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1388. [Gen. i. 3.] From a Treatise by Mr. GEORGE would necessarily raise an obstruction to the equinoctial curDouglas on the Light and Heat of Planets, it would seem rent above described (See No. 48.] ; and cause from that that each of them possesses the same degree of light and heat time such mutations in the flux of the ocean, as constitute as our earth does. — This is disputed in Month. Mag. for what is now called the gulf-stream. This current, remarks April, 1815.

the ingenious and scientific HUMBOLDT, carried at first to the See No. 5.

north-west, and passing into the gulf of Mexico through the strait which is formed by False Cape and Cape St. Antonio,

follows the bendings of the Mexican coast, from Vera Cruz 1389. (Gen. 1. 5. And the evening and the morning were

to the mouth of the Rio del Norte, and thence to the inouths the first day.] This is absurd ; as the duration between

of the Mississippi, and the shoals to the west of the southern evening and morning is only one night.

extremity of Florida. Having made this vast circuit to the See No. 26, 29.

west, the north, the east, and the south, the current takes a

new direction towards the north, and throws itself with impe1390. — “All the Gauls," says Cæsar, “ mea

tuosity into the Gulf of Florida ; whence it issues again tosure time, not by the number of days, but of nights. Ac

wards the Straits of Gibraltar, the Isle of Madeira, and the cordingly they observe their birth-days, and the beginning

group of the Canary Islands. Knowing by repeated expe

riments the swiftness of this spontaneous Aux, and its circuit of months and years, in such a manner, as to cause the day to follow the night."

to be 3800 leagues, we can estimate that a boat, with no extraneous impulsion, could not return by it to the same

place from which it departed, in less than two years and ten 1391. [Gen. i. 6. Let there be a firmament] This months. It would require, for instance, thirteen months so expanse would be produced by the centrifugal force of the to pass from the Canary islands to the coasts of Caraccas; Earth's rotatory motion round its axis : which force reacts as ten months, to make the tour of the gulf of Mexico and centripetal against the centrifugal force of the revolving sun. reach Tortoise-shoals opposite the port of Havannah; while But as the repelling force of the Suu's sphere will inevitably forty or fifty days might be sufficient to carry it from the overpower that of the Earth, this latter body must be con

Straits of Florida to the bank of Newfoundland. It would stantly driven off to a still greater distance.

be difficult indeed, to fix the rapidity of the retrograde current Mr. PARKER of Fleet-street, London, observed in the rays from this bank to the coasts of Africa : estimating however, of the sun, at the focus of a burning-glass, a violent rotatory the mean velocity at sevel or eight miles in twenty-four motion, which became visible on a small mass of gold when hours, we shall find ten or eleven months requisite for this last melted ; for the gold instantly assumed a motion round its distance. Singular effects are produced by this slow but axis, and that invariably the same way as the earth moves regular motion. Fruits from the torrid zone of America, round its axis. The velocity of this motion was accelerated, are annually cast on the western coasts of Ireland and Norif at any time the sun shone with greater brightness than way. And WALLACE relates, that twice, in 1682 and 1684, before. — Thus is the earth turned by the Sun's rays. Apply American Savages of the race of the Esquimaux, driven out the same idea to all the earths in the Universe ; and account to sea in their leathern canoes, during a storm, and left to the for the difference of their rotatory velocities, by their respective guidance of the currents, reached the Orcades. This last distances from the Sun.

example is so much the more worthy of attention, as it proves See No. 15.

at the same time how, in the infant state of the world, the spontaneous motion of the sea would providentially contribute to

disseminate the different races of men over the face of the 1392. (Gen. i. 7. The waters above the firmament] | globe. Till we are told of it, we neither see uor even suspect the col.

See his Travels in South America. lections of these rarified waters, which however experience

Or Suppl. to Month. Mag. for demonstrates to be dispersed all round us, and in the purest

Jan. 1815, p. 589. air. Esdras vi. 41. See No. 34, 366.

