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1591. (Gen. vi. 14.] Bitumen is a slimy terrene substance, which is still used in the East for pitch; and, in particular, for the purpose of stemming osier barks. A coat of it, spread over both the inside and the outside of an ark of wicker. work, would make it perfectly water-proof and impenetrable : and the longer it were kept in the water, the harder and strouger it would grow.

Dr. Geddes.

bably made to distinguish what animals might be domesticated, or touched with impunity; and what should remain savage, or be avoided, as useless or in some way injurious to mau.

See No. 270, 291, 268, 290, 295, 293, 70..

1597. [Gen. vii. 2.] The male and his female] Isk veishto (Hebr.), the husband and his wife.

The soil exhaling clouds of subtile dews,

Which rusts not irou, and whose mould is clean,
Well cloth'd with cheerful grass, and ever green,
Is good for olives, and aspiring vines,
Embracing husband elms in am'rous twines.

DRYDEN's Virg. Georg. ii. 1. 297.

1592. [- 15, 16.] The Chinese and the Japanese construct their vessels exactly on the model of the ark. 1. They allow them six breadths to their length ; whereas other nations allow theirs only three breadths, except only in some small canoes. 2. They build them fat at the head, stern, and bottom; whereas all other nations have them sharp. 3. They commonly give them three tiers, or stories, out over the other, and each of them parted by long galleries reaching almost from end to end, and subdivided into smaller apartments of different sizes; some for storage of merchandizes, provisions, &c. and others for lodgings for passengers, and those that belong to the vessel : all which is likewise exactly according to the structure of the ark, and quite different from all other nations.

Modern Univer. Hist, vol. viii.

p. 352.

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1693.

In a cubit shalt thou finish it, the ark, which was to be covered with a roof raised a cubit high in the middle. — Sohar (llebr.), a window, is masculine; "it,feminine.

1594. - Muscovy-glass, or isinglass, is found in many places of North America, and is in general as fine a3 that brought from Russja. Kalm collected some pieces of it, that were more than a foot in length; and several, nine inches square. The Swedes, he says, on their first arrival there, made all their windows of this native glass.

See his Trad. Pinkerton's Coll.

part liii. p. 404.

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1595. [- 17.] A deluge - literally, the deluge: but the Hebrew definite article is often to be expressed in Euglish by the indefinite.

Dr. Geddes' Critical Remarks,

p. 70.

1602. [~ 6, 11, 13. On the 17th of the second month] Which answers to our second of Deceinber, according to the Samaritan chronology: - The flood (though the Nile began to rise at the vernal equinox) commencing at the autumnal equinox when the Nile overflows equally as at the vernal equinox.

See Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 217.

1596. (Gen. vii. 2.] As men did not now eat animal food, This distinction of beasts into clean and unclean, like that afterwards more particularly specified by Moses, was pro

1603. translate

Windows of heaven] The Septuagint cataracts; that is, probably the water-falls above Egypt. HOMER says, the Nile came down from heaven.

Odyss. 4. v. 581.

recedes, remaining throughout the winter, and till the return of the summer-solstice, in its former low and quiescent state.

HEROD. Euterpe, xix.

1604. [Gen. vii. 11.] In Ethiopia, where the Nile has its source, the winter begins at the end of May or first days of June, spending its greatest fury in hurricanes during August, as in India and other places under the Torrid Zone. The inundation of the Nile during these months, is therefore caused in Egypt not by the melting of cnow which never falls in Ethiopia, but by the sudden increase of abundant streams tumbled from her vast mountains by the winter rains.

See a Portuguese Manuscript translated, at the desire of the Royal Society, by Sir PeTER WYCHE, p.33.

1605:

The Mediterranean, about forty degrees long and four broad, receives into its bosom, besides innumerable small rivulets, these nine very considerable rivers, the Iberus, the Rhone, the Tiber, the Po, the Danube, the Neister, the Borysthenes, the Tanais, and the Nile.

See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 364.

