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but were of Canaanitish origin, had had family principalities Ñ 1821. [Gen. xxxvii. 28.) The Ishmaelites came from Gilead of the same kind, it seems, with those of the princes of I with their camels bearing slorax and resin or turpentine, and Edom, v. 9.

laudanum. Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. ||

BOCHART, Hierog.com. ii. lib. iv. cap. 11. p. 232.

8 p. 1. lib. ii. cap. 51. — See Essay for a New Translation, part ii. p. 171.

1815. [Gen. xxxvi. 31.] These are the governors who governed in the land of Edom, before there was any governor over the Israelites.

DODD.

1822.

The Midianitish merchants, who bought Joseph, had loaded their camels in Syria, with the aro, matics and other precious things they were carrying into Egypt.

Univer, Hist. vol. ii. p. 268.

1823. – Joseph's brethren indeed sold him to the

Ishmaelites. But, as the Midianites drew him out of the pit, ' 1816. [Gen. xxxvii. 10. Shall I, and thy mother, &c.] ||

Joseph knew not but that they then stole bim. Ch. xl. 15. This could not be spoken of his own mother Rachel, who had been dead some years before. The words can only apply to that matron who then represented Jacob's Church ; probably Leah.

1824. – Josephus says, he was sold for twenty pounds; the Septuagint, for twenty pieces of gold ; the He. brew and Samaritan, for twenty of silver; and the Vulgate,

for thirty. — The last, probably, is right, as being the 1817. - 25.] Opium is at this time very much regular price of a slave, and the identical sumn for which used in the East ; a custom, says Sir John Sinclair, which Jesus Christ Himself, in the fulness of time, was actually we ought to regard as a consequence of the attachment which delivered up these people have always had for original practices : therefore, he adds, I am very much inclined to believe that it is of this sort of medicine that Homer would speak under the name of

1825.
1

3 4. Jacob rent his clothes) In performing Nepenthe (Odyss. l. 4. 22, et seq.), and that in his time the Egyptians were perhaps the only people who knew its pre

this ceremony, the Jews take a knife, and holding the blade

downwards, give the upper garment a cut on the right side, paration.

Code of Health,

and then rend it a hand's breadth. This is done for the five

following relations, brother, sister, son, daughter, or wife ; vol. ii.p. 26.

but for father or mother, the rent is on the left side, and in all the garments, as coat, waistcoat, &c.

Levi's Rites and Ceremonies of

the Jews, p. 174. 1818. — Aquila translates necoth by storax. BoCHART also proves that seri signifies resin or turpentine. And J. H. Ursin bas proved that the Hebrew word loth signifies laudanum.

1826. ( 36.) An officer ; Saris (Hebr.) properly See Essay for a New Translation,

signifies a eunuch. (See Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 415.) part ii. p. 170.

Hence there is some apology for the conduct of Potiphar's wife; or, rather, an additional proof, that the wives (women) of priests were only representatives of their churches. — All

the officers in the employment of the autient kings of Egypt 1819.

were, according to DIODORUS Siculus, taken from the most - 26.] As Reuben and Judah were here, illustrious of their priesthood. probably Jacob had sent two sons belonging to each of his Matt. xix. 12.

Dr. A. Clarke. three adopted women, Leah, Billah, and Zilpah.

1827.

From this time to Israel's going down || into Egypt was only 23 years.

See No. 614.

1820. - 28.] These twenty shekels are one pound two shillings and nine-pence half-penny farthing.

SWORTH.

1828. (Gen. xxxviii. 2.] He took her as a pledge that il 1833. [Gen. xxxviii. 25.] The signet; chotemeth (Hebr.), the city of Adullam should become his future inheritance ; || that kind of seal whose impression was used to ascertain See Josh. xv. 1, 35.

property, &c. -- Verse 5.] He was at Achzib, when she bore for him ;

Dr. A. CLARKE. that is, children of her own body by her own husband, Petilim (Hebr.), from patal to twist, a torques. See for Judah as heirs of Adullain, till he or his posterity could Rev. i, 13. heir it after his father's death, &c.— Respecting Achzib, See No. 604, 606, 610, 522, 613, 609. see Josh. xv. 44. — Lest the children of this Canaanitess should presume to hold the inheritance as Judah’s natural children, Providence ordained what we should call an alibi to disprove their pretentions, by causing Judah to dwell at Achzib while she bore her three sons. — This appears to 1834. [Gen. xxxix. 4.] Nazar, seer (overlooker, or bishop) have been the antient method of holding possessions or estates is like the grand master of the king's house in Frauce. by reversion.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. v.

p. 485.

