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' 1759. (Gen. xxix. 14.] Basar, commonly rendered flesh,

is amongst the Hebrews equivalent to body; and may thence have been applied to siguify relationship. Here, thou art my flesh or body, meaus, thou art my near kinsman. Gen. ii. 23.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii. See No. 161.

p. 49.

it was Rachel's Dudaim. These were brought her in the wheat-harvest, which in Galilee is in the month of May; and the Mandrake was then in fruit. This plant grows in all parts of Galilee ; but I never saw or heard any thing of it in Judea.

Travels, p. 16.

* 1760. [ 26 ] Thus, in the Code of Gentoo Laws 1 1766. [Gen. xxx. 14, 15.] Dudaim :-— Some think that this (p. 180) translated by Halhed, it is made criminal for a Il word denotes the lily, which in Syria grows in the fields, man to give his younger daughter in marriage before the land is of a most agreeable beauty and smell. elder; or for a younger son to marry while his elder brother

See Essay for a New Transremains unmarried.

tion, part ii. p. 172.

1761. [- 27, 28.] The time of seven years is here called a week by Laban and Jacob.

SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 395.

1767.

- The Japanese have their Daid-su, or daid beans; a smaller sort of beau, of the bigness of our lupines, which they grind into a meal, or boil for eating

Modern Univer. Hist.

vol. ix. p. 4.

1762. [- 35.] At Avicenna, is shewn a large building, said to be the tomb of Judah, the son of Jacob.

Gladwin's Khojeh Abdulkurreem,p. 111. See No. 540, 542, 544, 541, 545, 549, 565, 546, 551, 558, 559, 553, 548, 555, 556, 559.

1768. - In the country contiguous to some branches of the Messorie River in North Ameriea, it is said, Mandrakes are frequently found, a species of root resembling human beings of both sexes; and that these are more perfect than such as are discovered about the Nile in Nether-Ethiopia.

Carver's Travels in N.

America, p. 74.

1763. [Gen. xxx. 3. She shall bear upon my knees] Ol (Hebr.), for, Gen. xxvi. 7. Lev. iv. 3. Lam. v. 17. Amos i. 3, 6.

See No. 454. Amongst the Tartars the first man that comes to visit a lying-in woman gives a name to the child if it be a boy ; and the first woman, if it be a girl. Ever afterwards the children call these people Atai, or father; Abai, or mother. See No. 458.

History of Russia,

vol. i. p. 75.

1769.

I here took notice, says Le BRUYN, of a fruit they call Chamama, or Woman's Breast, because it is in that shape ; it is very wholesome, and of a very pleasant scent. It is not very unlike the white melons, but it is firmer, and nearly of the color of the China-orange; some of them are also of the saine size, and the Armenians told me, they grow also at Ispahan, where they are in great request, and where they carry them in the hand by way of nosegay. Some of them are of the size of a small melon, and spotted with red, yellow, and green; the seed of these is small and white : there are others which are all red. It is a grateful refreshment; which abouuds in this country.

, Vol. i. p. 164. Now if these melons were plentiful in Mesopotamia, but rare in Judea, in the days of Reuben, who by chance found some, which he brought to his mother, we have discovered, I think, a fruit which bids fairer to be the true dudaim, than any “plant of a strong nauseous smell, and unfit for eating.”

Editor of Calmet, Frag. vol. ii. p. 220. Deusingius also was of opinion, that the dudaim were a | species of melons, which perfume the hands.

See No. 456, 560, 557, 562,

1764. [ 3,4.] A woman may not adopt a child, without her husband's order: if she have her husband's consent, she may cause the Brahmins to perform a jugg (a sacrifice) for her, and may adopt the child.

Gextoo Laws.

