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2154. [Exod. xxx. 23.) Cinnamon is a species of laurel, the bark of which constitutes its valuable part. This is taken off in the months of September and February. When cut into small slices, it is exposed to the sun, the heat of which curls it up in the form in which we receive and use it. The berry, when boiled up in water, yields, according to Rayual, an oil which, suffered to congeal, acquires a whiteness. Of this candles are made, of a very aromatic smell, which are, at Ceylon where it is principally found, reserved for the sole use of the king.

But the cinnamon of the Antients, which HERODOTUS affirms to have been peculiarly the produce of Arabia, was probably the sweet willow, or candle-berry myrtle.

At least " it is now well understood,” says Beloe, “ that the substance called cinnamon by the Antients was extremely different from this of ours, which is peculiar to the island of Ceylon.” .

By cinnamomum the Antients understood a branch of that tree, bark and all, of which the cassia was the bark only.

Beloe's Herodot. Thalia, cvii.

notes 126, 134.

seems indigenous to Ceylon; there are some trees in the East-India Company's garden at Anjengo, as a curiosity. The leaves of the cassia are smaller than the laurel, and more pointed ; those of the cinnamon still more delicate : the blossoins of both, like the flowers of the Arbutus, hang in bunches, white and fragrant; the fruit resembles a small acorn. The young leaves and tender shoots are of a bright red, changing to green as they approach maturity ; they taste of cinnamon, but the only valuable part of the tree is the inner bark; which, being separated from the exterior, is cut into pieces, and exposed to the sun, when it dries and curls up, and is packed in cases for foreign markets.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. i. p. 352.

2158. [Exod. xxx. 34. Stacte] A gummy odoriferous substance, that distils in amber-coloured drops from some resinous tree, supposed by some to be the myrrh-tree. The difference hetween it and myrrh seems to be, that myrrh was gotten by incision — stacte by spontaneous oozing.


2165. [- 23, 24.] Cinnamon, cassia, myrrh, frankincense, stacte, onycha, and galbanum, are solely the produce either of India or Arabia. Now as cinnamon and cassia, which are but different species of the same spice, are not to be found nearer Egypt or Palestine than Ceylon or the coast of Malabar ; and as Sabea, says Agatharchides who flourished 177 years before Christ, produces myrrh, frankincense, balsam, cinnamou, and cassia from trees of extraordinary magnitude, it is highly probable the Jews did receive these spices from the Sabeans, who are known to have enriched themselves by furnishing Syria and the Phenicians with such odoriferous commodities.

See Vincent's Pleripus of the

Erythrean Sea. Or Bib.
Research. vol. ii. p. 97.


Frankincense, of all perfumes, was the niost esteemed by the Antients : it was used in divine worship, and subordinately appropriated almost entirely to princes and great men. Those employed in preparing it were nearly naked; they had only a girdle about their loins, which the master had the precaution to secure with his own seal.

Beloe's Herodot. Thalia, cyii.

note 125.


Cassia] A bastard kind of cinnamon, called in Europe cassia lignea ; the nuerchants mix it with pure cinnamon, which is four times its value; it is to be distinguished by a kind of viscidity perceived in chew. ing it.

See Beloe's HErdotus, Thalia, cvii.

note 127.

2160. [ 34, 35, 37.] Lady W. MONTAGUE informs us that, during her visit to the fair Fatima, whose busband was an officer equal in rank to the grand vizier, “four slaves came into the room, with silver censers ju their hands, and perfumed the air with amber aloes-wood, and other odoriferous scents.” Sce Lev. xxiii. 40.

The Gum Arabic Acacia, brought from Arabia Petrea, near the North Bay of the Red Sea, at the foot of mount Siuai, is called Thus (Frankincense) by the dealers in drugs in Egypt, from Thur and Thor, which is the name of a harbour in the North Bay of the Red Sea, near mount Sinai, thereby distinguishing it from the Gum Arabic, which is brought from Suez, another part of the Red Sea, not far froin Cairo. Besides the different places from which these gums are brought, they differ also in some other particulars. The Gum Thus is more pellucid, white, or of no color at all; but the Gum Arabic is less pellucid, and of a brown or dirty yellow color.