1829. [- 11. Till Shelah my son be grown] That is, till he be fully thirty years of age. — As Jesus Christ, who was a priest after the order of Melchizedek, entered not on his ministry till he began to be about thirty years of age; and as none could officiate in the Levitical priesthood, till he was thirty or upwards (Num. iv), so we may fairly conclude that at this time, throughout the country of Canaan where Melchizedek's order of priesthood was followed, perhaps by Moses, assuredly by Jesus Christ, no person could take to himself the ministration of a church before he had attained his thirtieth year, without danger of incurring the displeasure of the Almighty, or of being cut off for disobedience.

· 1835. [- 14.] A proselyte is one that comes over to a new opinion. The ceremony to denote this, was, to jump over a temporary wall, or staff, &c. See Ps. xviii. 29. 2 Sam. xxii. 30. Ephes. ii. 14. Exod. xxxii. 6. 1 Cor. x. 7.

See No. 592, 593, &c.

1836.

21.] Pererius thinks this keeper of the prison was the same Potiphar who had imprisoned Joseph for life. Indeed the Butler says it was so, Ch. xli. 10.'

1830. [- 12.] Her days being multiplied &c.

Verse 15.] A publican : Zonah (Hebr.), porne (Grk.) from pernao, to sell, one who accommodates travellers with refreshments, for money.

Verse 17.] A pledge : arabon (Hebr.), arrabon (Grk.2 Cor. i. 22. Ephes. i. 14.), a security given in hand for the fulfilment of promises.

Verse 21.] Kedeshah (Hebr.), a priestess who accommodates travellers with refreshments without money.

1837. [Gen. xl. 1, 2, &c.] There were in all the Churches instituted two chief priests : one, who was chief baker, presided over the sacramental bread-offerings; the other, as chief butler, presided over the drink-offerings, or libations of wine from the sacred cup.

1831. [- 15, 16.] Sheltering places, called choul 1838. — Shekeh (Iebr.), a cup-bearer. Opheh, tries, are erected throughout the East by charitable persons, || a cook, confectioner, &c. or munificent princes, in forests, plains, and desarts, for the accommodation of travellers. Near them is generally a well, aud a cistern for the cattle ; a brahmin, or fakeer, often resides there to furuish the pilgrim with food, and the few

1839.

Among Hindoos, the practice of cook necessaries he may stand in need of.

on public occasions is a sure mark of transcendent rank ; for FORBES' Oriental Memoirs.

every person can eat the food prepared by a person of a higher birth than himself.

BUCHANAN. Pinkerton's Coll. 1832. [- 24.] Let her be branded. (See Num.

vol. viii. p. 735. v. :18.) - In China there are certain enorunities, for which the offenders are burnt on the forehead, or on the two cheeks, with a Chinese character, signifying the crime.

1840. ( 4.) A season — yamim (Hebr.), the days Modern Univer. Hist. vol. viii. l of a year or a year of days in custody ; that is, from birth-day p. 176.

I to birth-day.

1841. (Gen. xl. 8.] 'The Egyptian priests, the first inter- bility such grapes, when pressed by the hand, were held, for preters of dreams, took their rules for this species of divina. | the sake of delicacy, in appropriate bladders, or small skintion from the symbolic learning in which they were so deeply bottles. — This juice, pressed out of a lamb-skin, calf-skin, or read; a ground of interpretation which would give the strong other bottle, was along what was ever used in any of the est credit to the art, and equally satisfy the diviner and sacrifices appointed by the law of Moses. It is there geneconsulter: for by this time it was generally believed, that rally denominated blood; sometimes, the blood of the grape. symbolic hieroglyphics, and allegorical dreams, were but See on Mark xiy. 25. different modes of expressing the same divine revelations. - As therefore hieroglyphics were become sacred, by being made the cloudy vehicle of the Egyptian theology, and as 1846. [Gen. xl. 11.] As the Antients did not ferment none but the priests preserved these sacred mysteries, the their wine, they strained what they drank, immediately before butler and baker might well be uneasy for want of an inter they lay down to table, or whilst they were at it. Two terpreter, as none could be expected in the dreary abode where instruments for this purpose, of white metal and elegant they were confined.

