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2056. [Exod. xxij. 18.] The witch-act, a' disgrace to the code of English laws, was not repealed till the year 1736.

Observations on Popular Antiq. p. 319. • Several writings are well known, which mention, that the negroes in South America have a kind of poison with wbich | they kill each other, though the effect be not sudden, but bappen a long time after the person have taken it: the same dangerous art of poisoning is known by the negroes of North America, as has frequently been experienced.

See Pinkerton's Coll. part liii.

p. 503.

By this is to be understood the taking of bribes, at all events; whether they can or will do any thing to deserve them or not. — Thus, it is at this day the common talk, that A — Bey, B-Kyayah, and C - Chiouse, ate forty or fifty purses of money each, of Ali Kyayah Le Jelfy's widow; who, being left very rich, would spare no cost, first to be revenged on such as she suspected to have abetted the niassacre of her late husband; and, secondly, to get his and her friends and creatures preferred.

Preface to Perry's Levant, p. 12.

2057.

19:] The word behemah (Hebr.), here translated beast, should be rendered savage or slave. Thus in Jonah, iii. 8, it is said, Let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily to God; yea, let them turn every one from his edil way, and from the violence that is in their hands. Where it is evident, that a beast cannot cry for mercy, has no evil way of sin to turn from in the way of repentance, nor hands to be cleansed from violence or extortion and oppression. But to the civilized great and untutored Gentiles, then inhabitants of Nineveh, the above phrases were strictly appropriate, and became salutary admonitions. — The Israelites were ever forbid to intermarıy or

connect themselves with Gentiles, on pain of being utterly 'cnt off from every privilege and all inheritance in the land of

promise toward which they were now marching.

2061. [Exod. xxii. 26, 27. Raiment to pledge] The better to anderstand this law, we inust kuow, that the upper garment of the Israelites was a large square piece of cloth, which they threw loosely over them, and which by the poor was always used for a blanket or coverlet to their beds. Dr. Shaw, (in bis Travels through Barbary) has given the best description of it, under its nodern Arabic name lyke. (See on Deut. xxiv. 12, 13.) It might be laid aside in the day time, and, in fact, in walking it was so troublesome, that labouring people preferred being clear of it, and were then, what the Antients so often called, naked. When they had to walk, they tucked it together, and hung it over their shoulder. By night it was indispensible to the poor man, for a covering : at least, it was at the risk of his health, and even his life, by exposure to the cold, if he wanted it; for in southern climates the nights, particularly in the summer, are extremely cold. (See on Gen. xxxi. 40.)

Smith's Michaelis, vol.ii. p. 318.

2058.

To prevent any disagreeable mixtures of the white people and negroes, and that the negroes may not form too great an opinion of themselves, I am told, says · Kalm, there is a law made in America, prohibiting the

whites of both sexes to marry negrocs, under pain of · death.

See Pinkerton's Coll. part liii

p. 502.

2062. - The hyke, which now serves an Arab, and might have then served a Hebrew, as a plaid does a Highlander, was probably the raiment here referred to : it is a sort of coarse blanket, about six yards long, and five or six feet broad, which an Arab always carries with him, and on which he sleeps at night; it being his only substitute for a bed. How necessary was it that such a pledge should be restored to a poor man each sight; and how just to return it to the creditor every morning.

Dr. A. CLARKE.

2059. [ 25.] Nothing is more destructive to Syria, than the shameful and excessive usury customary in that country. When the peasants are in want of money to purchase grain, cattle, &c. they can find none but by mortgaging the whole or part of their future crop, greatly under its value. — The danger of letting money appear, closes the hands of all by whom it is possessed; and if it is parted with, it must be from the hope of a rapid and exorbitant gain ; the most moderate interest is twelve per cent :~ the usual rate is twenty, and it frequently rises as high as even to thirty.

Volney's Trav. vol. ii. p. 410.

2063. ( 29.) This and all other feasts and sacrifices were suspended, during the journey of the Israelites through the wilderness, where they had no plantations ; but were revived Lev. xxiii. 10, &c. Tobit i. 6.

HUTCHINSON's Introduc. 10 Moses's See No. 837, 937, 939. Sine Principio, p. ccxxiii.

2060.