HASSELQUIST's Travels, p. 250.


The cassia resembles the bay-tree, of which it is a species : it is called cassia lignea, to distinguish it from the laurus-cinnamomum, or true cinnamon, to which it is very inferior : the finest cazsia sometimes possesses the peculiar properties of that valuable spice, but it is in general of a coarser texture and less delicate flavor. The real cinnamon

2161. [Exod. xxxi. 1.] Bezaleel, the grandson of Miriam, the sister of Moses. See No. 795.

Joseph. Antiq. b. iii. ch. vi. & 1.

the same manner as it is in our juridical faculties and tribunals of appeal; Deut. xvii. 8 - 13.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. i. p. 259.

2167. (Exod. xxxii. 27.] In the Highlands of Scotland, Lochiel and the Laird of Mc, lotosh having had a long dispute

concerning some lands in Lochaber, at length articles of agree2162. [Exod. xxxii. 4.] This is thy god. Neh. ix. 18. ment, through the interference of the Earl of Breadalbane, - At their hand he received (the ear-rings) and tied them

were signed 20th September 1665, ahout 360 years after the in a bag (2 Kings v. 23), and had them cast into a molten

commencement of the quarrel. Next day the two Chiefs had calf.

a friendly meeting, and exchanged swords. The leading Univer, Hist, vol. ii. p. 564.

gentlemen of both clans performed the same friendly ceremony.

Pinkerton's Coll. part ix.

p. 166. -10.) The motive made use of v. 13. would be of no force, if God had promised here to make a great nation spring from Moses ; because the said nation would have 2168. [ 32.] Blot me out of thy book,been the seed of Abraham &c. as well as those that God | the scroll where the names of all the Israelites that were to bad destroyed. (Wells.) — Another proof that spiritual enter into Capaan were written. and not natural descents, are every-where meant by the See No. 847, 1012, See Essay for a New Transgenealogies of sacred Scripture.

853, 855, 862.

lation, part ii. p. 204.

2164. [- 19. The dancing] Probably around the chernb. - At Bern in Switzerland there is a favourite dance of the natives, in which the parties arrange themselves in

2169. [Exod. xxxiii. 4.] According to the Sepluagint distinct couples, and follow each other in a circular direction,

and Syriac, they stripped themselves of their armour, their the gentleman turning his partner with great relocity.

rufiling garb of war, and appeared in the penitential dress of (CoXE. — Pinkerton's Coll. part xxii. p. 848.) - This

sackcloth and ashes. dance is probably a Druidical representation of the double planetary motion ; diurnal on its axis, and annual round the sun.

2170. [- 20.] No man can see God, unless he be

filled and surrounded with the Divine Spirit; in which, as in 2165. [- 25.] It appears from what is here recordled, ||

a vacuum, he cannot possibly breathe. that those very ornaments which had been taken from the

See Dan. x. 8, 5. Rev. i. 17, &c. &c. idolatrous Egyptians by way of spoil, had been so purified U In this state, man is dead as to the body, but alive as to as to have been regularly used by the Israelites in their wor the soul; a proof that the soul ever lives, and is immediately ship of the true God, till they had yow again defiled them by Il present with God on the actual death of the body. idolatry. This accounts for the spoiling or stripping both of Verse 23.] Thou shalt see acharey (Hebr.), my reflex. the Egyptians and of the Israelites ; See, on Exod. v. 1. And

Their voloptuous Art, imitating by softened reflexes the law on this subject, Num. xxxi. 21 — 24.

either of moon-light or of sun-rising, represents the objects In the New Testament gumnos (Grk.) is sometimes taken

of their loves like so many Dianas or Auroras. for a sinner.

See No. 737.

St. Pierre's Studies of Naturé, Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 129.

vol. i. p. 110.

