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and the frugivorous animals : the former, whose destructive || and all living ereatures; for there, not confining murder to passions, like those of ignorant man, lay waste all within the killing of man, they religiously abstain from taking the their reach, are constantly tormented with hunger, which life of the meanest animal. returns and rages in proportion to their own devastation; this
See OVINGTON's Voyage to Surat, p. 296. creates that state of warfare or disquietude, which seeks, as in murderers, the night and veil of the forest; for should they appear on the plain, their prey escapes, or, seen by each 128.
The Gentoos rear numerous herds of catother, their warfare begins. The frugivorous animals wan tle; but such is their veneration for these animals, on account der tranquilly on the plains, and testify their joyful existence of their useful and patient services to man, that to kill or eveu by frisking and basking in the congenial rays of the sun, ormaim one of them is deemed a capital offence. browsing with convulsive pleasure on the green herb, evinced See M. de Pare's Travels through the World, vol.ii.p. 27. by the motion of the tail, or the joyful sparkling of the eyes, and the gainbols of the herd. The same effect of aliment is discernible amongst the different species of man, and the
From shedding the blood, or taking away peaceful temper of the frugivorous Asiatic, is strongly con || the life, of any animal, both sexes of the Hindoos are strictly trasted with the ferocious temper of the earnivorous European. prohibited by their religion. Among the Wallachians, though
ROUSSEAU. there is no positive institution to the contrary, yet the
women never destroy the life of any creature. Whether this
custom were founded by some of their antient legislators, or 124. [Acts. xv. 20.] The Tartars, who live wholly on ani whether it originated from incidental circumstances, is uncernal food, possess a degree of ferocity of mind, and fierceness tain; but however that be, nothing can be more suitable to of character, which form the leading feature of all carnivorous the gentleness and timidity, which form the most beautiful animals. On the other hand, an entire diet of vegetable mat | and engaging part of the female character. ter, as appears in the Bralımin and Gentoo, gives to the dis Dr. W. Alexander's History of Women, vol.i. p. 366. position a gentleness, softness, and mildness of feeling, directly the reverse of the former character: it has also a particular influence on the powers of the mind, producing liveliness of 130.
So abhorrent were the antient Athenians imagination, and acuteness of judgment, in an eminent degree. | from the destroying of any kind of animals, that a woman, See Sir John SINCLAIR's Code of Health, vol. i. pp. 423, 11 named Clymene, was deemed guilty of a very criminal act, 429.
from her having, without design, killed a log.
See PORPHYRY, de Abstinentia, lib. ii. chap. 9.
125. — The man who sheds the blood of an ox or of a sheep, will be habituated more easily than another 131. The first and principal commandment of the reto witness the effusion of that of his fellow creatures; inhu- ligion of Brahmah is, not to kill any living creature whatever. manity takes possession of bis soul; and the professions, Lord's Discoverie of the Banian Relig. 1630, p. 41. whose object is to sacrifice animals for the purpose of supply
Orpheus our pray’rs prescrib’d, and holy rites, ing the necessities of men, impart to those who exercise them
And abstinence from murder.a ferocity, which their relative connexions with society but
Aristophones, in his Frogs. imperfectly serve to mitigate. Encyclopedie Methodique, tome 7. part I. livraison 65., translated into the Code of Health, vol. iji. p. 283. 132.
Moulana Nasereddin Amer (improperly called Tamerlane), one of the most venerable doctors of the
court of Timour, could never consent so much as to kill a 126. [Exod. xx. 13.] In the East Indies the Pegu Clergy single sheep. teach, that charity is the most sublime virtue, and therefore
Hist. of Timur-Bec, vol. ii.p. 54. ought to be extensive enough to reach not only to the human species, but even to animals : wherefore they neither kill nor eat any; and they are so benevolent to mankind, that they 133.
Accordingly, the Indian Brahmins neither cherish all alike, making no exception on account of Religion. eat nor kill any sort of animal ; and it is certaiu they have (See CAPTAIN HAMILTON, in Pinkerton's Coll. part xxxiii. not done it for more than two thousand years. p. 426.)-In Cambia, the Indians will kill nothing, nor have
See Dr. CLARKE's Fleury, p. 87. any thing killed: they consequently eat no flesh, but live on roots, rice, fruits and milk. See Fitch, in Pinkerton's Coll. vol. ix. p. 408, &c. 134.