Abbr. Pluche.

1395. - - From certain experiments it would appear,

that little more than one fourth of the surface of our earth, 1393. (Gen. i. 9. Let the waters be gathered together at least between the Polar Circles, is dry land. and let the dry land appear] The rotation of the earth

See Ferguson's Astron. 6th Edit. p. 20. would cause this division. See No. 43.

See St. Pierre. The whole surface of the earth contains no more than 5507,634452,576256 square feet.

HUTTON. 1394.

When the waters of the universal sea covering the earth, had been raised into the atmosphere till the dry land began to appear, the Coutinent of America, if 1396. (Gen. i. 11, 12. And the earth brought forth grass, created in its present form of stretching from south to north, ll the herb yielding seed &c.] In the physicks of the poets and

philosophers, it is the sun that has the honor of having co-)
vered our abode with these noble productions. In the phy-
sicks of Moses, the sun is not their father: He finds them
made a day before himself; and the birth of flowers is one
day earlier than that of Aurora.
See No. 29, &c.

ABBE PLUCHE. I

1402. (Gen. i. 20. Let the waters bring forth abun. dantly &c.] That fish and fowl originated thus from the same source the waters, it has been thought some degree of natural proof that both are oviparous and use a similar motion in swimming and Aying.

See No. 20, 24, 28.

1403. - Sir ROBERT HAWKINS, becalmed almost 1397. (Gen. i. 14.] In consequence of the precession of the || six months with a fleet about the islands of Azores, says, equinoxes, the tropical year is 9 seconds shorter now than it “all the sea became so replenished with several sorts of was about 1700 years ago. The tropical year has therefore

jellies, and forms of serpents, adders, snakes, as seemed decreased at the mean rate of about half a second in 100

wonderful : some green, some black, some yellow, some years.

wbite, some of divers colors : and many of them had life; See No. 35.

Vince's Astr. Art. 1088.

and some there were a yard and a half, and two yards long; which, had I not seen, I could hardly have believed.”

1398.

From the Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 393, we learn that the Indians made astronomical observations, so early as in the year 1181 before the birth of 1404. - From Chap. ii. 19, it appears that the Christ. By repeated observations on the starry heavens, their fowls were created out of the ground, as the beasts were ; Brahmins remarked that the course of the stars was in a the English Version, therefore, like the Syriac, and the certain measure retarded by their ascension and distance from Samaritan Hebrew, should be, And let fowl fly above the the earth. They calculated this retardation, and found that, earth. since the moon with her apogeum and ascending nodes was

See Jackson's Chron. Antiq. vol.i. p. 11. in conjunction with the sun on the first of April, 1,955,884,890 years must have elapsed ; and that 2,364,115,110 years were necessary to produce it again : this grand period of complete

1405. - Iu Ching-Tu, MARTINI tells us, there revolutiou being thus 4,320,000,000 years. BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 349.

is a small extraordinary bird with a red tail, and tlie finest variety of feathers : It is there called Tong-hoa-fany, that is,

the bird of the flower Tong-hoa ; from which it is supposed to 1399. - - If philosophy was formerly brought from

be produced, and which it is so like, that one would imagine India to Europe, why should it not return from polished Eu

it to be a living flower. (Allas Sinens, Martiniere, et al.)

- This bird, however, is now 10-where to be found but in the rope to degenerated India ? (St. Pierre.) — Holwell

books of the Chinese geographers. first directed the attention of Europeans to the Writings of the Indians, and the excellent ideas they entertain respect

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. viji. p. 222. ing the Deity, Providence, and Virtue. Since that period, Hastings, Sir W. Jones, Halhed, Wilkins (Swedenborg), and others, have made us acquainted with inany fragments of the 1406. [Gen, i. 22.] All that now live in the sea are Indian wisdom of early times.

piscivorous; except that -
BARTOLOMEU), by Johnston, p. 378.

