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drinking and more salubrious than male (or hard); as female (or bland) air is fittest for the lungs of children, while male (or sharp) air can be better borne by men of robust make. This, says Pietro Delle Valle, I have deemed a matter curious enough to be made public.
Pinkerton's Coll. vol. ix. p. 112.
certain man of Cesarea, of a seditious temper, got an earthen vessel, and set it with the bottom upward at the entrance of that synagogue, and sacrificed birds. This thing provoked the Jews to an incurable degree, because their laws were affronted, and the place was polluted. (Joseph. War b. ii. ch. xiv. § 5. vol. v.) — Their sacrifices were of the fruit of the Vine, Lev. xix. 24. Hos. x. 1.
2195. [Leo. j. 9.) Numa's sacrifices, as instituted among the Romans, were, says PLUTARCH, without any cffusion of blood ; consisting chiefly of four, libations of wine, and other very simple aud unexpensive things.
See his Lives, by Langhorne,
col. i. p. 173.
2196. - A sweet savour] As the valuable spicetrees, and bal sannick plants, that grow in Arabia the Happy, give a real perfume to the air.
Works of Sir W. Jones,
vol. iv. p. 528.
2200. (Lev. i. 14 – 17.] Raisins are of two sorts. Those which are called sun-raisins are made thus : When the grapes are almost ripe, the stalk is cut half through, so that the sap may not penetrate further, but yet the bunch of grapes may remain suspended by the stalk. The sun, by darling on them, candies t and dries them. — The second sort is made after the following manner: When the lines are pruned, the tendrils are preserved till the tiine of vintage; a great fire is made, wherein those tendrils are burnt, and in the lye, made of their ashes (SWINBURNE, in his Travels through Spain, p. 208, says, of urine and ashes), the newly gathered grapes are dipped, after which they are exposed to the sun to dry, which renders them fit for use. (Travels through Portugal and Spain in 1772 and 1773 by RICHARD Twiss Esquire, F. R. S. p. 334.) — At Sidonijah, distant four hours' journey from Damascus, the grapes are of a remarkable size, the berries of some being as large as a pigeon's egg, and of a very exquisite taste : sent to Europe in a dried state, they are known by the name of Damaskraisins.
See Travels from Ephesus containing Observa
tions on the present state of Asia Minor, by the illustrious Ægidius VAN EGMONT, Envoy from the States to the King of Naples, and JOHN Heyman, Professor of the Oriental Languages in the University of Leyden, vol. ii. p. 260, &c.
2197. ( 10.) Figs, when dried in the oven (Ezek. xlvi. 20), furnish, with a little barley-bread, the principal sustenance of the numerous and finely-formed inhabitants of the islands of the Archipelago. — The wild fig tree, the caprificus, the ornos (the ass) of the isles of the Archipelago, resembles, in all its parts, the domestic fig-tree (ficus sativa), of which it appears to be, in some measure, only a variety. But it bears fruits that serve for caprification : This operation consists in suspending in different parts of a doinesticated fig tree, several wild figs strung on a thread. The flies or goats which issue from these, introduce themselves into the umbilicus of the domestic figs, and by their punctures cause in them a fermentation which accelerates their ripening, in the same manner as worm-eaten fruits always ripen before those that are sound. - This caprification, which is only used for the late-ripe species of fiy-trees, is particularly forbidden in ch. vi. 23, following.
It is to be remarked that the heat of the sun, which is sufficient to dry the figs that have not been caprificated, is not so for those that have undergone this operation. They must be dried in the oven; which gives them a disagreeable taste, but is necessary to destroy the eggs of the insects which they coutain.
See Buisgelin's Malta, vol, i.
pp. 138 — 148.
The vine and its fruit, when burut, have to man, a most grateful fragrance; grapes and their juice however, when fermented, lose this pleasing property.
See No. 874, 901, 906, 917,898, 908, 597, 910, 958, 896, 911, 919, 904.
2202. [Leo. ii. 1.] Was any meat offering among the Jews, “the consecrated offering of rice”, mentioned in the Laws of Menu, in Sir W. Jones' Works, vol. iii. p. 244 ?