2166: [ 27.] Amorg the Hebrews, this was the most important duty of the tribe of Levi, and what required the greatest number of its members to discharge. — It was also in an especial manner the basiness of the Jewish priests, in all disputes of a more serious bature, to pronounce the final decision, and lay down the law ; inuch in

2171. [Exod. xxxiv. 16.] An Israelite miglit certainly marry a Heathen woman, provided she no longer coutiqued

an idolatress; but all marriage with Canaanitish woinen, 2177, (Exod. xxxviji. 8.] The Eastern mirrors were made anconverted, was by this statute prohibited.

of polished steel and for the most part convex. In the Levant See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii. I they are still a part of female dress. The Moorish women in p. 37.

Barbary are so fond of their ornaments, and particularly of their looking-glasses, which they hang on their breasts, that they

will not lay them aside, even when, after the drudgery of the 2172. [Exod. xxxiv, 24.] Jerusalem was besieged (at the

day, they are obliged to go two or three miles with a pitcher, Passover), and taken by Titus the eighth of September, in

or a goat's skin, to fetch water. (Dr. Shaw's Trad. p. 421.) the second year of the einpire of Vespasian.

- The Israelitish women used to carry their mirrors with See No. 970.

Long Livers, p. 135.

them, even to their most solemn place of worship. (See HARMER, vol. ii. p. 411.) — The Egyptian women used to

go to the temple with a looking-glass in one hand, and a 2173. [- 33.] The Orientals occasionally cover the

timbrel in the other. face with a black crape very transparent, through which

See Cyril de Adoratione in Spiritu et Virtute, they can see without being seen.

tom. i. l. 2. p. 64. DANDINI, Voy. au Mont. Liban.

Did the Israelitish women in particular, who were veiled, p. 63.

fix their downcast eyes on these mirrors, in order to see

therein the manifested Image of the Divine Glory, as soon as 2174. After that Moses bad ceased speaking to

it should appear on the propitiatory ? thein, he put the veil on his face. (Septuagint.) — From the 34th and 35th verses it appears to have been his common practice to wear a veil, except when he went in before the

2178. — We learn from Pliny (Lib. xxxiii. cap. Lord. - He knew not that his face shone, 0. 29. He

9; xxxiv. cap. 17) that the Pagan women, when attending could not therefore, by assuming the veil on this occasion,

the worship of their deities, were ornamented with metallic intend to conceal the glory of the spirit with which he was

mirrors. We are told also by CYRILLUS Alexandrinus filled.

(Lib. ii. vol. i. p. 64, De Adoratione in Spiritu) that the See No. 845, 969, 845, 1011.

Israelitish women adopted the same custoin, which they borrowed from the Egyptians. - Metallic mirrors, since the invention of glass ones, have been entirely disused as articles of furniture. But a glass mirror, properly speaking, is

metallic; for it is not the glass but the amalgam of tin, 2175. [Exod. xxxv. 35.] In the cotton manufacture of

placed at the back of it, which reflects the image of the India, the loom is fixed under a tree, and the thread laid the whole length of the cloth. The Hindoo weaver is not

object to it.

KLAPROTA. a despicable caste ; he is next to the scribe, and above all mechanics. These people produce works of extraordinary niceness, and as much as an Indian is born deficient in mechanical strength, so much is bis whole frame

2179. - The first and best glass-mirrors are endowed with an exceeding degree of sensibility and pli

said to have been made, long after these days, of a sand antness.

found on the coasts of the Tyrian sea : those then in use FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, were made of highly polished metal. In Egypt, and in vol, ii. p. 502.

Palestine, they were of brass. When the antient Peruvians were first discovered, their mirrors were of brass : and at this day, in the East, they are commonly made of that, or some other metal, capable of receiving a fine polish.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of 2176. [Exod. xxxviii. 8.) How could a brazen mirror be

Women, vol. ii. p. 94. made of glass? We should therefore read mirrors, not looking-glasses. --What Moses on this occasion took from the Israelites appear to have been concave reflectors, of 2180. — He also made a laver of brass, with its polished brass; such as, Plutarch informs us in his life of cover of brass, to wash in (under the inspection of the Numa, the Greeks were accustomed to use when they would women who ministered at the entry of the door of the raise a fire in combustibles placed at the focus where the convention-tent). Dr. Geddes. — See 1 Sam. ii. 22. — sun's rays were collected in the centre of a concave vase : xxv. 41. 1 Tim. v. 10. — CLEMENS Alexandrinus tells us, Græcis autem in fomentis vasculo cado impositis, et that the daughter of Cleobulus, who was both a philosopher solis radiis in ejus centro exceptis, flammam concipere and monarch, was not ashamed to wash the feet of her consuetudo erat.

father's guests. Job xxxvii. 18. See Vossius de orig. Exod. xxx. 18.