1611. (Gen. vii. 24.) Incipit crescere Nilus novâ lunâ, quæcumque post solstitium est, sensim modiceque Cancrum sole transeunte, abundantissime autem Leonem, et residit in Vir. gine, iisdem quibus accrescit' modis. In totum autem revocatur inter ripas in Librâ, ut tradit HERODOTUS, centesimo die. Auctus ejus per puteos mensuræ notis deprehenduntur. Justum incrementum est cubitorum 16, minores aquæ non omnia rigant, ampliores detinent tardius recedendo; hæ serendi tempora absumunt, solo madente; illæ non dant, sitiente : utrumque reputat provincia. In 12 cubitis famem sentit, in 13 etiamnum esurit, 14 cubita hilaritatem afferunt, 15 securitatem, 16 delicias. - That is, the Nile begins its increase at the first new moon after the solstice; rising slowly but gradually, whilst the sun passes through Cancer; then rapidly indeed, when he is in Leo. It sinks again during Virgo, in the same proportion as it rose. And, under Libra, it is wholly reduced within its banks; generally, as HERODOTUS observes, about the hundredth day from the commencement of its decrease. The progressions of its increase are regularly guaged and marked on pilometers, erected for the purpose in the centre of artificial basins. Its ordinary height is sixteen cubits. Below that elevation, its waters overflow not all the cultivated grounds. Above, they delay the barvest by their tardy recession. In the latter case, seed-time is lost through the wetness of the soil; ia the former, nothing will grow because the ground is too dry and thirsty. Thus are both extremes reckoned equally ini. mical to the province. When the flood rises but 12 cubits, the inhabitants expect famine. At the thirteenth cubit-mark, it indicates a dry season; at the fourteenth, it begins to cheer their hearts ; at the fifteenth, it dissipates their cares; and, at the sixteenth, it prognosticates plenty and delicious dainties.

See No. 262, 272, 279. Pliny's Nat. Hist. 1. v. 9.

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Egypt, properly so called, which is overflowed by the Nile, and cultivated like a garden, is long, but narrow; extending, by D'Anville's calculation, over the space of but 2100 French, or 800 German square miles.

Smith's Michaelis, vol ii.

p. 490. note.

1609.

12.] The Etesian winds blow constantly, during the forty days, called dog-daye, that follow the rising of the dog-star. See No. 277, 274, 265. Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the

Heav, vol. i. p. 196.

1610. ( 24.] The Nilo, beginning at the summer solstice, continues gradually to rise for the space of one hundred days, after which for the same space it as gradually

1613. [Gen. viii. 1.] Modern travellers inform us, that the Nile returns within its banks again towards the end of September or a little after,

See No. 277.

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1614. [Gen. viii.] Diary of the Deluge.

1619. [Gen. ix. 4.] Flesh with the spirit thereof] In wine Month Day

the alcohol exists ready formed, and is not produced during 2. 10 Noah, &c. ordered to enter into the Ark, ch. vii.

distillation. (See Phil. Trans. for 1811, part ii. pp. 337 1, 4, 11.

-342.) – In the Second Covenant, being a spiritual one, 17 The Rain began, v. 11.

unintoxicating wine was used. See Gen. ix. 20. Levit. 3. 26 The Rain ended, v. 12.

xvii. 10. %. 17 The Ark rested on the mountain, vii. 24, and See No. 304, 305, 313, 316, 318, 325, 330, 95, 112, 143.

viji. 3, 4. 8. 27 Noah threw out an anchor, the Raven, viii. 4, 6, 7. 9. 4 He first threw out the Lead, or Dove, v. 8, 10.

1620. [ 25. Cursed be Canaan ; a servant of 11 As he did the second Time, v. 10.

servants shall he be to his brethren] Accordingly it was 18 And the third, v. 12.

a law among the Hebrews, that if a Hebrew had children by 10. i The Mountain-tops appeared, d. 5.

a Canaanitish womau, those children must be considered as

Canaanitish only, and might be sold and bought, and serve Second Year.

for ever. 1. 1 The Water dried from off the earth, o. 13.

Dr. A. CLARKE, on Exod. xxi. 4. 2. 27 The Earth or Land quite dry, o. 14.

– Verse 16.] The Ark stopped in Gorduena, now called Cordistan.

1621. [ -26. Blessed be the LORD God of Shem] See No. 282, 297, 284. Nat. Delin. vol. vii. p. 2. | The Messiah was to come in the line of Shem; the prime

prerogative of that patriarch.

Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 276. 1615. [- - 20.] When they of the Antient Church offered clean beasts and clean fowls, it is to be understood,

1622 [ 29.] The people of Nejeff Ashreff say, that they offered gifts to the Lord from their charity and

that the bones of Adam and Noah are interred near the faith ; for nothiug else can be offered to the Lord, which can

middle of their city, which stands at no great distance from be grateful to him. (SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 921.)

the Euphrates : but there is no vestige of such monuments. In the same way Aaron offered, or devoted, to the Lord the

See No. 352, 35%, : GLADWIN's Khojeh Abdulkurreem, Levites and their cattle. See Num. iii. 41. viii. 11, 21.

356, 363, 367, 365, See No. 285, 289, 288, 289, 283, 237, 382, 292.

p. 127. 353, 356.

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1617. The Egyptian lawgivers allowed the juice

1624. [ 9.] The Hebrew Text altogether wanting of the grape, before it was fermented : we accordingly read of | P.

|| Parentheses, interpreters have supplied and omitted them Pharaoh's drivking must, or fresh grape-juice.

at their own discretion, often very improperly. Gen. xl. 11. See Smith's MICHAELIS,

See BOYLE, on Scripture See No. 315, 306. vol. i. p. 43.