2198. ( 13.) Ignatius Rheinfelden and Bochart affirm, that Syria and Palestine produce boney-canes, from which they procure sugar.
2203. - In Switzerland great use is made of the oil of green walouts, which is preferred to olive oil for salads
2199. - 14.] On the seventh day of the week, when the Jews were crowding apace to their synagogue, a
. + In burnt-offerings, they were candied by the fire of the Altar.
2212. - Olive oil, combined with sugar, readily simple state, is prepared from the flour of wheat, juarree, or
mixes with water and flour; and is the fat of sacrifices. — bahjeree : besides which they are very fond of a thin cake, or
As sugar is not changed by the action of the air, it is usuwafer, called popper, made from the four of oord, or inash ally employed to preserve other vegetable matters from putre(phaseolus max) highly seasoned with asafoetida; a salt faction. (Nicholson.) — Thus it appears, that sugar was called popper-khor; and a very hot massaula, composed of
the vegetable salt put into those cakes, which VIRGIL calls turmeric, black pepper, ginger, garlic, several kinds of warm salsas fruges, sugared fritters. seeds, and a quantity of the hottest Chili-pepper. These ingredients are all kneaded with the oord four and water iuto a tenacious paste, to forin the popper, which is rolled into
2213. Sugar, which is properly, the salt residing cakes not thicker than a wafer; these are first dried a little
in the pith of a sugar-cane, is procured in the Indies by in the sun, and then baked by fire until crisp. Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,
boiling the juice of the cane five times successively in differvol. ii. p. 50.
ent coppers, or large cauldrons, till the essential salt is completely separated from the syrup. (Nat. Delin. vol. i. p. 279.) — This was to be used in the Lord's sacrifices in
stead of honey, the sugar of the Antients. 2207. (- 5. A fire-plate] This was a round plate of iron, convex on the upper side, ou which were baked thin cakes. It is still used in Arabia ; and even in many parts of this island, where it is called a griddle.
The maple-tree yields a sap, which has a Dr. GEDDES. much more pleasant taste than the best lemonade or cherry
water; and makes the most wholesome drink in the world. This liquor is drawn by cutting the tree two inches deep in
the wood, the cut being run sloping to the length of ten or 2208. [ 11.) At the city Callatebus, says Hero
twelve inches ; at the lower end of this gash, a knife is thrust DOTUS, a bouey is made of the tamarisk and wheat.
iqto tire tree slopingly, so that the water runs out by the Herudot. Polymnia, ch. xxxi.
knife into vessels placed to receive it. Some trees will yield Amongst the Zigantes a great abundance of honey is found, five or six bottles of this water a-lay ; and some inhabitants the produce of their bees; but of this they say a great deal of Canada might draw 20 hogsheads of it in one day, if they more is made by the natives. .
would thus cut and notch all the maples of their respective Ibid. Melpom. ck. cxciv. | plantations. The gash does no harm to the tree. Of this sap they make sugar and a syrup which is so excellent that there cannot be a better reinedy for fortisying the stomach.
Piskerton's Coll. part liii. p. 359.
2220. (Lev. ii. 13, 15.] There was oil added to sanctify all the sacrifices, except the sin-offering and the jealousyoffering ; and incense was added, which seems to have been in practice in Noah's time, to give a sweet and acceptable smell; and salt (or sugar) to give taste.
Hutchinson's Use of Reason
restored, p. 285.
2221. [ 14. A meat offering of thy first-fruits] Like a dish of fruit and corn offered to Ceres.
Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. iv. p. 552.
2215. [Leo. ii. 13.] At Canada in North America, there are two kinds of the sugar-maple; the swamp maple, found on low lands; and the mountain or curled maple, growiug on high grounds, and having the grain of its wood beautifully variegated with little stripes and curls. The latter yields a pound of sugar from two or three gallons of its sap; the former, from six or seven gallons. — A maple-tree of either species, whose diameter is twenty inches, will commonly yield sufficient sap for the making of five pounds of sugar each year, and instances have occurred of trees yielding nearly this quantity annually during a series of thirty years. Exod. xv. 25.