Barbels, unlike the rest, are just and mild,
No fish they harm, by them no seas are spoil'd;

Nor on their own, nor different kinds they prey, 1400. (Gen. i. 16.] Coherence in the Text of Scripture,

But equal laws of common right obey; where it appears defective, may be very well made out by

Undreaded, they with guiltless pleasure feed rendering Hebrew verbs (and some Greek aorists) in a Pre

Ou fat’ning slime, or bite the sea-grown weed. terpluperfect tense instead of a perfect; or by some such

The good and just are Heav’n’s peculiar care ; other Grammatical variation of the words, as all that under

All rav'nous kinds the sacred barbel spare ; stand Hebrew well, know to be allowed by the propriety of

Nor will, though hungry, seize the gentle fry, that tongue, which is not restricted by the Modes, Tenses, &c.

But give the look, and, pitying, pass them by. of our Western languages.

Oppian's Balieutics, 6.2, vol. 1054. Boyle, on the Style of Scripture, p. 57.

— Thus, from God alone, proceeds all that is good in Crea

tion ; from man aloue, all that is evil and infernal; but from 1401. - Asah (Hebr.), in the preterpluperfect God and man conjoined, all that is spiritual and celestial. In tense, is rightly rendered had made in the 31st verse the productions of the First Chapter, God is alone : in the following.

institutions of the Second, God and man join; in the disorJackson's Chron. Antig. vol. i.p. 5. Il ders of the Third, man is separated, and becomes a curse.

1407. (Gen. i. 24.] The earth produces nothing of itself, “Nor can this hypothesis concerning the extremities of but all things by the assistance of water impregnated with heat and cold, be supported with respect to the sallow comseeds; which it deposits in its bosom.

plexion of the Samojedes, Laplanders, and Greenlanders. The

SHERLEY, p. 109. Finlanders, and northern Norwegians, live in a climate less Thales of Miletus, the first philosopher that wrote in cold than that of the people mentioned; and yet are fair Greek, held water to be the beginning of things; and that beyond other Europeans. I say more, there are many inGod out of water framed all things.

stances of races of people preserving their original color, Cicero, de Naturâ Deorum, lib. i. cap. 2. in climates very different froin their own; but not a single Orpheus teaching that, ek tou hudatos ilus kateste (Grk.), instance of the contrary, as far as I can learn. There have of water, slime was made; and Apollonius, that ex ilou been four complete generations of negroes in Pennsylvania, eblaste chthonaute, ~ earth, of slime was made; the without any visible change of color; they continue jet-black, scholiasts, in explaining the words, affirm that the Chaos, as originally. Those who ascribe all to the sun, ought to of which all things were made, was water, which coagulated consider how little probable it is, that the color it impresses itself and became slime ; and that slime condensed, became on the parents should be communicated to their infant children, solid earth.

who never saw the sun. Let a European, for years, expose SHERLEY, on the Origin of himself to the sun in a hot climate, till he be quite brown ; his Bodies, &c. p. 114. children will nevertheless have the same complexion with

those in Europe. From the action of the sun, is it possible

to explain, why a negro, like a European, is born with a 1408. [Geni. 26.] If man be made after the image and

ruddy skin, which turns jet-black the eighth or ninth day ?” likeness of God, the latter must necessarily have some sem

“Upon summing up the whole particulars mentioned above, blance of man.

would one hesitate a inoment to adopt the following opinion, Dr. Geddes' Critical Remarks,

where there is no counterbalancing evidence, viz. “That God p. 27. Note t

created many pairs of the human race, differing from each other, both externally and internally ; that he fitted those

pairs for different climates, and placed each pair in its proper 1409.

climate; and that the peculiarities of the original pairs were As Man, or Adam, is bere put for man

preserved entire in their descendants ?!" kind, and afterwards spoken of distributively, '“ Let them

See No. 63. Lord Kames, as quoted in the History have dominion," &c.; so in 1 Tim. ii. 14, 15. Woman is

of America, vol. i. pp. 137 — 139. first put for the whole sex, and then it is said, “ If they continue in faith and charity, and holiness with sobriety, she (womankind) shall be saved by child-bearing ;" that is, un

1411. [Gen. i. 28. Be fruitful and multiply] Though doubtedly, through the birth of the REDEEMER.

early marriages increase population, they appear to have a See No. 52, 1081.