There are other Indians, says HERODOTUS, who have a particular grain, nearly of the size of millet, which
the soil spontaneously produces, and which is protected by a 127. - India, in fact, of all the regions of the earth, calyx, the whole of this they bake and cat. is the only public theatre of justice and tenderness to brutes, H
Thalia, n. 100.
135. [Exod. xxix. 13.] The Hindoos never open the (dead) || 142. [Prov. xxii. 6.] When children are barbarous towards body of man or beast; nor can they bear the sight of such innocent animals, they will soon become the same towards nen. au operation.
Caligula, before imbruing his hands in human blool, had See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi. p. 273. || made a practice of destroying flies. It may be said that the
moral behaviour of man to man commences in some measure
with that of an infant towards insects. Never, therefore, let 136. [Exod. xx. 13.] Even the beasts of the earth never || a child acquire a truth by means of a vice, nor extend its unkill and devour one another, but when they are impelled by derstanding at the expense of its heart. Let it not study the hunger or by self-defence.
| laws of nature in the pangs of sentient beings, but rather in SWEDENBORG's Theology, 11. 198. || the succession of their enjoyments.
St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, vol. i. p. 411.
137. (1 Kings iv. 22, 23.] As a proof however, of the havock comunitted by more savage man on the creatures of his prey, it is said that, at Paris, there are four thousand sellers of oysters, and that fifteen hundred large oxen, and above sixteen thousand sheep, calves, or hogs, besides a prodigious quantity of poultry and wild fowls, are eaten there every day.
See Bayle's Dict. Artic. Ovid.
138. [Deut. xxii. 6,7.) But some Turks, excessively pitiful and good-natured toward dumb creatures, buy birds on purpose to let them fly away, and return to the liberty of the woods and open air.
See Smith's Remarks on the Turks, p. 103.
143. [Gen. ix. 4, 5.) There is of all the multitude not one man in ten, but what will own (if not brought up in a slaughter-house) that, of all trades, he could never have been a butcher; and I question, whether ever any person so much as killed a chicken, without reluctancy, the first time. Some people are not to be persuaded to taste of any creatures they have daily seen and been acquainted with, while they were alive; others extend their scruple no farther than to their own poultry, and refuse to cat what they fed and took care of themselves. Yet all of them will feed heartily and without remorse on beef, mutton, and fowls, when they are bought in the market. In this behaviour, there appears something like a consciousness of guilt; it looks as if they endeavoured to save themselves from the imputation of a crime (which they know sticks somewhere), by removing the cause of it as far as they can from themselves :-it is sufficient to demonstrate, that we are born with a repugnancy to the killing, and consequently, to the cating of animals.
MANDEVILLE's Fable of the Bees, vol. i. p. 188.
- And the Philosopher Xenocrates, a severe and rigid moralist, gave numerous proofs of the benevolence and humanity of his disposition toward all creatures. One instance may be here particularly worthy the notice of young persons. A sparrow, pursued by a hawk, flew to him for refuge: he sheltered it in his bosom, and released it as soon as the danger was over.
Sec Ælian, b. 13, c. 31.
140. (Exod. xx. 13.] Though the Indian women breed fowl and other domestic animals in their cottages, they never eat them : and even conceive such a fondness for them that they will not even sell them, much less kill them with their own hands ; so that if a stranger, who is obliged to pass the night in one of these cottages, offers ever so much money for a fowl, they refuse to part with it. ULLOA's Voy. to S. America in Pinkerton's Coll. part lviii.
144. [Prov. xii. 10.] Moses taught gentleness and humanity so effectually, in preserving life, that he has not despised the care of brute beasts; permitting no other than a regular use of them, and forbidding every other : and if any of them, adds JOSEPHUS, come to our houses, like supplicants, we are forbidden to slay them : nay, we are obliged, even in an enemy's country, to spare and not kill those creatures that labour for mankind.
JOSEPHus against Apion, b. ii. $ 30.
The man, who perceives in his own soul the Supreme Soul present in all creatures, acquires equanimity toward them all, and shall be absorbed at last in the highest Essence, even in that of the Almighty Himself.
Conclusion of the laws of Menu.