It is the universal maxim, passion, and practice, amongst the great men at Cairo, to eat money,

· 2064. [Exod. xxiii. 2, 3.] Thou shalt not be a fola || 2069. (Exod. xxiii. 31.] Accordingly, the Israelites lower of great men to do evil; neither shalt thou so answer never presumed to extend their dominion beyond the Exin a cause as to decline to sin, after great men : yet nei phrates ; not even in the reign of David, when he had repulsed ther shalt thou honour or counteuance a poor man in his ll the kings of Mesopotamia.... cause.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. i. · See No. 860. HOUBIGANT.

p. 75.

2065. [ 12.] It would be absurd to suppose that real animals were here meant, as beasts canuot on any day perform work without mau's assistance.

2066. - 19. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk] Such peculiar proliibitions as this, we shall fiud in general, were given in direct opposition to some idolatrous practice of the Heathens. Thus Dr. Cudworth, in his Treatise on the Lord's Supper, informs us that he learnt, from the comment of an antient Karaite on the Pentateuch, that a superstitious rite prevailed among the antient idolaters, of seething a kid in its mother's milk, when they had gathered in all their fruits ; and sprinkling the trees and fields and gardens, with the broth, after a magical manner, to make them more fruitful for the following year. Spencer also observes that the Zabii use this kind of magical milk to sprinkle their trees and fields in hopes of obtaiuing plenty. .

Dr. Dodd.

2070. [Exod. xxiv. 11. He laid not his hand] In the way of special favor. — The Persian minister, says Bell, received the ambassador's credentials, and laid them before the Shah, who touched them with his hand, as a mark of respect. (Travels to Persia, p. 103.) — At the court of the Great Mogul, those officers of the districts, whose time has expired, or who have been recalled from similar stations, repair to the imperial presence, and receive the reward, good or evil, of their adininistration. When they are admitted into the presence, or retire thence, if their rank and merit. be eminent, they are called uear to his majesty's person, and allowed the honor of placing their heads helow his sacred foot.' The Emperor lays his hand on the back of a person, on whom he means to bestow an extruordinary mark of favor. Others from a distance receive tokens of kindness, by the molion of the imperial brow or eyes.

See Month. Mag. for. Jan. 1804.

2071. [- 12. Which I have wrillen] The Hebrew conjugations, Hiphil& lithpaël, give significations toʻverbs, which the want of answerable conjugations in Westeru languages, inakes us unable to fill or equal without paraphrases, which are very rarely so comprehensive as the original words. - In the New Testament, the Greek tongue wanting those conjugations, active or intransitive verbs are used in a transitive or reciprocal signification. (Boyle, on the Style of the Holy Scriptures, p. 157.) – We should read Which I have caused to be written.

See No. 815.

2067.

Maize or Indian corn grows from six to ten feet high, on a stalk full of joints, which is stiff and solid, and when grown, ahounds with a sweet juice. The leaves are like those of the reed, about two feet in length, and three or four inches broad. The flowers which are produced al-some distance from the fruit on the same plant, grow like the ears of oats, and are sometimes white, yellow, or of a purple color. The seeds are as large as pease, and like them quite naked and smooth, but of a roundish surface, rather compressed. One spike generally consists of about six hundred grains, which are placed closely together in rows to the number of eight or ten, and sometimes twelve. This corn is very wholesome, easy of digestion, and yields as good nourishment as any other sort. After the Indians have reduced it into meal by poundiug it, they make cakes of it, and bake them before the fire. See No. 933.

CARVER'S Trav. in N. America,

p. 346.

2072. [- 17. Devouring fire] The famous Grecian wild-fire, first used in the year 717, adhered so tenaciously to the objects on which it was flung in battle, that no art of man could possibly extinguish its devouring rage. See No. 1010, 850.

Nat. Delin. vol. iii. p. 212.

2073. [Exod. xxv. 4.] In Barbary, and Asiatic Turkey, 2068. [ 28.] Kourt signifies a bee; and Basch- || ahout Angora, there is a large consumption of goat's hair. kourts, the Bee-people. Baschkourts are a tribe of | As it is extremely fine and beautiful, the natives spin it, and Tartars.

convert it into camblets, and other stuffs, as glossy as silk History of Russia, vol. ii. itself. p. 177. See No. 877.