See Chap. iii. 15.

natural tendency to diminish the stature of a people. For instance, among the Jews of the present day who still marry

early, we seldom find any but little or middle-sized men. Of 1410. [Gen. i. 27.] “M. Buffon, from the rule, That ani the antient Germans on the coutrary, who were almost all mals which can procreate together, and whose progeny can large, and appeared to the Romans like half-giants, we know also procreate, are of one species; concludes, that all inen from Tacitus, that they married late. are of one race or species; and endeavours to support that

Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 474. favourite opinion by ascribing to the climate, to food, or other accidental causes, all the varieties that are found among men. But is he seriously of opinion, that any operation of climate, 1412. — - By the future improvements of human or of other accidental cause can account for the copper reason such governments may possibly hereafter be estabcolor and smooth chin universal among the Americans; or Jished, as may a hundred-fold increase the numbers of man. the black nipple po less universal among the female Sa kiud, and a thousand-fold their happiness. moiedes ?- It is in vain to ascribe to the climate the low stature

Darwin's Zoonomia, vol. ii. p. 670. of the Esquiinaux, the sinaliness of their feet, or the over But, hitherto, even Christians bave been brought up in the growa size of their heads. It is equally in vain to ascribe to belief that the universe was framed, that every thing might climate the low stature of the 1 aplanders, or their ugly be subservient to the pride and pleasure of a few men -called visage. The black color of negroes, their lips, flat nose, 1 kings.

H. WHITE, Junr. crisped woolly hair, and rank smell, distinguisli them from every other race of men. The Abyssivians, on the contrary, are tall and well made, their complexion a brown olive, fea 1413. –

Idolatrous nations are compared in the tures well proportioned, eyes large and of a sparkling black, Scriptures to bulls, rams and goals ; for it is written, Many thin lips, a nose rather high than fiat. There is no such bulls have compassed me about, Ps. xxii. 13. The rain difference of climate between Abyssinia and Negro-land, as to which thou hast seen is the king of Persia, Dan. viii. 20. produce these siriking differences.”

The rough goat is the king of Greece, Dan. viii. 21.

astern c

But the Israelites are compared to doves, &c. O my dove, | 1420. — - As soon as men became animals of prey, thou art in the cleft of the rock, Cant. ii. 14.

which they were not originally, they fed on those of their Isai. xlvi, 11.

own kind as well as on other animals. The antient Germans See Rabbi SOLOMON JARCHI, sometimes rioted in human repasts; and the native tribes of on Gen. xy. 9.

America feed, with infernal satisfaction, on the bodies of their enemies.

OSWALD, in Nicholson on Diet, p. 49. 1414. SAVARY informs us, that of the Egyp

Potent in arms, and dreadful at the spear, tians, men, women, and children, are remarkably expert, and They live injurious, and devoid of fear; he says graceful, in swimming. Man is the only perfect

On the crude flesh of beasts, they feed, alone, animal which learus to swim, all others swim naturally : Savage their nature, and their hearts of stoue. in general we find that islanders, and all those people

Cooke's Hesiod, Works and Days, whose country is intersected by canals, or abounds in rivers, See No. 102.

b. i. vol. 206. are skilful in this manly exercise, whilst those living more inlaud are ignorant of it. Beloe's Herod. Urania, lxxxix. Note 81. 1421. [Gen. i. 29, 30.] Wild beasts seldom arrive at so

great an age as animals which live ou vegetables.