1765. [ 14. Mandrakes] I found at Nazareth, says HASSELQUIST, a great quantity of mandrakes in a vale below the village. -- From the season in which this Mandrake blossoms and ripeus fruit, one might form a conjecture that

1770. (Gen. xxx. 32.] The color of the goat is various, 1774. (Gen. xxxi. 7.] If a man have hired a person to conbeing either black, brown, white, or spotted. The skin duct a trade for him, and no agreement be made with regard to is peculiarly well adapted for the glove-manufactory, espe wages, in that case the person hired shall receive one-tenth cially that of the kid : abroad it is dressed and made into of the profit. stockings, bed-ticks, bolsters, bed hangings in the houses, Luke xyi. 12.

Ibid. chap. ix. sheets and even shirts. As it takes a dye better than any other skin, it was formerly much used for hangings in the houses of people of fortune, being susceptible of the richest colors; and when flowered and ornamented with gold and

1775. - 10. Rams] Under this term, here and silver, became an elegant and superb furniture.

elsewhere, are comprehended the males of both sheep and Dr. Rees's Cyclopedia, |

goals. Art. Caprą.

Dr. Geddes.

1771. - In the province of Kernian in Persia, | 1776. [- 19.) Teraphim is synonymous with Chesheep's wool is all worked without dye, in its natural colors | rubim, as appears in Pet. GELATINUS, p. 366. — Compare which are of three sorts, the first brown, the second of a || also 2 Chron. xv. 3 with Hos. iii. 4. speckled gray, and the third of a milk-white: this last is the most esteemed, being employed entirely in making garments for their men of law, and priests, who wear nothing else. (PINKERTON's Coll. vol. ix. p. 372.) — These frugal and in 1777. [- 21.] The river, Euphrates :— How did he dustrious people, however, manufacture from the other two | pass this? sorts of wool, several kinds of light stuffs, which in point of beauty and lustre are not at all inferior to silk.

Ibid.

1778. [ 24. Either good or bad] From good to evil : that is, Begin not with salutations of peace, and then

use the language or acts of hostility. 1772. [ 39.] All animals may possess a tendency to be coloured somewhat like the colors they most frequently inspect. Thus the snake, the wild cat, and leopard, are so coloured as to resemble dark leaves and their lighter in

1779. 34. Rachel put them in the camel's furterstices ; birds resemble the color of the brown ground, or niture, and sat on them] The Persians hang over camels in the green hedges, which they frequent; and moths and the manner of panniers, a kind of covered chairs, which are butterflies are coloured like flowers which they rol of their Il each large enough for one person to sit in. honey.

Hanway's Trav.vol. . p. 190. The eggs of birds are so coloured as to resemble the color of the adjacent objects and their interstices. The eggs of hedge-birds are greenish with dark spots; those of crows and magpies are white with dark spots, and those of larks 1780. ( 39.) When a person is employed, night and partridges are russet or brown, like their nests or and day, in attending cattle, if one of them, by his fault, situations.

should be hurt, he shall nake it good. Our domesticated animals lose their natural colors, and

Halhet's Gentoo Laus, p. 150. break into great variety, as horses, dogs, pigeous. See No. 987,891.

Dr. Darwin's Zoonomia,
sect. xxxix. 5. I.

1781. 1 -40.] The men and women till the lands, and gather in the crops in all Nordland. — But a single night has often cropped the whole; and when the colonist rises in the morning he finds the grass withered, the corn-ears

blemished, his labor lost, and his hopes destroyed by the frost, 1773. (Gen. xxxi. 7. Ten times] Froin tenths. — If a in the middle of summer. — These sudden and unforeseen person be hired to attend cattle, he shall receive one-tenth frosts bappen from the end of July to the beginning of Auof the inilk. If the person be hired for agriculture, one gust, the hottest part of the year. - I am of opinion, says tenth of the crop. If be plow the ground, receiving vic the intelligent EHRENMALM, that this destructive phenomenon toals, one-fifth of the crop; if be receive no victuals, one may arise from the vapors of the acid waters which are in the third.

soil. When this vapor, he observes, rises in fogs, it dissi. : Halaet's Gentoo Laws, p. 140. pales, and occasions no injury ; but when it cannot exbale

with sufficient strength, it is attracted by the corn, stops | there, and blights it ju a single night.