Ibid. p. 23. 2074. [Exod. xxv. 4. Ram-skins dyed red] Red, the 11 2079. (Exod. xxv. 9.] In the spiritual world are all the native dye of such animals, is the color in greatest esteem things which exist in the natural world in its three kingdoms. with the Tartars; and how ill clothed soever their princes They are the correspondent representations of the affections may be, in other respects, they never fail to have a scarlet and thoughts exhibited respectively out of the will and the robe for state occasions.

intellect, as also of the ultimate vital principles, of those See No. 879.

Modern Univer. Ilist. vol. iv. who inliabit there. Around whom such correspondences app. 300.

pear in a similar aspect to that of the created universe; with this difference, that they are comparatively miniature representations. From these effluxive manifestations it is evident

to angels, that the created universe is au image representative 2075. ( 8.) Nadir Shah, out of the abundance of of God-Mau; and that His Love and Wisdom are what his spoils, caused a tent or tabernacle to be made of such

are imaged fortli in the universe. beauty and magnificence as were almost beyond description. Exod. xxv. 40. See SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, The outside was covered with fiue scarlet broad cloth, the

p. 40. lining was of violet-coloured sattin, on which were representations of all the birds and beasts in the creation, with trees and flowers, the whole made of pearls, diamonds, rubies, 2080. [- 10.] The table of shew-bread, the altar of emeralds, amethysts, and other precious stones : and the tent incense, and the ark of the covenant, were all made of poles were decorated in like manner. On both sides of the Acacia-wood, and only overlaid with gold. Peacock-Throne was a screen, on which were the figures of

Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 388. two angels in precious stones. The roof of the tent consisted of seven pieces, and when it was transported to any place, two of these pieces packed in cotton, were put into a wooden

2081. - This ark was an epitoine of the taberchest; two of which chests were a sufficient load for an

nacle. elephant: the screen filled another chest. The walls of the teut, the tent-poles and the tent-pins, which latter were of massy gold, loaded five more elephants ; so that for the car

2082. [- 14.] When the king of Travancor makes a riage of the whole were required seven elephants. This

tour to inspect the state of his fortresses, eight Brahmins magnificent tent was displayed on all festivals in the

bear a square tabernacle suspended on a pole: it is covered Public Hall at Herat, during the remainder of Nadir Shah's

with a piece of yellow cloth, because yellow is in as high reign. Gladwin's Khojen Abdulkurreem,

esteem among the Indians as red formerly was among the Egyptians.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 299.

p. 31.

2076. [ 9.] It appears plainly that God shewed Moses a model of the tabernacle and all its furuiture; and to receive instructions relative to this, was one part of his employment while on the mount for forty days with God.

Dr. A. CLARKE.

2083 [ 16.] In 1721, some rustics, sent from Jobol-skoy, by the governor of Siberia, privately to look for ruins and antient sepulchres, found certain images of gold, silver, and brass, in all the tombs. And, having advanced 120 German miles towards the Caspian sea, they met with the ruins of splendid buildings : among which were some chambers under ground, whose floors and sides consisted of most shining stones. They saw here and there black ebony-chests; which, instead of treasure, contained writings or books. Deut. iv. 16 — 18. Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iv.

p. 308.

2077. - If any one do, without prejudice, and with judgment, look on these things, be will find they were every one made in way of imitation aud representation of the universe.

JOSEPH. Antiq. b. iii. ch. vii. $ 7.

2078.

Empedocles held, according to the Pythagorean doctrine, that there are two worlds, the one intellectual, the other sensible; the former being the model, or archetype of the latter. Exod. xxv. 40.

See Simplic. in Physic. Arist.

Also Plut. de Placitis
Phil. l. i. c. 20.