Look at a young child, who is told that the chicken, which it has fed and played with, is to be killed. Are not the tears it sheds, and the agonies it endures, the voice of nature itself crying within us, and pleading the cause of humanity ? We cannot hear even a fly assailed by a spider without compassion ;-without wishing to relieve its distress, and to repel its enemy. This is, among civilized men, an essential property of human nature; and as such, it ought surely to be a law to man ;-a guide of human conduct.
Dr. LAMBE's Additional Reports orr Regimen, p. 245.
147. - The Asiatics, in general, but particularly || not believe it ; it seems to me that their numbers would not the Arabians, have been long renowned for their kind and auginent in the proportion which is apprehended: if, on the merciful treatment of beasts, rarely or never correcting their one hand, we now consume them with our teeth, on the horses either with whip or spur.
other, we might then abandon our schemes and inventions G. NICHOLSON, on the primeval Diet of Man, &c. p. 169. for augmenting the means of propagation. Let nature follow
her own course with regard to all that lives. I am told that
they would destroy each other :-In the first place, the two 148.
Goodness, indeed, ever moves in a larger || objections cannot exist together; if they would destroy each sphere than justice: the obligations of law and equity reach only other, their numbers would not be excessive. And what is to mankind, but kindness and beneficence should be extended this mutual destruction to me? Who has constituted me to creatures of every species; and these still flow from the | dictator of the realms of nature? Why am I umpire between breast of a well-natured man, as streams that issue from the the inistress and her servants ? Because two chickens fight living fountain. A good man will take care of his horses and till one dies, am I obliged to worry one of them to prevent dogs, not only while they are young, but when old and past their engagement ? Exquisite and well imagined humanity! service. Thus the people of Athens, when they had finished | On the other hand let precautions be adopted against famine, the temple called Hecatompedon, set at liberty the beasts of when experience shall have shewn the necessity of them; in burden that had been chiefly employed in that work, suffering | the mean while, we are not called upon to bury in our bowels them to pasture at large, free from any further service. It is the carcases of animals, which, a few hours before, lowed or said, that one of these afterwards came of its own accord to bleated ;--to flay alive and to dismember a defenceless creawork, and putting itself at the head of the labouring cattle, ture-to pamper the unsuspecting beast which grazes before marched before them to the citadel ; this pleased the people, us, with the single view of sucking his blood and grinding and they made a decree that it should be kept at the public his bones—and to become the uunatural murderers of beings, charge as long as it lived.
of whose powers and faculties, of whose modes of commuPLUTARCH's Lives, vol. ii. p. 310. nication and mutual intercourse, of whose degree of sensi
bility and extent of pain and pleasure we are necessarily and
fundamentally ignorant. The calamity does not appear to me 149.
But animals, in our degenerate age, are to be sufficiently ascertained, which warrants so barbarous a every day perishing under the hands of barbarity, without proceeding, so violent a remedy, upon suspicion and by antinotice, withont mercy; famished, as if hunger were no evil; cipation.—That the human body cannot suffer from abstimauled, as if they had no sense of pain ; and hurried about nence I am well convinced ; and the mind, I am firmly perincessantly from day to day, as if excessive toil were no suaded, must gain by it.” plague, or extreme weariness were no degree of suffering.
See his Life and Remains, p. 215. Surely the sensibility of brutes entitles them to a milder treatment, than they usually meet with from hard and inthinking wretches. Man ought to look on them as creatures 151. [Gen. ix. 2-6.] There exists within us a rooted under his protection, and not as put into his power to be tor repugnance to the spilling of blood. Had nature intended mented. Few of them know how to defend themselves man to be an animal of prey, would she have implanted in against him as well as he knows how to attack them. For a his breast a principle so adverse to her purpose ? The feelman therefore to torture a brute, shews a meanness of ings of the heart point more unerringly than the dogmas and spirit (particularly, if he is slaughtering it for the table). subtilties of men who sacrifice to custom the dearest sentiSee Dean on the future Life of Brutes. inents of humanity.