workmanship, are in the cabinet of Herculaneum. They are See Bp. WARBURTON's Div. made in the fashion of round and deep plates, half a palar in Legat, vol. viii. diameter, with flat handles ; one plate fitting into the other,

and the handles matching, so exactly, that when put together

they seem to make but one vessel. Into the upper vessel 1842. - Dreaming is the having of ideas, whilst

bored in a particular manner they poured the wine which was the outward senses are stopped, not suggested by any external

to be received by the under vessel, from whence they drew it objects, nor under the rule or conduct of the understanding.

to fill their drinking cups. (Locke.) – In a state of wakefulness the three faculties, Ima

WINCKELMAN's Herculaneum, p. 59. gination, Judgment, and Memory, being all active and acting in The instrument used as above the Greeks called Ethmos, union, constitute the rational man. In dream it is otherwise, | Colum Vinarium. (Ibid.) — Whence comes percolate. and therefore that state which is called insanity appears to be Acts x. 13. no other than a disunion of those faculties and a cessation of the judgment, during wakefulness, that we so often experience during sleep, and idiocity, into which some persons have

1847. [- 20.] Lifted up the head of the chief cupfallen, is thai cessation of all the facalties of which we

bearer ; that is, elevated his persou on trial, as they set can be sensible when we happen to wake before our memory

Naboth on high among the people, and set two men, sons of In dream, the re-action of reason on the imagination is

Belial, to bear witness against him, &c. suspended.

1 Kings xxi. 9, &c. . See SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 1975.

1843. - 10.] The imagination, in a dream, has no idea of time, as time. It counts only by circumstances ; and if a succession of circunstances pass in a dream that would require a great length of time to accomplish them, it will appear to the dreamer that a length of time equal thereto has

1848. - The word, here rendered lifted up the head, signifies to muster, to call to account, to take the sum of any thing. It should seem therefore, that these household-superintendants had been suspected, or accused, of cheating the king ; and that when their accounts had been examined and cast up in three days, the one was found guilty and hanged, the other cleared and re-instated in his office. See No. 315.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 420.

passed also.

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1844. - 11.) From this verse we find that wine antiently was the mere expressed juice of the grape, without fermentation, the yayin of the Hebrews, the oinos of the Greeks, and the mustum of the autient Latins.

1849. [Gen. xli. 1.] The name for river is, in Phænician, See No. 543. Dr. A. CLARKE. || nuhhul and nhhil; and, in Hebrew, nahhal.

Le Clerc. – Sce Cooke's Hesiod,

the Theogony, l. 522. 1845. - - In antient times, when only a small portion (of must) was wanted for immediate use, the juice

1850.

At the end of two years of days. was pressed by the hand out of a bunch of grapes, and immediately drunk. After this manner Pharaoh's butier was

Verse 2. the river] The Nile. accustomed to squeeze out new wine into the royal cup.

Kine) Properly, River-horses. The hippopotamus, (Dr. A. CLARKE, on the Eucharist, p. 62.) – In all proba- | or River-horse, is the well known inhabitant of the Nile,

and freqoently by night, comes out of the river to feed in
the fields, or in the sedge by the river-side.

Dr. A. CLARKE
Verse 6.] Blasted with the simoom.
Sce No. 615, 616.

1851. [Gen. xli. 18.] The scare, we are informed, will come frequently ashore, and browze on the grass that grows on the adjacent coast; and there also it will chew the cud at its leisure.

