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1708. [Gen. xxiii. 9. The cave of Machpelah] As Machpelah signifies double, Junius, Munster, and others, have thought there were two apartments in this sepulchre; one for Sarah, the other for Abraham : the dead being thus separated, as the women were from the men in the Eastern parts.

1702. [Gen. xxii. 13.] BARTRAM found Grape-Vines of a peculiar species entangled in shrubs or under-growth on extensive open plains in America; the bunches of fruit were very large, as were the grapes that composed them : when ripe. they are of various colors, and their juice sweet and rich. These grape-vines do not climb into high trees, but creep along from one low shrub to another, extending their branches to a great distance horizontally round about; and it is very pleasing to behold the clusters pendant froin the vives, almost touching the earth ; indeed some of them lie on the ground.

Trav. p. 398.

1709. [ - 10. Ephron dwelt] Isheb (Hebr.), sat ; implying that he sat in their council. He appears to have been a great ruler among the Hethites, as Abraham requested others to address him, v. 8.

1703. — Compelled for ever to wander, and not always being able to transport the whole of their provisious, the Laplanders place them in magazines erected in the midst

1710.

The Arabs to this day hold their of the woods, with four stakes supporting a roof. — Urged

courts of justice in an open place, under the heavens, as in by necessity, and to appease his hunger, a Laplander eats in a field, or a market-place. these magazines whatever he chooses, but never carries any

See NORDEN's Trao. in Egypt, thing away. – At the distance of some paces from the cot

vol. ii. p. 140. of the Lapland-mountaineer stands a certain vessel, called in Lapland Lodavve, raised on beams set on end, where rein-deer skins, &c. are put upon cross-placed boughs of

1711.

If we credit the account the Creeks various trees. PINKERTON's Coll. part ii.

give of themselves, this place (or site of a town on the

Oakmulge fields) is remarkable for being the first town or setpp. 374, 393,

tlement, when they sat down (as they term it) or established

themselves, after their emigration from the west, beyond the 1704. [ 14.] The Lord's influx immediately from N Mississippi, Their original native country. Himself into the will and thought of man, and mediately

BARTRAM's Trav. p. 53. through heaven into the several things which befall him, constitute conjunctively what may properly be called PROVIDENCE. The Lord's Providence is conjoined with foresight. 1712.

13.) The Orientals seem to have had the Evil things are foreseen ; and good things, provided. same notion about burying places which prevailed among the

What is called Fortune is from the influx of Providence Greeks and Romans, namely, that it was ignominious to be in the ultimates of order (or through the heavens).

buried in another's ground; and therefore every family, the SWEDENBORG's Arcana, nn. 6480, poorer sort excepted, had a sepulchre of their own, nor would 6489, 6494. suffer others to be interred in them.

Le CLERC

1705. [Gen. xxiii. 2.] Kirjath-arba, the city of four; namely (Ch. xiv. 24) Aner, Esbcol, Mamre; and Ephron, who in particular is said to have a city here, v. 10, 18.

1713. [- 15.] Four hundred shekels amount to twenty four pounds sixteen shillings and three-pence. Isai. vii. 23.

See No. 585.

1706. [ 2-5.] In this way D' Arvieux, travelling with a party to an Emir's camp, halted to dine under a tree at the entrance of a village; the shaik sent them eggs, butter, curds, honey, olives, and fruit.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. ii. p. 480.

1714. - 16. In the audience of the sons of Heth] Abraham could not purchase from Ephron the Hittite, but · in a public city-gate, where certain governors and elders regularly attended to hear complaints, administer justice, make conveyances of titles and estates, and transact all the affairs of the place. (See Gen. xxxiv. 20. Ruth iv. 1, &c.) - The shekel of silver being equivalent to three shillings of English money, Abraham paid for this his purchase sixty pounds sterling. Gen. xxiv. 22.

Unider. Hist. vol. ii. p. 379.

1707. [ 4.] It is still a custom with the Mahometans, to pray at the tombs of their ancestors.

PIETRO Delle Valle. - Pin

kerton's Coll. vol. ix. p. 113.