Style, p. 65. .

1618. [ 4] Chemists observe that vegetables, as 1625. [ 11.] From the town or village of Salavender, rue, marjorum, &c. distilled per se before fermenta maouât the course of the Euphrates is accompanied with a tion, yield oils without any burning spirits ; but that after fer double bank, which descends as far as its junction with the mentation, they yield ardent spirits, without oil; which Tigris, and from thence to the sea, being a length of about a shews, that their oil is, by fermentation, converted into | hundred leagues French measure. The height of these artificial spirit. They also find that, if oil be poured in a small banks is not uniform, but increases as you advance from the quantity on fermenting vegetables, they distil over, after sea ; it may be estimated at from twelve to fifteen feet. But fermentation, in the form of spirits.

for them, the inundation of the river would bury the country PRIESTLEY's llist. of Vision, p. 305. Il around, which is flat, to an extent of twenty or twenty-five

leagues; and even, notwithstanding these banks, there has | 1631. (Gen. xi. 3.) From every concurrent testimony, been in modern tinies an overflow which has covered the we have reason to conclude, that bitumen was the tenacious whole triangle formed by the junction of this river to the substance which the sacred historian meant to describe, as Tigris, being a space of country of 130 square leagues. By the substitute for mortar, employed by the builders of the town the stagnation of the waters an epidemical disease of the of Babel. most fatal nature was occasioned. It follows from hence,

PARKINSON's Organic Remains of a 1. That all the flat country bordering upon these rivers was

former world, vol. i. p. 136. originally a marsh; 2. That this marsh could not have been inhabited previously to the construction of the hanks in question ; 3. That these banks could not have been the work 1632. [- 4. Let us make us a name] According to but of a population prior as to date : and the elevation of the Hebrew, let us make a sign or mark, lest we should be Babylon therefore must have been posterior to that of scattered over the whole face of the country. The word Nineveh.

Shem has produced sema and semeion (Grk.), which equally See No. 387.

VOLNEY. || signify a mark, a sign, or a name.

Nat. Delin. vol. iv. p. 124.

1626. [Gen. x. 19.] The four cities, Sidon to the north and Gaza to the south on the Mediterranean, Lasha to the north and Sodom to the south on the Jordan, as here referred to like four cardinal points, determined at the time the extent of the promised land. (See Map.) — No vine grows near Sidon.

HASSELQUIST, p. 164.

1633. - A name ; that is, an image for idolatrous worship. In hieroglyphic representation, every thing to be named, or described was figured in wood, stone, metal, or delineation. In agreement with this language, Jesus Christ is called equivalently the expressed Image of the Father, or His Name.

“Let us make us a name, lest— the Septuagint translate before.

1627

- The whole extent of Palestine was but five degrees square.

Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 379.

1634.

- A Name-place. (GEDDES.) — Magicians among the Jews were termed baaley shem, masters of the Name,

Dr. A. CLARKE.

1628. 23.) As the genuine traditional history of the Hindoos begins with Rama, that of the Tartars seems invariably to commence with Oyuz, the same perhaps as the Hebrew Oluz or Uz. These place their miraculous hero and patriarch four thousand years before Chengiz Khan, who was born in the year 1164, and with whose reign their historical period commences.

See No. 381, 372, 383, 384, Asiat. Research. vol. ii. 386, 388, 391, 392, 385, 389, 404, 406, 375.

1635. ( 6.) And now shall they not be restrained | in all that they have imagined to do?

The Flemish Revisors, and LEUSDEN.

1629. (Gen. xi. 2.} Assyria, Mesopotamia, and the country bordering on the Euphrates and beyond that river, are called the East in the Sacred Writings.

Dr. A. CLARKE.

1636. [- 8,9.] It has been supposed that the patriarch Noah, finding his authority too small to deter the greatest part of his descendants, grown by this time too numerous and intractable to be deterred from their presumptuous design of securing themselves (by a pyramidal tower] against the power of Heaven (to destroy them by a deluge of the Euphrates, as the Egyytians had been destroyed by the Nile), wisely separated himself from them; and, taking as many with him as abhorred that impious conspiracy, led them far enough eastwards to be out of the danger of being involved in the punishment which he bad cause to fear would quickly fall on those rebellious miscreants ; till, by slow and gradual migrations, he at length reached some of the northeru provinces of China. See No. 398, 403, 298, 394, 401. Modern Univer. Hist.

pol. viii. p. 323.