NICHOLSON. O mortals, from your fellows' blood abstain,
Nor taint your bodies with a food profane : 150. The celebrated Mr. John Twendell in one
While corn and pulse by nature are bestow'd, of bis letters thus expresses himself: "I no longer eat flesh And planted orchards bend their willing load; meat, nor drink fermented liquors. As for the latter, it is While labour'd gardens wholesoine herbs produce, merely because I do not believe that they can ever be good for And teeming vines afford their gen'rous juice; the constitution, and still more especially with a vegetable Nor tardier fruits of cruder kind are lost, diet. With regard to the flesh of animals, I have many times
But tam'd with fire, or mellow'd by the frost; thought on the subject. I am persuaded we have no other
While kine to pails distended udders bring, right, than the right of the strongest, to sacrifice to our And bees their honey redolent of spring; monstrous appetites the bodies of living things, of whose
While earth not only can your needs supply, qualities and relations we are ignorant. Different objections
But, layish of her store, provides for luxury : which struck me, as to the probability of good from the A guiltless feast administers with ease, universality of this practice, have hitherto held me in indeci. And without blood is prodigal to please. sion. I doubted whether, if this abstinence were universal,
When man his bloody feasts on brutes began, the animals, which we now devour, might not devour, in
He after forg'd the sword to murder man. their turn, the fruits and vegetables reserved for our suste
Ovid's Metamorphoses, b. xv. ll. 101, 145, 163. nance. I do not know whether this would be so-but I do
|| but takes body to itself : thus soul and body, though they THE ADAMIC COVENANT.
be two distinct things, are still one man.
SWEDENBORG, on the Athanasian Creed, n. 16. (Gen. ii 7.) And the LORD God formed Man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives, and man became a living soul.
159. - The Elohim made man of such atoms as
are in other animals,-a body with such dispositions as are in 152. (Gen. ii. 3.] The Hebrew language being destitute other brutes, to live as they live, &c.-What he infused was of compounded verbs, the words made and created are equi qualified to reason, and return to be accountable to lim, valent with made anew or created anew.
who gave it. This being, thus compounded of beast and of See Dr. Taylor's Hebrew Concordance. something little inferior to angel, had in this state of trial,
the essential properties of each : the beast in man was fur
nished with all the organs of a beast, and liable to all the 163. [Gen. ij. 7, 8.] As the new-created earth was with necessities, appetites and accidents of a beast; the other out form and void ; so mankind, after they had been created part, even here, had all the powers that an angel has, only, male and female, still needed, we learn, the communicated whilst united to the material body, it was not admitted to influences of God's spirit to form their understandings by immediate perceptions of God, or of things in the angelic His wisdom, and to fill their hearts with His love, until, so | state. Here was a double creature to be provided for. inspired with the breath of lives, each became, interiorly, a
Introduc. to Moses' sine Principio, pp. xlvii, xlviii, cxiv; living soul. John xx. 22.
160.—That mind and body often sympathize
Is plain : such is this union nature ties :
But then as often too they disagree, 154. Thus the Adam of Glory came into con
Which proves the soul's superior progeny. junction with the Man of earth. 2 Cor. v. 17.
Sometimes the body in full strength we find,
Whilst various ails debilitate the mind;
The body sinks with sickness and with pains : 155, The natural mind derives its form, partly,
Now did one common fate their beings eud, from substances of the natural world; but the spiritual mind,
Alike they'd sicken, and alike they'd mend. solely, from substances of the spiritual world. This mind
JENYNS' Works, col. ii. p.31. is conserved in its integrity by the Lord, that a man may become mau; for he is born animal, but made man. SWEDENBORG's Divine Love, n. 270.
161. (Gen. ii. 18.) And the Lord God said, It is not
good that man should be alone; I will make him a help 156. (Gen. ii. 5) There is in every thing spiritual an meet for him. I Cor. xii. 28. endeavour to clothe itself with body. What flows from the
That marriage is of divine appointment spiritual world into the natural contributes, essentially, to and institution, is taught in the plainest manner by our Lord, the production of vegetables and animals. Nature is only in Matt. xix. 4, 5, 6: where He says, “ Have ye not read, subservient in fixing what spiritually flows forth from God. that He who made mankind at the beginning, made them
Ibid. nn. 343, 344. | male and female ? and said, For this cause shall a man leave
father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife ; and they
twain shall be one flesh. Wherefore they are no more twain, 157.
Though death be permanent on the earth, life but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let may be said to descend in an uninterrupted current from heaven. | not man put asunder.”