1715. [Gen. xxiji. 16.] The practice of weighing money is 11 1721. [Gen xxiv. 11.] To finish the day, in the evening the general in Syria, Egypt, and all Turkey. No piece, however | Moorish women in Barbary are still to fit themselves with a etfaced, is refused there: the merchant draws out his pitcher or goat-skin, and tying their sucking children behind scales, and weighs it, as in the days of Abraham, when he ll them, trudge it in this manner two or three miles to fetch purchased his sepulchre. In considerable payments, an agent water. of exchange is sent for, who counts paras by thousands, rejects See No. 543, 538.

Shaw's Trav. p. 421. pieces of false money, weighs all the sequins, either separately or together. (Volney's Trav. vol. ii. p. 425.) — The merchants of Mocha, finding it too troublesome to count all the money, receive payment of great sums by weight, and 1722. [ 19.) The Arabs are sometimes so disthe seraf, or broker of the Imam, often examines the weights

tressed for water, that they quench their thirst from the of the other brokers, or merchants.

bowels of the camels which they kill for the purpose. These See No. 586. Niebuhr's Trav. vol. i. p. 191.

aniinals, wbich never drink above twice or thrice in a year, and which eat only dried plants, have in general a prodigious

quantity of water in their stomachs; but it is by no means 1716.- 18. Before the city] In Arabia the walls pleasing to the taste. of the ordinary houses are of mud mixed with dung; and

BRISSON. the roof is thatched with a sort of grass which is there very common. Around by the walls within is a range of beds made of straw, on which, notwithstanding their simplicity,

1723. [--- 22.) Negem zahab (Hebr.), a nose-ring; a person may either sit or lie commodiously enough, Such

universally worn by young women, through all parts of a house is not sufficiently large to be divided into separate

Arabia and Persia, in the left nostril. apartments; it has seldom windows, and its door is only a

Dr. A. CLARKE, straw mat. When an Arab has a family and cattle, he builds for their accommodation several such huts, and incloses the whole with a strong wooden fence. The cities of Arabia therefore, cannot in population be proportionate to their 1724. [- - 53.] Keley (Hebr.), vessels, or instru. extent.

ments; given in the way of dowry.
Ibid p. 255. Migdonoth (Hebr.), exquisite fruits.
See No. 550.

Ibid. See Deut, xxxiii, 13,

14, 15, 16. 1717. [— 19, 20.] All sepulchres, when once a body was interred therein, were esteemed as religious and sacred, and were not to follow the possession of the field.

1725. - When an African lady ofcousequence is Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. viii. p. 65.

in full dress, the gold about her person may be worth, altogether, from fifty to eighty pounds sterling.

Mungo PARK.

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brother by the father's side, or her father's brother, should | 1734. [Gen. xxv. 1.] Abraham had various wives or regive her away.

ligious women at his different places of worship. His first Petiti Leges Atticæ, vi. I, 4. | altar was at Mamre where Sarah died and was buried,

- See Smith's MICHAELIS, ch. xii. 6, 7. xxiii. 19. His second, at Beer-sheba, where
vol. i. p. 445.

Hagar and Ishinael worshipped, ch. xxi. 33. His third, at
Gerar, where he probably stationed Keturah; ch. xx.

1, 15.
1729. [Gen. xxiv. 59.] The nurse in an Eastern family is
always an important personage. Modern travellers inform

li 1735. [

2.] wh

2.) When the first stone of a building is us, that in Syria she is considered as a sort of second parent,

laid, a city or house is said (by astrologers) to be born. whether she have been foster-mother or not. She always ac

See Dr. GREGORY's Description of companies the bride to her husband's house, and ever remains

the Terrestrial Globe, p. 298. there, an honoured character. Siege of Acre, b. ii. p. 35, note,

1736. [- 8.] — And fall of days. Gen. xxxv. 29.

Sanctioned by several of KenNICOTT's and de Rossi's 1730. - These women are not like the temporary MSS.; by the Samaritan text, Septuagint, Vulgate, nurses in Europe, but such as Savary mentions in Egypt, Syriac, Arabic, Persic, and Chaldee. - On these auand common in the respectable families of Hindostan, where thorities days might be safely admitted into the text. peculiar circumstances may require a female of that descrip.

Dr. A. Clarke. tion, who is uot regarded as a stranger, but becomes one of the family, and passes the remainder of her life in the midst of the children she has suckled, by whom she is honoured and

1737.