2084. - 17.) This lid of the ark, so long as it existed, being made of pure gold, may be considered as the most invariable of all standards whereby to ascertain from time to time the exact length of the Mosaic ell. Every country, says MICHAELIS, ought to have one common standard kept somewhere or other, for all its weights and measures, according to which all others might be rectified. In England, he adds, it has been proposed, that these standards should be kept in the Exchange at London, with all possible care under numerous keys, that thus many people might always be pres 2089. [Exod. xxv. 31. A candlestick of pure gold] This ent at the opening of this autient national sanctuary, on any candlestick, or chandelier, is generally described as having momentous occasion. This proposal, and the loss that arises one shaft or stock, with six branches proceeding froin it, from the otherwise unavoidable variation of weights and mea. adorned, at equal distances, with six flowers, like lilies, with sures, continues our illustrious German, was put in a very as many bowls and knops placed alternately. On each of clear light, in a book well worth reading, published in 1758, the branches there was a lamp ; and one at the top of and entitled, An Essay on Money and Coins. That the | the shaft, which occupied the centre, thus there were seven Legislature noticed it, and took the matter seriously into consi iamps in all. deration, he perceived, he acknowledges, from the account We are not so certain of the precise form of any instrugiven of the parliamentary proceedings in the London Maga ment or utensil of the tabernacle or temple, as we are of zine for June, 1759; but he does not know, he confesses, this, the golden table, and the two silver trumpets. Titus whether any Act of Parliament on the subject has yet passed. after the overtbrow of Jerusalem, A. D. 70, had the golden If however, he argues, the British legislature were desirous candlestick, and the golden table of shew-bread, the silver to insure future ages the true measure of the ell, on the trumpets, and the book of the Law, taken out of the temMosaic principles and plan, they ought to have it ascertained ple, and carried in triumph to Rome; and Vespasian lodged by the mathematicians of St. Paul's church, with most perfect them in the temple which he had consecrated to the goddess accuracy, and to have an authentic record of the mensuration of Peace ! drawn up in the plainest and briefest terms, and published in At the foot of mount Palatine there are the ruins of an a book, which every Briton might read, as easily, at any arch, on which the triumph of Titus for his conquest of the rate, as the Israelite heard the Law read, once every seven Jews, is represented, and on which the several monuments years — in the calendar, for instance, which should not be which were carried in the procession are sculptured, and parallowed to be printed without this appendix concerning St. ticularly the golden candlestick, the table of the shew-bread, Paul's.

and the two silver trumpets. Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii. pp. 382, 390.

Dr. A. Clarke.

2085. [Exod. xxv. 29.) Belonging to the table of shewbread, there were not ouly golden tankards (menakyaim, Hebr.), in which wine stood, and from which it was to be poured out; but also small drinking vessels, shaped like our eups, likewise of gold.

Ibid. p. 391.

2090. - From these knops issues a series of almond flowers, following one another, till the branch terminates in that flower which contains the lamp. ch. xxxvii. 17.

Frag. to Calmet's Dict,

2d Hund. p. 56.

2086. - On this table, which was placed on the north-side of the temple, not far from the most holy place, were laid twelve unleavened loaves of bread; six on each heap, one above another : and above those loaves were put two vials fall of frankincense. ch. xxxvii. 16. Joseph. Antig. b. iii. ch. iii. $ 6.

The frankincense was put pot UPON, but by the loaves in vessels proper for that purpose. Lev. xxiv. 7.

Essay on the Sacrifices, p. 94.

2091. - The lotos, so often introduced into the Hindoo mythology, forms a principal object in the sculpture and paintings in their temples, is the ornament of their sacred' lakes, and the most conspicuous beauty in their flowery sacrifices. --- The lotos is often seen in the Egyptian and Grecian sculpture.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. i. p. 430.

2092. [- 39.] A talent of gold is equivalent to 2087.

Among certain Roman Antiquities, a £6750 Sterling. metal vase and patera, with some elegant little cups of Samian

See No. 879. ware, were discovered June 28th, 1800, at Topesfield, in Essex. The vase is what MONTFAUCON calls a præfericulum used ly the Romans at their sacrifices for pouring wine into the patera. The metal patera differs from the earthen pateræ in general, by being bossed in the centre; a circumstance not easily accounted for, unless it were intended

2093. [Exod. xxvi. 7.) Skins, which were the clothing of for receiving and fixing the præfericulum more firmly, when

the first men, when sewed together were made into tents that placed npon it (to stand unemployed on the altar table). As to

were not only portable, but extremely lasting as their hair or the cups, unless we cau gain some authentic information res

wool was impenetrable to the most plentiful dews. pecting them, we may conclude they contained the consecrated

The workinen who dress skins, are of two sorts. The one perfumes, unguents, &c.

sort prepare the furs, that is, dress certain delicate skins with Archæologia, vol. xiv. pp. 24. 25. ll the hair on, which constitutes their chief beauty and value.