A vegetable spark of life, descending from above, may be The husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the introduced into the seed contained in the germen, may call head of the church, and he is the saviour of the body. For it into a state of growth, and augment its size both without we are members of the Lord's spiritual body, the church, and within, until, the plant being arrived at its complete of His flesh and of his bones. Eph. v. 23, 30.—Rev. xxi. bulk and term of existence, the animating principle returns 2,9. As many as received him, to them gave he power to upto the place from whence it came.
become sons of God. John i. 12. St. PIERRE's Harmonics of Nature, vol. i. p. 143.
162. (Gen. ij. 21, 22.] “ It appears in anatomy, that the 158. (Gen. ii. 7.] The soul does not convert itself into | ribs of man and woman are equal." body, nor commix itself with body so as to become body, I
Sir KENELM DIGBY. 163.
Though men may improve their heads in the company of their own sex, we may affirin, that the company and conversation of women alone is the proper school for the heart. Should any one doubt the truth of this, let him turn over a few volumes of the history of any of those natious, where the sexes live excluded from each other, and he will meet with the most ample conviction.
Dr. W. ALEXANDER's History of Women, vol. i. p. 319.
pheasant of China ; in short a number of the animals and products which constitute leading objects of European luxury, are produced in Asia.
St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, vol. iii. p. 57.
How happy must it be,
Tartary, in its greatest extent, is situate between fifty-seven and one hundred and sisty degrees of longitude ; and between the thirty-seventh and fifty-fifth degrees of latitude : being bounded on the north by Siberia ; on the west, by the rivers Don, the Wolga, and Kama; on the south by the Euxine and Caspian seas, Korazm, the two Bukharias, China, and Korea ; and on the east, by the Oriental or Tartarian ocean. From this account it appears, that Tartary, or Great Tartary, as we call it, is a vast region situate almost in the middle of Asia, and extending the whole length of it, in that part from west to east, the space of one hundred and four deyrees in longitude, or four thousand one hundred and forty-five geographical miles : but its breadth is not proportionable; being not more than nine hundred and sixty miles where broadest, and, where nar. rowest, three hundred and thirty. Again: this vast region is divided into two great parts; the one called the Western, the other the Eastern Tarlary: which latter is scarcely one-fourth part so large as the former; beginning at about the one hundred and thirty-ninth degree of longitude, and ending at the one hundred and sixty-first. Hence it contains only twenty-two degrees of longitude, or is but nine hundred geographical miles from west to east, though eight hundred and eighty broad, from south to north.
Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p.8.
There is in the neighbourhood of Benares a large country, where what is called the golden age still exists. We find indeed among the institutions of all antient
nations, the saturnalian festivals ; that commemoration of a PARADISE.
period when men were equal and happy; that picture of the
golden age, which owes its effect in no degree to the art of 164. (Gen. ii. 8.) And the Lord God planted a garden, contrast, but where virtue displays itself alone in a pure and eastward in Eden.
gentle light, without the mixture of the lightest shade. Asia, the first peopled of the four 'quar The nations where the remembrance of this age still exists, ters of the globe, may likewise be said to be marked by the are colonies of a more antient people. traits of advanced years. She unites the advantages of the
I have met with facts, says M. BAILLY, which satisfy me three other quarters by the varieties of her climate; Cochine that this primitive light in Asia might have first shone under china and Siam being as moist as America; Hindostan as || the parallel of from 49° to 50°. warm as Africa; Persia, and a part of Tartary, as temperate
Antient Hist. of Asia, vol. i. pp. 44, 107, 112, 197. as Europe. In many parts of Asia the soil is elevated, the sky clear, the air pure and dry. Nature has collected there that wealth which in other parts lies in a scattered state; 167.
There is preserved a noble monument of and she seems to have put, in the productions of each king- | foreign teachers, of an alien philosophy, and, indeed, of indom of Nature, species of a superior quality to those that struction received in India, without a single vestige of subare found in other countries of the world. The steel of Da sequent progress; viz. the Sanscrit; a learned language, mascus, the gold and copper of Japan, the pearls of Ormus, which was abandoned by the people who spoke it, to a people the diamonds of Golconda, the rubies of Pegu, the spiceries who do not so much as understand it. Thus the Sanscrit is of the Moluccas, the cotton, muslin, and rich dyes of India, a monument of their actual existence, and a trace perfectly the coffee of Mocha, the tea, the porcelain, and the silks of preserved of their passage into India. China, the fleecy goat of Angora, and the richly plumed |
Ibid. vol. ii. pp. 9, 13, 14