Abraham's body was deposited with his cherished like a second mother.

wife's alone ; his ancestors had been buried, not here in FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, Canaan, but in Chaldea; he was therefore, as to the spirit, vol. iii. p. 134.

gathered to the spirits of his people, — to the church of the first-born, whose names are written in heaven. Heb.

xii. 13. 1731. [ 65.1 Ha-tsaâif (Hebr.), a veil-surtout ; thrown over the whole person.

1738. [- 18.) And he dwelt from Havilah to Shur,

that before Egypt, as you go towards Assyria : he dwelt 1732. - When the Persian women go abroad they in the presence of all his brethren. are from head to foot covered with a white veil, which

DODD. shews nothivg but their eyes : this veil is commonly all of one piece. Le BRUYN's Trav. in Persia,

1739.

25.]. The complexion of the American vol. i. p. 214.

Indians is of a reddish brown or copper-color; their hair long, lank, coarse, and black as a raven, reflecting also

the like lustre at different exposures to the light. 1733. Veils probably were at first assumed as a

BARTRAM's Trad. p. 481, defence or protection against the sun, dust, &c. — During a part of the rear, it is not possible to go abroad into the streets of Pekin without having the face covered with a veil, 1740. [ 30.] The Hebrew compound halhiteni, on account of the sand with which the air is loaded. (St. occurring only in this place, there is some doubt respecting Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. i. p. 211.) – When its true interpretation. The Septuagint render the word ISBRAND IDEs arrived on the frontiers of China, at that part geuson me, fac me gustare. The Samaritan reads give me of the crest of the Asiatic Continent which is the most ele much of it. The Arabic intimates that he asked for the vated, “Every day," says he, “at noon regularly, there thickest of the pottage. blows a strong gust of wind for two hours together, which

See Univer, Hist. vol. ii. p. 125. joined to the sultry heat of the sun, parches the ground lo such a degree, that it raises a dust almost insup. portable.

1741. (- 34. He did eat and drink] Profanely, of See No. 552.

Journey from Moscow to China, the first-fruits which Jacob was preparing for sacrificial or chap xi.

sacramental uses. See Lev. xxiii. 14 compared with Heb. xii. 16.

See No. 520, 519, 525, 617, 526.

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1747. [Gen: xxvii. 1.] Dr. Rush, in his Medical Inquiries and Observations, p. 312, mentions a case equally extraordinary :- Adam Riffile of Pennsylvania, about the 68th year of his age, without siekness, it seeins, gradually lost his sight, and continued entirely blind for the space of twelve years; at the end of which period, his sight fully returned to its wonted vigor ; without the use of any appropriate means, and without any visible change in the appearance of his eyes.

See Sinclair's Code of Health,

dol.i. p 72.

1753. - 29. Be lord over thy brethren] It does not appear that Jacob had more than one natural brother, therefore his brethren the priesthood must be meant.

See No. 521, 528, 893, 521, 892, 894, 518, 529, 932.

1748.

About the age of 36, remarks the ingenious Dr. WATERHOUSE, the lean man usually becomes fatter, and the fat man leaner. Again, between the years 43 -- 4 and 50, his appetite fails, his complexion fades, and his tongue is apt to be furred on the least exertion of hody or mind. At this period his muscles become Alabby, his joints weak, bis spirits droop, and his sleep is imperfect and unrefreshing. After suffering under these complaints, a year, #

1754. [Gen. xxviii. 12.) And Jacob dreamed, and be hold a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven : and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.

In the cave of Mithra was a ladder with seven steps, representing the seven spheres of the planets, by means of which souls ascended and deseended. And in the French king's library, there is a superb volume of pictures of the Indian gods, in which the ladder is represented with the souls of men mounting it. John i. 51.

VOLNEY.