Stromat. lib. vi. p. 523. & progr. Idol. p. 328. H

edit. Sylburg.

2181. [Exod. xxxviji. 25.) A sacred talent of silver amounts 1 2186. [Exod. xl. 20, 21.) Did Moses, by the beauty and to £342.3.9; a talent of gold, to £5475. But the common elegance of the ark, the splendor of the vail, and the sumptalent of silver was £171.1.101; of gold, £2737.10 : each tuousness of the mercy-seat, shew as much honor to the being half the value of the sacred talent.

two tables of the testimony or corenant, which he had received from Jehovah, as he could have done to Jehovah in person? This, it will appear by the following extracts, is

still the practice in some Indian nations, respecting the 2182. [- 24 - 29.] On due calculation it will be letters or mandates of kings; they honour these equally as found, that the sum total of the gold, silver, and brass used they would honour the royal authors. Thus in constructing the Tabernacle amounted in avoirdupoise 1. On the arrival of Sir James Lancaster in Sumatra, to weight, to 14 Tous, 266 pounds, in value sterling', to establish there the commerce of our East India Company £244,127 . 14.6.

under the charter of Queen Elizabeth, “the King of Achen See Dr. A. Clarke, in loco. sent six elephants, with trumpets, drums, and streamers, The work of the Tabernacle was begun about the sixth

and a considerable body of men, to attend the admiral to month after the Israelites had left Egypt, and set up finished

court. The largest of the elephants was about thirteen or on the first day of the second year! Exod. xl. 2. —

fourteen feet high, and carried a small tower on his back, This was the Lord's work surely, and it is marvellous in

in the form of a coach, covered with crimson velvet. In our eyes.

the middle of this erection was a gold basin, covered with a richly embroidered silk, and into this vessel the queen's letler was put. The admiral was then mouoted on another elephant, while some of his retinue rode, and others walked on foot. Ou approaching the royal presence, he paid his respects in the manner of the country, and then briefly de

clared, that he was sent by the most potent Queen of 2183. [Exod. xl. 2.] At the beginuing of the second England, to congratulate his highness, and to enter into a year since their departure out of Egypt, the Hebrews cou treaty of peace and amity with his majesty." secrated the tabernacle and all its utensils, at the new moon 2. Again, At Achen, “I was conducted," says the in the month Nisan.

French adventurer Beaulieu, “to an audience of the king, JOSEPII. Antiq. b. iii. ch. viii. § 4. by the sabaudar, and four of the principal orankays, in the

subsequent manner. On a large elephant sat one of the

chief orankays, in a covered pulpit, who sent me a spacious · 2184. [ 10.} Among the vessels used in sacrifices,

silver dish, covered with an embroidered cloth of gold and was a bucket called Præfericula, about two palms and two

silk, into which I put the letter, and returned it to him. inches in height. As found at Herculaneum, it has two large,

By his command I was mounted on another elephant, together and two small ears which lie under the large ones. It has

with the sabandar and two more. The procession began also a moveable bandle, which, when turned down, lies ex

with six trumpets, six drums, and six hautboys, which actly over the brim of the vessel, and is, like the vessel

sounded till our arrival at the palace. Then followed fouritself, ornamented with festoons, and other carved work.

teen persons, each carrying some part of my present, covered WINCKELMAN's Herculaneum,

with yellow cloth, a form vecessary to be observed when any p. 68.

thing is to be presented to the king. After them came two orankays on Arabian horses, immediately preceding the elephant letter-carrier : and then came the elephant on which