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The others employ the strongest and most serviceable skins I wild goat, or shamois. - They use its skin for making either in apparel, furniture, or various kinds of coverings ; ||

bucklers, which are musket-proof. and the most ordinary way of dressing them for these pur

Trav. p. 166. poses, is to get off the hair or wool, and penetrate them with The chief use of seal-skins now, is to cover trunks and substances proper to render them firm or pliant.

boxes. Very good shoes and boots are also made of them, The shamoy-dresser soaks in oil not only the skin of the which effectually keep out the water. Seats likewise are true shamoy, which is a wild goat, but likewise those of all

covered with them, of which the covering outlasts the wood. other goats, though much inferior to the true, and even sheep

Buffon. skins, which he dresses like shamoy.

Dr. Geddes has adopted seal-skins instead of badgers' See Nat. Delin. vol. vi.

skins. pp. 223,- 229.

ch. xxv. 5.

2094. [Exod. xxvi. 7.] The shawls manufactured in Ca

2099. [Exod. xxvi. 15.) Shittim-wood : a wood peculiar chemire, from the delicate silky wool of a goat peculiar to

to the district of Arabia, resembling the white thorn. It Thibet, are an elegant article of personal ornament, too well grew to such a height, that it might be sawo into boards of known in Europe, to need a particular description : this a considerable length. mapufacture is not confined to Cachemire, but all others are ch. xxv. 5.

See Jerom. Comment in Joel iji. deemed of an inferior quality : their prime cost is from twenty

Micah vi. 5. et alib, to five hundred rupees a shawl, according to the size, texture, and pattern : some, perhaps, may be more valuable. FORBES' Oriental Memoirs,

2100.

The wood of the Laburnum is beautifully dol. i. p. 258.

veined, of great strength, and much used for wedges and musical instruments : the variety with short spikes of flowers

has elegant veins, and is called the ebony of the Alps. 2095. - The wandering Arabs, the Kurdes and

Pliny says, its wood is the hardest next to the ebony. the Turcomans lodge in tents made of coarse stuff, either

ch, xxv. 5.

PINKERTON's Coll. part xxii. black or striped black and white ; which is manufactured by

p. 809. the women, of goats' hair. The tent consists of three apartments, of which one is for the men, another for the women, and the third for the cattle.

2101. - Dr. MATHER supposes this Shittim-wood NIEBURR's Trav. vol. i. p. 208. \ to be the black Acacia. ch. xxxvii. 1.

Phil. Trans. vol. vi.

p. 86. 2096. ( 14.] The skins of elks, when properly dressed, make excellent tent-covers and shoe-leather. Smith's Wonders of Nat. and Art,

2102. - 29.] In Eastern houses of better fashion,

the apartments, from the middle of the wall downwards, vol. iji p. 40.

are covered or adorned with velvet or damask hangings of white, blue, red, green, or other colors (Esth. i. 6) suspended

on hooks, or taken down at pleasure: but the upper part is 2097. - Badger's skins] Tehashim (Hebr.).

embellished with more perinanent ornaments, being adorned A merchant of Abushahr called Dahash, that fish which the with the most ingenious wreathings and devices, in stucco and captains of English vessels called porpoise, and the Germanis fretwork. The ceiling is generally of wainscot, artfully sea-hog or dolphin.

painted, or beautifully pannelled, with gilded mouldings. ch. xxv. 5. Niebuhr, p. 157, Fr. Edit. And the floors are laid with painted tiles or terrace-plaster,

covered generally with the richest carpets.

Dr. Shaw. — See Bib. Research. 2098. They could not furnish me, says

. vol. ii. p. 211. THEVENOT, with any thing of a certain fish, which they cali a sea-man. However, he adds, I got the hand of one since. This fish is taken in the Red Sea, close by Tor. It is a 2103. ( 36.) The Temple also, instead of doors, great strong fish, and has nothing extraordinary but two I had its gate-ways closed with very costly vails, enriched hands, which are indeed like the hands of a man, saving that with variety of flowering of gold, silver, purple, and every the fiugers are joined together with a skin as in the foot of thing that was rich and curious; and on each side of these a goose ; but the skin of the fish is like the skin of the gates or gate-ways were placed two stately columos, from whose

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