Nat. Delin. vol. iii. p. 153.

the cotton-shrub, which grows to the height of three or four feet, and in verdure resembles the currant-bosh, requires a longer time to bring its delicate produce to perfection. These shrubs, planted between the rows of rice, neither impede its growth, vor prevent its being reaped. Soon after the rice harvest is over, they put forth a beautiful yellow flower, with a crimson eye in each petal; this is succeeded by a green pod filled with a white stringy palp; the pod turns brown and hard as it ripens, and then separates into two or three divisions, containing the cotton. A luxuriant field, exhibiting at the same time the expanding blossom, the bursting capsule, and the snowy flakes of ripe cotton, is one of the inost beautiful objects in the agriculture of Hindostan. HERODOTUS says, the Indians, in his time, possessed a kind of plaut which, instead of fruit, produced wool of a finer aud better quality than that of sheep, of which the natives made their clothes : this plant was no doubt the same as the modern cotton of India.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. ii. p. 405.

1852. [ 35.] The art of feeding mankind on so small a grain as wheat, which seems to have been discovered in Egypt by the immortal name of Ceres, shewed greater ingenuity than feeding them with the large roots of potatoes, which seems to bave been a discovery of ill-fated Mexico.

See No. 618, 621, Dr. DARWIN's Zoonomia, vol. ij. 619, 620, 617, 622.

p. 670. 410 Edit.

1856. (Gen. xli. 42.] The Chinese manufacture a silk

found on trees and bushes in great plenty, which is spun by 1853. 1 4 2.] Vestures of vivid whiteness. Buts

a kind of worin, not unlike our caterpillars: the thread is (Hebr.), cotton ; bad, linen : By comparing Exod. xxv. 4. - xxvi. 1. with 2 Chron. ii 14, and Exod. xxvi. 31, with

strong, and very compact.

Modern Univer. Hist. 2 Chron. iii. 14; and Exod. xxviii. 42 with Exod. xxxix. 28,

vol. viii. p. 72. you will find shesh (Hebr.), applied equally to cotton or linen to express their bright whiteness, See No. 857.

1857. - According to TAVERNIER, Assem is one

of the best countries in Asia, producing all the necessaries of 1854.

Fine linen] Probably muslin. — Yet flax life; and, instead of wanting a supply from other countries, is worked iuto cloth which far surpasses muslin in fineness. is able to furnish them with several metals; having mines of It may be worked into cloths damasked, satiened, transpa gold, silver, steel, irou, and lead ; besides, great store of silk, rent, capable of receiving every manner of color. Never but coarse. There is one kind spon by animals, like our theless women rich and poor give the prefereuce to cottons. silk-worms, but rounder, which live all the year under trees.

Cotions are wonderfully well adapted to the winters of The silks made of it have a five gloss, but fret presently. countries whose inhabitants go almost naked the rest of the They are washed in a lye, made of the ashes of the leaves of year; but they are too warm for our summers, and too cold Adam's fig-tree, which makes thein white as snow. for our winters. — Their use is very dangerous in Winter,

Ibid. vol. vii. p. 8. they catch fire so easily. Stanislaus, the good old king of Poland, was burnt alive, from having fallen asleep by his fire-side in clothing of this sort. See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. iv. p. 427. 1858.

Silk comes originally from China. The Muslin was the byssus of Egypt, made of the finest cotton ;

anpals of that nation inform us, that the wife of the emperor and such as is still worn by the great.

Hoang Ti was the first who spun threads from the natural silk Dr. Geddes. cocoons, found on the trees. From this country, silk was

carried into Hindostan, and thence to Persia, Greece, and

Rome, &c. 1855. - - Cotton grows in the forests of the torrid

See Berthollet's Art of Dyeregions of Africa and America, on tall thorny trees; in India

ing, by Hamilton, vol. i. p. vi. on a lofty shrubbery; and in Malta and the islands of the Archipelago, on a herbaceous plant. In Guzerat, the rice aud cotton-fields are both planted at 1859.