Pinkerton's Coll. part ii.

pp. 355, 356.

1787. (Gen. xxxii. 1.] The word angel comes from the Greek angelos, which literally signifies, a messenger, or as translated in some of our Bibles a tidings-bringer. The Hebrew word malak, from laac, to send, minister to, employ, is nearly of the same import; it is a name, not of nature but of office, and hence it is applied indifferently to a human agent or messenger, 2 Sam. ii. 5. xi. 19, 22, 23, 25. Prov. xiii. 17. — to a prophet, Hagg. i. 13. — to a priest, Mal. ii. 7. Compare Eccles. ii. 6. — to celestial spirits, Ps. ciii. 19, 20, 22. civ. 4. cxlviii. 2, 3, 4. Job iv. 18.

Dr. A. CLARKE.

1782. [Gen. xxxi. 40.] In Pennsylvania, there are nightly frosts every month in the year, except in July; and even in that month when the heat is greater than at any other time of the year, there intervene days in which a fire is found very agreeable.

A much greater degree of heat can be borne without inconvenience, where the air is dry, than where it is moist; consequently on mountains, rather than in vallies.

After the extreme hot days of America, as soon as the sun is down, heavy dews generally fall, and the night becomes very cold.

Dr. RETTBNWOuse, as quoted in Weld's Trav. in N. America, vol. i. pp. 249, 250, 252.

1788. [- 24, &c.] Dr. Geddes justly supposes this rencounter with the Angel of the Lord to have been in a dream.

1789. [- 29.] After my Name, ho esti thaumaston (Grk.), which is Wonderful. Isai. ix. 6. Judges xiji. 18. - This addition is sanctioned by the Aldine edition of the Septuagint, and several MSS.

See No. 569, 577,579, 678.

1783.

In Europe the days and nights resemble each other with respect to the qualities of heat and cold; but it is quite otherwise in the East. In Lower Asia in particular, the day is always hot; and as soon as the sun is fifteen degrees above the horizon, no cold is felt in the depth of winter itself. On the contrary, in the height of summer the nights are as cold as at Paris in the month of March.

CHARDIN.

1790. [Gen, xxxiii. 13.] The great numbers of cattle belonging to the Arabs, eat up the places of their encampment so quickly, that they are obliged to remove them too oft: this is very destructive to their flocks, on account of their young oues, which have not strength enough to follow.

CHARDIN.

1784.

Among the causes restraining subterra. neous heat, are to be reckoned saltpetre and other salts. Hence in Siberia and other parts of the continent of Asia, there is a far more severe degree of cold between the degrees of latitude 55 and 60, than at Tornea in Bothnia under the latitude of 66 degrees.

WINKLER's Elements, vol. ii. p. 47,

1785. — - Col. Canpbell, travelling through the very country where Jacob had thus suffered, says, “Sometimes we lay at night out in the open air, rather than enter a town; on which occasions, I found the weather as piercing cold, as it was distressfully hot in the day time.

Travels, part ii. p. 100.

1791. [- 17. Made booths] Such as are still erected by the Bedouin Arabs, who live in tents called houses of hair, from the material they are made of. These, says Dr. Shaw, are what the Antients called Mapalia, which were then, as they are to this day, secured from the heat and inclemency of the weather, only by a covering of such haircloth as constitute our coal-saoks. Some hundreds of those tents, of an oblong figure not unlike the bottom of a ship turned upside down, are often placed in a circle and constitute a Dou-war. Gen. xxv. 27.

Trav. p. 286, folio.

1786. - Such is the extraordinary severity of the winter-cold in the mountainous country of Thibet in Asia, that below the 30th degree of latitude, it equals that of the Swiss Alps in lat. 46. See No. 566, 564,567,

Dr. Aikin's Geograph. 571, 576, 573, 575.

Delin, vol. ii. p. 71.

1792.