Welo's Trav. in N. America,
vol. i. p. 381.
In a temporary building, about a mile from the church of Axuin, the Ras, while attending divine service, was secured from the view of all without by a curtain, within which was placed (before bim) a erown of gold, some frankincense, dried grapes, and wheat : the incense was burnt; the coru and the raisins were made use of instead of the (eucharistical) bread and wine. (See Lord VALENTIA's Trav. in Abyssinia, p. 245.) – This taking place, it seems, on the 20th of September, and in a fertile valley, was probably the royal mode of celebrating annually, the harvest festival.
See No. 902, 921, 924, 928, 918, 903, 337, 948.
Sugar and water, we are told, is, at present, a very common drink at Paris, and reckoned extremely wholesome, as it almost instantly alleviates any slight indigestion, or uneasiness of the stomach.
See PINKERTON's Recollections of
- Mallory, who was a great lover and eater of sugar, after cutting a fresh set of teeth when past fourscore, lived to about one hundred years of age.
See Cleland's Institutes of Health,
App. p. 38.
2223. (Lev. iii. 1.] Males and females were offered as a peace-offering, when God and man entered into covenant; Gen. xv. 9.
Sugar, from its high price, being rarely used by the lower class of Persians, they have adapted to its purposes a syrup made of the inspissated juice of grapes.
FURSTER. —- Pinkerton's Coll. vol. ix. p. 310. This is called in Persic, SHEERAH, See Gen. xliii. 11.
2224. [- 2. He shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering] The laying on of hands seems to be the formal act by which the offerer tranferred his property to the use of the altar, which ceremony was not admitted in respect of the First-born (Gen. xxii. 12), Tithes, and the Passover, they being the Lord's already. Lev, xxvii. 26. Nuin. iii. 13. Deut. xxvi. 13.
Essay on the Sacrifices, pp. 31, 38.
2225. ( 15–17.) Fire receives the oblation of 2219. - To preserve fruits for winter consump. I clarified butter, as the law ordains. tion, the general method is to put the fruit, with a sufficient
Works of Sir W. Jones, quantity of sugar, into a vessel, which is placed on the fire,
vol. i. p. 260. till the sugar, mixing with the juices which exude from the fruit, forms a strong syrup. The same effect will be produced by haking the fruit in a jar containing the sugar : after the 2226.
Il shall be a perpetual statute that heat has caused the syrup sufficiently to penetrate the fruit, ye eat neither fat nor blood] Which are peculiarly my it is suffered to cool, and then put close into pots, jars (or bread; Ezek. xliv. 7, 15. — Hence Catholics give not the skins), which are filled up with the syrup, and covered close cup to the laity. — The priests ate the blood. Sce Lco. with paper, and a cover of a skin of bladder or leather is tied 1 x. 18. over the mouth.
See No. 317, 895.
2227. [Leo. iv. 7, 18.] The lord of the province of requires a considerable time to produce a complete intermix. Mayombo in Africa, when drinking his palm-wine, the first || ture, when the surface of communication is small. cup is poured out at the foot of the Mokeso or idol.
Dalton's Chem. Philosophy,
part i. p. 15).
2233. [Lev. v. 4,5, &c.] Whatever is false in doctrine, or
wrong in practice, though it be not known to be such, still it 2228. [- 22.] The word nasi, here rendered ruler,
feeds what is false and evil within us; and when known, must signifies the head of a tribe, Num. i. 14, 16. vii. 2. But
be thenceforth rejected accordingly. the Jews commonly understand it peculiarly of the head or prince of the Great Sanhedriin, who was the king himself, while they were under kingly goverument. But it seems 2234. [- 13.] If an offering of fine flour only promost reasonable to understand it here of all great officers or || duced alonement, and every good effect that the sacrifice of magistrates.
an animal was supposed to do, it cannot be inferred that any WELLS. vicarious substitution was necessary, or that life must be
given for life in order to make God propitious.
Essay on the Sacrifices,
p. 124. 2229. — 27.] Am ha-arets (Hebr.), the people of the land ; the Canaanites, &c. probably : or, it may mean, the civil part of the community.