Univer. Mag. (May 1759), p. 235. 1415. - BRYDONE in his entertaining Tour through Sicily and Malta, informs us, that the Sicilian authors make mention of one Colas, who, from his extraordinary 1422. - It hence appears, that animal food was skill in diving, was named the Fish.

never desigued for man ; also that beasts of prey were not Ibid. ch. viii. Note 6. created in the first order of living creatures; but only

graminivorous and granivorous animals.

See, on the unalterable continuance of See Kırwan's Geological 1416.

this Law, Eccles. iii. 14, 15.

Facts, as quoted in Nation, called Fiattou or Fiatta, the inhabitants of which

Bib. Research. vol. i. clothe themselves with the skins of fishes, and from this

p. 217. custom they derive their name, Yu pi — which in Chinese signifies a fish-skin. DUALDE's Hist. of China,

1423. — Every animal has a particular plant on vol. iv. p. 148.

which it lives. There is not one even among the carnivorous, Pactyes also had (war) vests made of skins.

but what makes use of some species of vegetable. This is Beloe's Herod. ch. Ixvii.

observable not only in dogs, which feed on the grass that bears their name, and in wolves, foxes, birds of prey, which

eat the plants denominated from the names of the respective 1417. - The Ethiopians, at the time of circumcis animals, but even in the fishes of the sea, which are entire ing their children, give them the name of the ox, the sheep,

strangers to our element. Most of them come to spawn on the lion, &c.

our coasts, only when certain plants are in flower, or in fruit. Santos' Hist of Eastern Ethiopia. — If these happen to be destroyed, the fishes visit as no Pinkerton's Coll. part Ixvii. p. 341. | longer.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. i. p. 48. 1418.

The Hottentots give to their new-born children a name, which is generally that of some wild or domestic animal.

1424.

Providence at first presented to man his See No. 194, 204. THUNBERG's Account of the Cape of food ready dressed in the fruits of trees. He placed

Good Hope. Pinkerton's Coll. principally for this purpose, between the Tropics, the banana part Ixix. p. 141.

and the bread-fruit; in the Temperate Zones, the ever-green oak, and especially the chesnut-tree which produces more

substantial fruit than the corn-plant on ground of equal extent 1419. [Gen, i. 28, 29.]

with its branches; and perhaps in the Frigid Zone, the pine, Take not away the life you cannot give,

whose kernels are eatable. — Men ought accordingly to proFor all things have an equal right to live.

mote the culture of every tree which produces alimentary Kill noxious creatures, where 't is sin to save ;

fruit, and attempt to naturalize in public gardens all the foThis only just prerogative we have:

reigu vegetables, capable of furnishing new means of subBut nourish life with vegetable food,

sistence and of industry. And shun the sacrilegious taste of blood.

Gen. ii. 16.

Ibid, vol. iv. p. 433. Ovid's Metamorphoses, b. xv. I. 705. See No. 68, 69, 73, 75, 77, 81, 83, 84, 92, 122.

1425.

The cora-plant, probably, was not in- ll overturus many growing plants, yet he is probably, on the tended for man's food at first. See Gen. iii. 19. It is |whole, more useful than injurious to man. In short, there is no-where indigenous at present. Its grain, from the form and no instance of a proscribed animal, that appears to deserve size, appears more adapted to the beak of birds. Its culturel the treatment he meets with. Superficial observation is by no also is so laborious and difficult, that not a twentieth part of || means sufficient to justify cruel proscription. mankiud eats bread. Almost all the people of Asia live on See No. 215, 218, 422. See Month. Mag. for Aug. rice which needs no other preparation for the table, but to be

1815, p. 32. stripped of its pellicle and boiled. Africa lives on millet ; America on manioc, potatoes and other roots.

Ibid, vol. iv. p. 433.