The Abyssinian mode of forming an encampment is simple and very convenient, where tents might prove too serious an incumbrance. On their arrival at a station, where they intend to stay any time, the men begin to cut down, with the large knives which they carry about them, a number of green boughs, and these they arrange into bowers with so inuch art, that, when a cloth is

hart, that when a cloth is il thrown over them, they afford not only shelter from the sun in the day-time, but complete protection from the cold during the night.

SALT's Voyage to Abyssinia.

1799. (Gen. xxxv. 2.] Elohey hanecar (Hebr.), the gods of the foreigners. — Jacob's servants were all Syrians ; and the Shechemites, aliens whose spoils were now in Jacob's family.

1793. (Gen. xxxiii. 18.] And Jacob came in safety to the city Shechein ; called Acts vii. 16, Sychem, and in John iv. 5, Sychar - in the Arabic it is called Nablous, and to the present day Neapolis.

See Dr. A. Clarke in loco.

1800. [ 4.] The Pagoda-tree, incorrectly described by PLINY (Nat. Hist. lib. xii. cap. 5 ) as the Indian fig. tree, rises to the height of the common chesnut, but throws out from its branches a number of fibres, which become so long that they at last hang down to the ground, where they take root and produce other trees of the same kind perfectly similar to the parent-tree. In this manner they continue till from one tree there at length arises a whole forest. The Indians are accustomed to plant such trees in the neighbour- ; hood of their temples or pagodas, to defend the people when assembled from the rain and the sun. - This tree is described by Nierenberg in his Natural History, lib. xiv. cap. 38. See BARTOLOMEO by Johnston, p. 42).

Verse 7.] Not El-beth-el, but simply Bethel. — See One of De Rossi's MSS. the Septuagint, Vulgate, Syriac, and some copies of the Arabic.

1794.

The sect of the Samaritans is now reduced to a very sinall number, the chief of which reside at Sichein, afterwards called Flavia Neapolis, and now Naplousa, the town to which inount Gerizim belongs..

Bib. Research. Introduc. p. 66.

1801. [- 8.] Rebekah’s death is not noticed, because she had undoubtedly died while Jacob was with La. ban : and either Esau kept no records, or they were not copied by Moses.

1795.

Before the city] In Arabia the walls of the ordinary houses are of mud mixed with dung; and the roof is thatched with a sort of grass which is there very common. Around by the walls within is a range of beds made of straw, on which, not withstanding their simplicity, a person may either sit or lie commodiously enough. Such a house is uot sufficiently large to be divided into separate apartments ; it has seldom windows, and its door is only a straw mat. When an Arab has a family and cattle, he builds for their accommodation several such huts, and incloses the whole with a strong wooden fence. The cities of Arabia therefore, cannot in population be proportionate to their extent. See 570, 568,580, 589. Niebuhr's Trav. vol. i.

p. 255. Eng. Edit.

1802.

In many parts of Hindostan are mosques and mausoleums, built by the Mahomedan princes, near the sepulchres of their nurses. They are excited by a grateful affection to erect these structures, in memory of those, who with maternal anxiety watched over their helpless infancy: thus it has been from time immemorial.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. ii. p. 141.

1796. Gen. xxxiv. 25.) Instead of " slew all the males," ought we not to translate cut or circumcised them ? -- See Num. xxxi. 7.

1803. [ 20. The pillar of Rachel's grave] This pillar was probably covered with epitaph hieroglyphics. – After the interment of an American Indian, the band to which the person belonged, take care to fix near the place such hieroglyphics as shall slew to future ages his merit and accomplishments.

CARVER's Trav. in N. America,

p. 263.

1797.

It came to pass on the third day] The wedding ceremonies commonly held seven days for a maid, and three days for a widow.

CALMET.

1798. 30.) Ye have troubled me, - by taking

- 14.] Nesec (Hebr.), a libation of water so large a prey ; not by cutting or circumcising the Hivites,

Il and sweet wine. The latter is, in the Levitical law, termed for that they had agreed io.

blood; sometimes, the blood of the grape. See Heb. See No. 592, 596, 695, 598, 599.

ix. 19.