1755. (Gen. xxviii. 17.). This is none other but the amount in number to twenty-eight, according to the Indian, house of God; and this is the gate of heaven.

to only twenty-seven, mansions. The expression occurs From this, compared with other frequently in holy writ, often in the former sense, and some passages of Sacred Scripture, there is reason to conclude, times even in the astronomical allusion of the word. In the that religion shifts her seat from place to place on the foruncr acceptation we read, in Esther ii. 19, of the Jew surface of the earth, regularly according to the precession Mordecai sitting in the King's Gate; in Lam. v. 14, of the equinoxes. — By the observations of Aristarchus, that the elders have ceased from the Gate: and in Ruth Eusodus, Hipparchus, Ptolemy, Copernicus, Halley, and iii. 2, it is used in a sense remarkably figurative ; all the other excellent astronomers, antient and modern ; it is Gate (that is house) of my people know thou art virtuous. proved, that the axis of the earth rolls without ceasing, In the second acceptation, the word as well as the attendant always parallel to itself, about the pole of the ecliptic, from symbol itself, to our astonishinent, occur in the account of which it is distant, in every place, twenty-three degrees and Jacob's vision of the LADDER WHOSE TOP REACHED TO a half, incliuing to the plane of the ecliptic; and that the || Heaven. A similar idea occurs in Isaiah xxxviii. 10. equinoxes by degrees proceed to the southern parts, having I shall go to the Gates of the grave ; and in Matt. xviii. 18. nothing to do with the ecliptic: — so that when the equinoxes The Gates of hell shall not prevail against it : nor is it come to the Tropic of Capricorn, there is a necessity of their impossible but our blessed Lord himself might speak in proceeding further to the Antarctic Pole, and so afterwards allusion to the popular notion of the two astronomical Gates by turning about to the Arctic. - Whence it comes to pass celestial and terrestrial, when, in Matt. vii. 13, he said, that, by little and little, and insensibly, different and different Enter ye in at the strait Gatx; for, wide is the Gate and regions are placed under the axis, and the inhabitants of the broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there zone, now frigid, are brought back and turned to the equi. be who go in thereat : because strait is the Gate and noctial line; and, at length, the place of the Arctic Pole to narrow is the way which leadcth unto life, and few there be the Antarctic, and the East to the West, which HERODOTUS that find it. These gates may, therefore, be considered as (lib. ii. cap. 142), from the sacred authority and mysterious houses or spheres, through which the soul passes in her monuments of the Egyptian priests, testifies to have hap course to the centre of light and felicity. pened formerly twice ; – though one such conversion of the See No. 532, 536. Maurice's Indian Antiquities, stars, and reduction of all parts into the same situation,

p. 319. requires a revolution of about thirty-six thousand years. — In this we perceive an admirable providence, that the same part of the earth should not be condemned to so long a cold, but that each, and every region, might partake in its time, of all the aspects of the sun ; and, at the same time, of the benigu influences of that Sun of RighTEOUSNESS, which is a light to the Gentiles for Salvation unto the ends of the

1757. [Gen. xxix. 2, 10. Watered the flocks] Dr. earth.

CHANDLER, in his Travels in the Lesser Asia, speaks of a See TOLAND's Pantheisticon,

goat's skin with the hair on made use of as a bucket, pp. 36 - 40.

which was distended by a piece of wood, to which the rope was fixed ; and which was left at a well by a benevolent peasant (who had thence drawn water for them) for their use while he was absent.

'See Harmer's Observations, vol. ii. p. 264. 1756.

The word Gate, wbich is a part of Asiatic palaces by far the most conspicuous and magnifi

In the course of the day, Captain Keys went on shore cent, and upon adorning of which immense sums are often

to the dola's and found a considerable puinber of skins filled expended, is an expression, that, throughout the East, is

with water, lying on the beach, and sheltered from the figuratively used for the mansion itself. Indeed it seems

sun by a covering of mats. These, being sent on board, to be thus denominated with singular propriety, since, as those

nearly completed the supply he wanted ; and the charge who have resided in Asiatic regions well know, it is under

proved very reasonable, as the dola demanded only one those Gales that conversations are holden, that hospitality

dollar for twenty-seven skins. to the passing traveller is dispensed, and the most important

Lord VALENTIA's Trav. in transactions in coinmerce frequently carried on. Astronomy,

Abyssinia, p. 245. deriving its birth in Asia, and exploring nature and language for new symbols, soon seized upon this allegorical expression as highly descriptive of her romantic ideas, and the title sas transferred from terrestrial houses to the spheres. 1758.

1 2 ,4.] In Arabia, and other places, they Hence, in the Arabian astronomy, those coustellations in the cover up their wells of water, lest the sand, which is put Heavens, nearest which the moon, during her monthly into molion by the wiuds, should fill up and quite stop revolution, remains every night, are called the Mansions

them. of the Moon, which, according to the Arabian computation,

CHARDINO

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