1429. [Gen. ii.] The distinction in Scripture of Chapters

and Verses as now in use, was contrived by Stephanus ; and 1426. The potato possesses two modes of ||

being by him drawn up in haste, it will be perhaps no slansecuring its reproduction, the one by producing tuberous

der to that industrious promoter of heavenly learning, to say, roots, the other by the general mode of flowers and seed

he bath sometimes severed matters that should have been left vessels. As the plant employs the same Auid in both these

united, and united others which more conveniently he might

united, operations, if its blossoms are constantly picked off, and it is ||

have severed. prevented from forming any seed at all, all the fluid

Boyle, on the style of Scripture, p. 61. which would have been employed in that operation will be exerted in forming an increased crop of tubers. Now, as the blossoming tops of the potato, when boiled, are equal to the

1430. [Gen. ii. 2.) It appears from the 31st verge of the best spinage, the scauty pittance of the poor and the advan

former Chapter, that we ought here to read on the sixth day tage of the farmer may be considerably increased by permit

God ended his work; as it is in the Samaritan Hebrew ting indigent persons or their children gratuitously to crop

Copy, in the Septuagint, in the Syriac, in Josephus, and the potato-fields, not suffering a seed-vessel to be forined on 11

in Philo Judæus.

See Jackson's Chron. Antiq. vol. i.p. 12. any of the plants. See The Statesman, No. 2018, p. 3.

1431..

- According to a tradition still extant

among the modern Persians, God created the world in six 1427. The Earl of Lauderdale calculates that,

periods of different lengths, making in all a coinplete year of on his plan of using a wholly vegetable diet, a farm consisting

365 days. of 504 statute acres, under the management which he directs,

See No. 49.

See Lord, on the Relig. of the would produce sufficient for the support of 1,977 people; and

Persees, p. 6, &c. consequently that nine millions of people, the supposed popu. lation of England, would require only 2,412,746 acres. In that case England would support 180,000,000, of people;

1432. [Gen. ii. 5.) There are two worlds, says Plato: that is, twenty times its present number of inhabitants.

one that has the form of a paradigin or exemplar, See Gen. iii. 18.

which is au intelligible world, ever existing ; the other, an image of the exemplar, had a beginning and is visible. God,

he adds, making use of this exemplar, frames the idea and 1428. [Gen. i. 31.] It deserves to be duly examined, whe powers; that is, the seeds of things in the intelligible world, ther a supposed evil in the works of God may not be more into material beings and actual existences in the visible world. than counterbalanced by advantages undiscovered by the Thus Plato makes the first and original idea, resident in the superficial observer. The lady-bird, because its larvæ are Divine Wisdom or mind of God, to be the cause of the found in the cankered spots of fruit-trees, has been supposed secondary idea or seed, which contains the picture of the to be the cause of their blight, though it is in reality the thing to be made, and depends for its continued existence on best remedy against that disease : This beautiful little insect, the primary or original idea aud exemplar seated in God both when perfect and in its larva-state, feeds entirely on the Himself. aphis, a genus of which the blight in question is a species. See No. 156, 354.

See Timæus, fol. 49. Rooks cover the fresh-ploughed fields, not in search of grain, but of the various grubs and worms injurious to the future crop. Pigeons prefer to wheat and barley the small seeds of 1433. — Adamah, in the Ethiopic langnage, sigthe tine-tare and melilot, which are weeds among the corn.. nifies beautiful, elegant, pleasant, &c. ; from whence if we The hedge-hog, falsely accused of sucking cows, feeds alto ll diduce the Hebrew aud Phoenician Adamah, earth, it will not gether on beetles, cockchafers, and other insects, which are be remote from the kosmos of the Greeks, though that seems extremely injurious to the agriculturist either in their larva to have had a more extensive signification. On this suppoor perfect state. Worms and grubs are also the food of the sition, Adam derived his name not from a certain fictitious mole; and althougb, in his mining process, he undoubtedly reduess, but from the beauty and perfection of his nature,

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