I was placed, followed by three sabandars, and all the officers 2185. - 13.] The anointing oil was poured un of the Albandoque on foot." mixed, on a prophet, or a king ; but mixed with aromatics, 3. And, Ou the departure of Commodore Bieulieu from on a priest. — This Auid is useful in many respects to man, the Despot of Achen, “ I received,” says he, “a letter to the especially in hot countries ; where, not being liable to be King of France, which was brought to my house with great soured or corrupted by heal, when poured on the surfaces of pomp, being carried on an elephant, conducted by one of other liquors, it preserves them. — It is a peculiar properly the principal orankays, attended by many officers of rank. in the Olive-tree, that the root changes what is ingrafted The letter was carried in a silver basin, in a red velvet upon it : Thus, when a graft from the wild olive is in bag, and was written in the Achenese language, iu letters serted into the good stem; if the root be holy, so are the of gold, on very smooth paper, adorned with gilding and branches, Rom. xj. 16.

painting.” See No. 931, 736. See HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason

Mavor's Voyages, vol. ii. pp. 111, recovered, pp. 105, 108, 118.

235, 247.

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I ls no poison is so dangerous as that which poisons | 2191. [Lev. i. 2,3, &c.] These offerings were not animals, the physic; so no falsehood is so fatal as that which is made but elements ; Gal. iv. 9. an article of faith. Age of Reason, part iii. p. 70.

Il 2192. As sacrifice was the customary external visible mode, by

There are now apparently Four Christs which the internal acts of the mind were expressed; hence

in Paradise, surrounded each in their several degrees with that was imputed to sacrifice, which was owing to what sacri

societies that resemble in their encompassing sphere, the

four kinds of clean animals offered to God, according to the fice signified. Psal. li. 17. cxvi. 17,

Essay on the Sacrifices,

directions of this book. In Hades there are also Four Auti. Heb. xiii. 15.

p. 312.

christs, to one or other of whom all the souls in ouclean animal-appearances are sacrificed, when they are about to be

cast down into hell: this is the abominable idolatry prohi2188. [Lev. i. 1.] The antient Egyptians abstained wholly

bited throughout Scripture. from the use of animals in sacrifice : they shed no blood in In Paradise, the societies from the human race that appear their temples, nor brought any victims to their altars.

as the clean animals offered on the altar, aresacrificed and

PORPHYRY, de Abstin. ii. disappear when they enter into the image of the Lord there, Their sacred offerings consisted originally of handfuls of

and go up into heaven. — The unclean monster-appearing corn, grass, and of the lotos, with other fruits of the earth.

societies of Hades, in the same way go into Antichrist, before In process of time they added myrrh, frankincense, and

they be cast down into Hell. cassia, for the service of the altar. BRYANT. Bib. Research. vol. ii. p. 150.

2193. - It is very remarkable, that, both in He

brew and Arabic, the word for a male implies remembrance, 2189. - When the Essenes, says JosEPHUS, send and that for a female, oblivion. what they have dedicated to God to the Temple, they do not

Works of Sir W. JONES, offer (animal) sacrifices, because they have more pure lustratious

vol. iv. p. 229. of their own; on which account they are excluded from the common court of the Temple : but they offer their sacrifices themselves in their own way); yet their course of life is 2194.

There prevails universally io Persia a better than that of other men ; and they addict themselves Il practice of distinguishing a difference of sex not only in trees entirely to husbandry. They also appoint certain stewards and plants, as is the case in some instances with us; but to receive the incomes of their revenues, and of the fruits of also in every thing else, as well natural, such as vegetables, the ground; such as are good men and priests, who are to fruit and the like, as artificial, such as flax, silk, cotton, and get their corn and their food ready for them.

even in the elements, as in water and air; calling male, Antiq. b. xviii. ch. 1. $55. — vol, iv. || as is related by Seneca to have been usual with the Egyp

tians, that of its kind which is the strongest and most robust,

and that on the contrary the inost tender and delicate, the 2190. - Plutarch wrote two discourses against the female : thus, according to their philosophy and observations, the use of Animai Food. (HALL.) - l'hat the Lord's offer. | which are far from bad, they judge to what use each sex is ings were of a vegetable nature, See 2 Sam. i. 21.

Il adapted. For example, female (or soft) water is better for

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