1630. Shinar, in after ages, termed successively, from the tower of Babel, Babylon or Babylonia ; froin Cased, the son of Nahor, Chasdim; and from the Chaldæans, its more modern inhabitants, Chaldæa. It lies in Asia, between 30 and 35 degrees North latitude, being bounded on the north by Mesopotamia, on the east by the Tigris, on the west by Arabia Deserta, and on the south by the Persian Gulf and part of Arabia Felix. During the months of June, July, and August, it is inundated, like Egypt, by the rivers Tigris and Euphrates.

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beyoud Ethiopia or Habashia, or westward beyond a part of Lybia and Greece, including Macedonia. (Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 373.) — So that the then known world was included within the above boundaries.

1644. [Gen. xii. 15.] Walid, the first king of Egypt, of the race of Amalek, took the surname of Pharaoh, which in the Coptic Paurro, or Pooro, signifies king, and was used by all his successors. (See RENAUDOT, Dissert. de ling. Coptica. Or CALMET, sub voce Pharaoh. Or Univer. Hist. vol. ii. pp. 72, 359.) — As the kings of Egypt were called Pharaoh, the kings of the Philistines were entitled Abimelech.

Univer. Hlist. vol. v. p. 192.

1638. [Gen. xi. 28.] Ur, in the Sanscrit, signifies an inhabited place.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 427.

1639. 30.] The noblest animals are ever the least fruitful : These are seen usually to bring forth but one at a time, and to place all their attention upon that alone. On 1 the other hand, all the oviparous kinds produce in amazing plenty; and even the lower tribes of viviparous animals increase in a seeming proportion to their minuteness and imperfection.

Goldsmith's Hist. of the Earth,

vol. ii. p. 49.

1645. ( 16.) He had sheep and oxen, men and maid-servants, he and she-asses, and camels.

HOUBIGANT, according to the Samaritan, The animal that may be called peculiarly Arabian, and is pre-eminently suited to a desert country, from its wonderful capacity of bearing hunger and thirst, is the camel; which, as a beast of burden, forips the true riches of Arabia, and has, on some occasions, made it the central point for the commerce between Asia and Africa, India and the West. — STRABO, who lived in the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, much about the era of Christ's appearance, says (p. 1112 or 768) Arabia Felix has neither horses, mules, nor swine ; and that Arabia Deserta (p. 1130 or 784) has no horses, and camels supply their place. - MICHAELIS conceives, that Persia, as well as Egypt and Armenia, was one among the original countries where the horse was early domesticated.

See No. 419, 427, 414, Smith's Michaelis, dol. ij. 416, 509, 876.

pp. 503, 505,513.

1640. 1

3 1.) Haran, Terah's son's name, beginning with a h (Hebr.), while what has been called Haran, a place, is written with a ch, equivalent to the Greek ch; we have deemed it proper to spell the latter Charan (or Charran).

Univer. Hist.

1641. [- 34.) This Introduction has been divided, perhaps improperly, into eleven Chapters. See No. 393, 408-413. Works of Sir W. Jones,

vol. i. p. 134.

1646. [Gen. xiii. 10.] And Lot listed up his eyes and beheld all the plain of Jordan, as thou comest to Zoar, that it was well watered every where; even as the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah.

See No. 426,428, 432. Essay for a New Translation.

1642. (Gen. xii. 1, &c.] The connexion of the Mosaic history with that of the Gospel by a chain of sublime predictions unquestionably antient, and apparently fulfilled, must induce us to think the Hebrew narrative more than human in its origin, and consequently true in every substantial part of it, though possibly expressed in figurative language; as many learned and pious men bave believed, and as the most pious may believe without injury, and perhaps with advan. tage, to the cause of revealed religion.

Ibid. p. 137.

1647. [Gen. xiv. 1. Elam] The Persians, in the geographical descriptions of their antient empire, fix its boundaries at the Black sea, the Red sea, the Caspian sea, and the Persian gulph ; representing the Euphrates, the Arases, the Tigris, the Phasos, the Oxus aud the Indus, as boldly skirting its intermediate limits. — Its preseut content, according to Sir John CHARDIN, reaching from the 77th to the 112th degree of longitude, and from the 45th to the 25th degree of latitude, embraces about 750 French leagues in length, and about 400 in breadth.

See Chardin, Voy. tom. iii. p. 2.

1643. [ 14 — 20.] The second Chapter of the book of Esther, which shews in what manner Eastern kings selected their wives, will prove that Abram was secure of his wife's virtue in Pharaoh's house for twelve Months ; i. e. till the famine were abated, and he could return.

1648. [ -3.] The Dead Sea, or Lake Asphaltis, is siluated in the southern part of Syria, near Jerusalem, and occupies an extent of about 60 or 70 miles in length, and from 10 to 20 in breadth. This lake has been from time

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