Verse 16.] . But a little way', yet about a mile. || tory of Nadir Shah, p. 55. London, 1742.) – The title of Kibrath (Hebr.), a mile, occurs only here, in .ch. xlviii. 7, || Sultâu, adopted in the room of Emr, is now common to the and in 2 Kings v. 19.

Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic languages; denoting a king, Verse 18.) Be-tseath naphshah (llebr.), in the going away

prince, lord, or emperor: and is ať this day assumed by of her soul. Naphshah (Hebr.) is soul; neshem, breath;

many of the Moslem princes, as well as the Grand Seignior and ruach, spirit or breath indifferently.

both in Asia and Africa. Dr. A. CLARKE.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iii. Verse 21.} The tower of the flock. Mic. iv. 8.

p. 22, note (B). Verse 22.] And confederated with Bilhah, his father's foreign womau : and Israel heard, [and it appeared evil in his sight. Septuagint.)

1810. [Gen. xxxvi. 24. Mules] Or, according to the SamaVerse 26.] Padan-aram, Mesopotamia of Syria (Septua. ritan reading, the Emim; whom he might fall upon unex. gint) : situated between the Euphrates and Tigris, having pectedly. Assyria on the east, Arabia Deserta, with Babylonia, on

See Cleric. Comm. in loco. the south, Syria on the west, and Armenia ou the north.

Or, Univer. Hist, vol. ii. See No. 429.

p. 139.

1811.

This was that Auah who, encountered with the Emims in the wilderness.

Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. pp. 48 — 52.

1805. (Gen. xxxvi. 2.) Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah son of Zibeon, v. 24.

See Houbigant & Kennicott.

1806. 1- 2, 3, &c.] Thus, when Moses here speaks of the posterity which Esau had by his three women, he gives them new names, and new genealogies. (Compare Gen. xxvi. 34. xxviij. 9. See 1 Kings xv. 1.) - Such are the effects of adoption, that Ephraim and Manasseh, for instance, were Joseph's children or Jacob's. See Gen. xlyiii. 5.

1812. - * GERBILLON, the Jesuit, in his second journey into Tartary, saw a young wild mule, of the kind which propagates. It was a female, had large cars, a long head, slender body, and long legs ; its hair was ash-color, and its hoofs uncloven, like those of real mules.

See Coll. Voy. and Trav.

quart. vol. iv. p. 686.

" 1807. - 9.] The Edomites had under their kings
a multitude of princes, and that according to the order partly
of sons, and partly of grandsons of Edom ; consequently,
not princes who succeeded each other, but who ruled over so
many families.
Gen. xxv. 16. Num, ii. 2. Smith's MICHAELIS,

. vol. i. p. 232.

1813 - The nule produced from a horse and the ass resembles the horse externally with his ears, main, and tail; but has the nature or manners of an ass: while the Hinuus, or creature produced from a male-ass, and a mare, resembles the father externally in stature, ash-color, and the black cross, having the nature or manners of a horse. The breed from Spanish rams and Swedish ewes resembled the Spanish sheep in wool, stature, and external form ; but was as hardy as the Swedish sheep ; and the contrary of those which were produced from Swedish rams and Spanish ewes. The offspring from the male-goat of Angora, and the Swedish female-goat had long soft camel's hair ; but that from the male Swedish goat, and the female one of Angora, had 110 improvement of their wool. An English ram without horus, and a Swedish horned ewe, produced sheep without horas.

Amæn. Acad. dol. vi. p. 13.

1808.

1 1 1. Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz] These were not persons who succeeded each other in the principality ; but were the names of principalities : such as Mentz, Triers, Cologne, &c.

Ibid.

. 1809. [- 15.] The word Omrâ, the plural of Emir, is given as a title to all the nobility of the first rank, in the empire of the Mogul, and in Tartary. (See Fraser's llis

1814. [- 28 - 30.] Even these Troglodytes, who lived in the same country before the Edomites, in subterraneous habitations, and who sprang not from Abraham,

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