Silk was fabricated immeinorially by the the cummencement of the rainy season, in June. The former Indians, who were in early ages a commercial people, as is sown in furrows, and reaped in about three months : | we learn from the first of their sacred law-tracts, which

they suppose to have been revealed by Menu many millions 11 1865. (Gen. xli. 45. Priest of On] That the sun, in of years ago.

antient Egypt, was denomiuated On, is evident froin Jab. Works of Sir W. Jones, LONSKI (Panth. Egypt. i. 137), Georgi (Alphabet. Tibevol. i. p. 31.

tan. p. 87), and expressly from Cyril (in Hoseam, p. 145) who, on reciting the Egyptian fable which makes Apis the

son of the Moon and offspring of the Sun, adds, "that the 1860. [Gen. xli. 42.] The chain of gold worn about the Sun was called On by the Egyptians.” — On was also the neck of Joseph, might denote him, as prime minister, to be name of av antient city in Egypt, styled in the Greek, by the the illustrious connecter of the king as head with the body version of the LXX, Helioupolis. This city was built on a politic: — "In antient times, in all nations, every thing was considerable hill in honor of the sun (STRABO, lib. xvii. inade an emblem or representation of some spiritual or moral p. 1158) who had there also a celebrated temple, called by subject.”

Jeremiah Beth-shemesh (chap. xliii. 13). Remains of these Dr. A. CLARKE. are still extant on their original site, now named Matarea,

two hours N.N.E. of Cairo, consisting, as Shaw, Niebuhr, and later travellers relate, of a sphinx, ohelisk, and fragments of

marble, granite, &c. This temple is inentioned, not only 1861. The sacrificial thread of a Brahmin must

by Strabo, but HERODOTUS, who also records, that an annual be made of cotton, so as to be put on over his head, in three

assembly was holdeu iu it in lionor of the presiding divinity. strings.

(lib, ii. sec. 59). · Laws of Menu. Works of

The Rev. S. HENLEY. — See Sir W. Jones, vol. iii. p. 89.

Archæologia, vol. xiv. p. 206.

1862.

In the year 1692, an antient golden torques (or monile) was dug up in a garden near the castle 1866. - Pharaoh, we may be certain, had now of Harlech, Merionethshire. It is a wreathed bar of gold, examined into the cause of Joseph's imprisonment; and gave or rather perhaps three or four rods jointly twisted, about him the daughter, probably, as a recompence for the injury four feet long (passing, perhaps, when worn, twice round the done hinn by the mother's misrepresentation. neck); flexile, but bending naturally only one way, in form of a hatband; hooked at both ends, exactly like a pair of polhooks; but these hooks are not twisted as the rest of the rods, nor are their ends sharp but plain, and, as it were, cut 1867. i -- 47.] Throughout the province of Mazaneven. It is of a round form, about an inch in circumference, deran in Persia, the people live almost entirely on rice cooked and weighs eight ounces.

with a little water and salt, and called chilao, taking with it CAMDEN. — Archæologia, every now and then a spoonful of some sort of acid, such as vol. xiv. p. 95.

verjuice, the juice of pomegranates, vineyar, or the like. To this food they are exceedingly partial, and maintain that there

is none more conducive to health. 1863. 1 4 3.) Abrech (Ileb.), pangonu (Grk.)

PIETRO DELLE VALLE. — Pin

kerton's Coll. vol. ix. p. 47. See Isai. xlv. 23. Rom. xiv. 11. Bend the knee, or sink on the bams as the Arabs do, in token of reverence.

Verse 45.] Asenath could not be the natural, but the religious, daughter of Potiphar, the EUNUCH. See Chap. 1868.

No oats grow in Persia. There is howXxxvii. 36.

ever barley there, which they give with bran and chopped Kohen (Ilebr.), intendant of Heliopolis.

straw to their horses. Dr. A. CLARKE.

Ibid. p. 99. Verse 47.] By handfuls. — Rice grows in tufts.

Also in the territory of Passagarda iu Persia, the inhabitants

of the towns towards the sea use none but barley-bread. Verse 56.] Over all the face of that land; i. e. Egypi.

In other parts contiguous, dates with barley-bread, serve as food for the inhabitants.

Ibid. p. 113. 1864.

45. Priest of On] Cahen (Hebr.), here Throughout the district of Tarom and its vicinity in Persia, translated priest, signifies also, a prince and ruler; and some wheaten Rour is not to be met with, except in large towns times, a great officer, See 2 Sam. XX. 26. 1 Kings iv. 5. - where it is eaten by the rich alone; the chief food of the inFrom this word, Cahen, is probably derived, says Bryant, habitants being dates, in which article they carry on a conthe Persian Khan, the German Koning, the Chinese Cham, || siderable trade. and the English King.

Ibid. p. 114.

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