish, much less be dispossessed of its space or

suppose to be the two spots which HersCHEL observed to extension.

Ibid. pp. 3, 120. break away from the Sun in 1807. – V.C.) — Again, on the

20th of July at Marseilles, aud on the first of August at

Paris, another new comet was observed between the feet of 1369.

God has created a precise number of the Griffin and the lead of the Lynx: it was not perceptible simple matters, or of elements essentially different among

without the aid of glasses. themselves, and invariably the same, to assist the increase

Public Prints. of organized bodies, and the allay of the mixed ones: By the diversity of these elemeuts, he varies the scene of the universe. But he prevents the destruction of that universe by

1372. – - Each coinet, or gaseous earth, revolves, the very immutability of the nature and number of these ele

I conceive, in a very eliptical orbit between tbe spiritual and ments. He sets bounds thus to the alterations which appear

the natural sun in the solar system, before it has density in them; so that the world is for ever changed, and yet the

and gravity enough to begin its course around the natural sun same for ever.

as a planet. See No. 1, &c.

ABBE PLUCHE, Hist, of the Hoon
vol. i. p. 87.

1373. (Gen. i. 2.] The solar spots are now (March, 1815) 1370. (Gen. i. 2.) When the comet of 1811 was about

become conspicuous on each side of the sun, as it presents 114 millions of miles from the earth, its solid or planetary body itself alternately in about thirteen days and a half. was found to be nearly 428 miles iu diaineler

CAPEL LOFFT, Month. Mag. for April, Herschel, Phil. Trans. for 1812,

1815, p. 197, part i. p. 118. Oct. 6th, the real diameter of its head was found to he about 127 thousand miles.

1374. [Gen. i. 1.] It is the opinion of some learned men

Ibid. p. 121. (See Jenkin's Reasonableness, and StilliNGFLEETS' Orig. At the same time the apparent extent of its whole atmo Sacra.) that writing was an art coeval with mankind, and the sphere was more than 507 thousand miles in diameter, but its invention of Adam hiinself. Josephus indeed informs us, that real extent, of which we can have no observation, must far it was in use before the Flood; and from thence some have exceed the above calculated dimensious.

conjectured, that the History of the Creation, and the rest

Ibid. p. 122. of the book of Genesis, were (for the substance of them) By computation, the bright envelope of the cometic at delivered down to Moses in verse (which was the most anmosphere must, in real diameter, have exceeded 643 thousand tient way of writing) and that, from them, he compiled his miles.

Ibid. p. 123. ||


1375. - SWEDENBORG intimates, that Moses drew the introductory inatter of the eleven first Chapters of Genesis, through Egyptian conduits, from the primeval fountains of Indian literature in Great Tartary.

See his Arcana, n. 66.

1382. [Gen. i, 3.] The copies of the Hebrew Bible kept in rolls in the Jewish synagogues, are to this day, without points : yet the English Bible, generally speaking, is a translation of the Massoretic reading.

Bib. Research. Introduc. p. 88.


As the Egyptians held that the world had 1383. [Gen. i. 2. Darkness.] “ A dark Rembrant shade.” been created of God, SIMPLICIUS affirms the Mosaic account

MACKENZIE. of the creation to be wholly borrowed from Egyptian tra Place around you at high mid-day, a tent, composed of ditions.

dense and opaque materials : the temporary darkness which, See Simplic. in Aristot. Phys. by shutting yourself up in it, you will procure, may give you l. viii. p. 268.

an idea of the darkness that now covered the earth, which Thus ORPHEUS wrote that all things were made by One did not antecedently subsist, but was the consequence of other GODHEAD of three names ; and that these three names ma

things. nifest one and the same power of that invisible and incompre

See Basil. Hexghem. homil. 2. pp. 23, 24, hensible God, who is the maker of all things, bringing into

edit, Paris, 1618. existence that which was not

See Suivas, in voce, Orpheus, and Procl.
in Tim. l. 2. p. 117. Also Timo-

1384. [Gen. i. 2,5.] SANCONIATHON, the great Pheni. THEUS Chronog. apud EUSEB. Chron.

cian philosopher, supposed by some cotemporary with Gideon, Græc.p. 4. and Cedren, p. 57.

gives a correspondent account of the creation. He says in the beginning there was Chaos erebodes (Grk.), which

in the Phenician tougue, is Chauth Ereb, that is, night or 1377. Elohim is a name not appropriated to God

evening darkness. From the coinmixture of the Spirit with alone, but also to Angels, Ps. lxxxvi. 8; – to Judges, Exod.

Chaos, he adds, was produced Mot, which some call ilus xxi. 6. 1 Sam. ii. 25; and even to false Gods, Josh.

(Grk.), that is, matter or watery moisture. Out of this, he xxiii. 16.

shews, was produced the whole seed of the creation, and the generation of the whole.

SHERLEY, on the Origin of 1378. The Hebrew language often expresses the

Bodies, &c. p. 113, superlative degree, by a word of plural termination. (Locke.) - In this sense the term Elohim might be rendered, the SUPREME BEING.

1385. - According to Halled's preface to his

Code of Gentoo Laws, pp. 104, 5, there are reckoned among 1379.

Elohim is a noun singular, or it could the Bramins seven Deeps: the first is, in length and breadth not have been connected with a verb singular.

or in diameter, eight hundred thousand miles nearly ; the BELLAMY's History of all Religions. second, twice as much ; the third, four times as much; the

fourth, eight times as much; the fifth, sixteen times as

much ; the sixth, thirty-two times as much ; and the seventh 1380.

In the Hebrew a Mem prefixed to a substantive of action, expresses an agent, or instrument to perform that action. - When a prophet speaks God's words, inanimale agents are distinguished by being feminine.

1386. — M. Bouguer observes from experiment, HUTCHINSON. that sea-water would be perfectly opaque at the thickuess of

679 feet; and that the air of our atmosphere would cease to

be transparent, if the light had 518385 toises of it to 1381.

Vau, in Hebrew, signifies such a conjunc traverse. tion as the sense directs : as, so, therefore, and, that, but, or,

See Priestley on Vision, p. 426. when, yet, then, because, now, though, &c. — The Hebrew has few prepositions : its verbs mostly carry in themselves the prepositions that determine the case of the noun.

1387. [Gen. i. 2, 31.] M. BEGUELIN says, the color of Ibid. See also Boyle, on the

pure air always appears blue, and always reflects that color style of Scripture, p. 64.

on all objects without distinction; yet that it is too faint to be Verse 2.] The copulative dau is often, very often, a mere perceived when our eyes are strongly affected by the light of expletive, which in a translation is better omitted.

the sun, reflected from other objects around us. Dr. Geddes.

Ibid. p. 441.


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