2235. [Lev. vi. 13.] The emperor of Monomopata in Africa, wherever he goes, causes a tent to be set up, in which is preserved, as is here directed, a hallowed and perpetual fire.
See Long Liders, p. 41.
1 2 8.] The bunches of the Black Grape from Tripoli are always composed of large berries of an equal size, and with one stone in each.
The le coeur, or Morocco grapes never contain more than one stone a-piece, and the lesser-sized berries are always without stones.
The berries of the White Cornish grape, when perfectly ripe, are transparent, so that the seeds appear very distinctly. (SPEECHLY, on the Vine, pp. 5, 6, 25.) — These grapes, according to their size and value, and the skins they were put in, were called beeves, calves, sheep, rams, lambs, goats, kids, or birds, from different species of money in Asia ; as gazette had its naine from gazella, a small coin of Venice, the original price there of a commercial newspaper. See Gen. xxxiii. 19. · See No. 868.
2236. [- 26, 29. All the males among the priests shall eat] The blood — Ch. x. 18:— To shew that a priest, having the Holy Spirit within, may drink into the exterual man, as Jesus Christ did, the infernal influence which he is to remove from himself and others.
2231. [Lev. v. 1.] In the trial of offeuders, none other than sworn witnesses were allowed : what these spoke was declared on oath read over to them; and if they then concealed what they knew, they were guilty of perjury.
Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iv. p. 324,
2237. - In this sense of eating or sipping the wine with the holy bread, the Catholic priests, but not the laity, are allowed the Communion in both kinds ; as, after a good influence has been received, a bad one may be admitted aud rejected or "shed, for the remission of sins," See Matt. xxvi. 28, 42. Mark xvi. 18. — But when the blood or wine of the sin-offering, in cases of actual uffence, denoted that an evil influence had been admitted and had come into act, which the confessor was desirous might never enter again; in this instance, the blood of the sin-offering was to be poured on the earth as water, and the flesh to be burnt in the fire. - Such was the sin-offering of Jesus Christ's body : His blood, or the tempting influence He had hitherto borne in his outer man, was shed or rejected for ever; and his flesh became a burnt offering, when it deflagrated at the ascensiou.
See No. 866.
2232. — 2.] As the Holy Spirit, so the contrary spirit, comes forth by the touch. — Gases always intermingle and gradually diffuse themselves amongst each other, if exposed to contact ever so carefully without agitation, but it
* 2238. [Led. vii. 12.] The mola (the sweet-cake, salt-cake, | 2244. [Lev. ix.] This and the preceding Chapter contain or sugared-cake) was a barley-cake which they deposited on the ceremonies of devoting the priesthood to the service of the head of the victim ; whence the verb immolare, to sa the Lord's Tabernacle : in Num. vi, we have a similar form crifice.
of devoting a priest, and a mother of a church as his spiNat. Delin. vol. ii. p. 233. || ritual wife, over any particular congregation.
2249. [- 9. Thou shalt not drink wine nor strong drink] In an Essay on the gods of India, the Brahmins are positively forbidden to taste fermented liquors. (Works of Sir W. JONEs, vol. i. p. 266.) – In like manner, the Gentoo magistrates must drink no wine.
See H Alhel's Preface to Gentoo Laws, p. 112. This is exactly the same prohibition that was given in the case of John Baptist, Luke i. 15. (Dr. A. CLARKE.) — Why then do not the Methodists observe and keep it ?
2243. [ 30.] Our coffee being done, says BRUCE, I rose to take my leave, and was presently wet to the skin, by deluges of orange-flower water. (Trav. vol. iii. p. 14.) At Rosetto, remarks NIEBUHR, the first time we were received with all the Eastern ceremonies, one of our company was exceedingly surprised, when a domestic placed himnself before him, and threw water over him, as well on his face as over his clothes.
Descrip. Arabie, p. 52.
Among the Jews Sekar was used to denote every sort of inebriating liquor, whether it were made out of grain, or the juice of fruits, or a composition of honey and water, which we call mead. But anong the Arabs, remarks Dr. GEDDES, it seems chiefly to denote date-wine.
See No. 338, 342, 348.