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ten thousand men may easily find shelter under them."On the banks of the Narbudda, adds Forbes, there is an extraordinary tree of this kind ; its large trunks amount to

THE ORIGIN OF EVIL. three hundred and fifty, and the smaller ones exceed three thousand; it is nearly two thousand feet in circumference,

[Wisdom i. 12—16.] Seek not death in the error of measured round the principal stems; the overhanging

your life : and pull not upon yourselves destruction with branches, not yet struck down, cover a much larger space;

the works of your own hands. For God created all things and under it grow a number of the custard apple, and other

that they might have their being; and the generations of fruit trees.

the world were healthful: and there was no poison of See his Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. pp. 24, 26.

destruction in them, nor the kingdom of death upon the earth: but ungodly men, with their works and words,

have called it to them, and made a covenant with it. 212. [Gen. iii. 10.) God has ever testified his abhorrence of nudity. He has, particularly in the Law, enjoined his priests expressly to wear several garments to cover the whole

215. SGen. i. 31.] No system can possibly be formed, of their persons, that they might thus be distinguished from

even in imagination, without a subordination of parts. Every the pagan priests, who were not ashamed to appear naked ;

animal body must have different members, subservient to each but, on the contrary, made one of the principal parts of their

other; every picture must be composed of various colors, worship consist of this extravagance; having particular feasts,

and of light and shade; all harmony must be forined of treas those which they called their Lupercalia, appointed for bles, tenors, and basses ; every beautiful and useful edifice that abomination.

must consist of higher and lower, more and less magnificent See Livy, Decad. i. lib. 1. apartments. This is in the very essence of all created things,

and therefore cannot be prevented by any means whatever,

unless by not creating them at all: for which reason, in the 213. (Gen. iii. 1.] In our English Bible the word formation of the universe, God was obliged, in order to translated serpent, is in Hebrew Nachash*-"A great nui carry on that just subordination so necessary to the very exsance at Benares is the number of Yogees, Senassees, and

istence of the whole, to create beings of different ranks; and Nanghas, or religious mendicants who go about entirely

to bestow on various species of animals, and also on the indinaked : we occasionally," says Forbes, “ meet a few of these

viduals of the same species, various degrees of understanding, people at other places, but here they abound.”

strength, beauty, and perfection ; to the comparative want Oriental Memoirs, vol. iv. p. 86. of which advantages we give the names of folly, weakness,

deformity, and imperfection, and very unjustly repute them

evils; whereas they are blessings as far as they extend, 214, The Rabbins themselves, and many of the

though of an inferior degree. They are no more actual primitive Fathers, believed that by the unclean animals for- evils, than a small estate is a real misfortune, because many bidden by the Law, the Gentiles were meant. (Dr. A. I may be possessed of a greater. CLARKE, on Acts x. 14.)—" And God said to them, Be fruit

JENYNS' Works, vol. iii. p. 43. ful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it : and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth on the earth;" Gen. i. 28.--" And the fear of you, and the

216. - The Creator has made Man to be good. dread of you, shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon. Otherwise he, as the beasts whose character is designed to be every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth on the earth, and

ferocious, would have been furnished with claws, with fangs, upon all the fishes of the sea : into your hand are they deli

with poison, with some offensive weapon. But he is not, vered;" Gen. ix. 2.-Thus Solomon " had dominion over all like other animals, provided even with defensive armour; unthe region on this side the river, from Tiphsah even to Azzah, doubtedly in the view of his having constant recourse to the over all the kings on this side the river: and he had peace humanity of his fellow-creatures, and of extending it to on all sides round about him;" 1 King's iv. 24.—“Behold,

them in his turn.-God no more makes whole Nations of men (thus) I give to you (as reformers and civilizers of the Gentile jealous, envious, malignant, eager to surpass each other, world) power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over

ambitious, conquerors, cannibals, than He forms Nations conall the power of the enemy; and nothing shall by any means

tinually labousing under leprosy, purples, fever, small-pox. hurt you ;” Luke x. 19.—And thus “ every kind (of human If you meet an individual, subject to these physical evils, Sarages) of beasts, of birds, of serpents, and of things in

impute them without hesitation to some unwholesome aliment the sea, is tamed, and has been (civilized, or) tamed by on which he feeds, or to a putrid air which infests the neighmankind;" James iji. 7.

bourhood. In like manner when you find barbarism iu a

rising Nation, refer it solely to the errors of its policy, or to • By comparing the above facts; the intelligent Reader will perceive

the influence of its neighbours; just as in a child, to the vices clearly, thit the talking T'empter in Paradise, though called a “ Serpent,” || of education, or to bad example. was still a Mun.

St. Pierre's Arcadia, p. 194.

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217. [Prov. xxii. 6.] The great and fatal mistake in educa- || will survive the body; and in that view Providence is tion, is to imagine that children have any natural dispositions, justified. that they are naturally either cruel or passionate, proud, gener

ROUSSEAU. ous, or affectionate; and the mistake originates in this manner : . Few parents begin to educate their children till they are four

or five years old, when their tempers are completely formed, 219. [Mark x. 9.] There is no goodness in any Creature, by improper meaus ; instead of attempting to erase them by from the highest to the lowest, but in its continuing in such contrary impressions. Children, when left to themselves, a union of qualities and powers, as God has brought generally do wroug; because their first notions tend to excess, together in its Creation, Phil. ii. 13. if they are not controlled ; and consequently becoine hurtful

Law's Appeal, p. 25. to themselves and others : for this purpose, they require in their younger years, long and constant attention ; and with this it is as impossible that they should be ill disposed, as that

220. (Gen. iii. 5.] Let every one, bowever, beware of a piece of wax which has received the impression of one

falling into that execrable heresy, that God has infused Himfigure, should represent another. Just what you wish your

self into men, and that He is in them, and no longer in children to be, they will be if you take pains to make them

Himself. God is every-where, as well within man, as withso; but if a child is eager and impatient for every thing he

out him; being, without space, in all space. If He were sees and it is constantly given to him, you must expect that in (finite) man, he would not only be divisible, but also inhe will never bear to be denied. If you suffer him to refuse cluded in space : in that case also, a man might think himself every thing he is asked for, you must expect him to be selfish

to be a god. and illiberal; if you suffer him to strike or ill-treat those be

SWEDENBORG's Divine Love, n. 130. neath him with impunity, you must not wonder if he becomes proud and haughty; if you never teach bim to be gentle and affectionate, you must expect bim to be coarse and cruel; if

221. [1 Chron. xxix. 11.] All the perfections communicated you never permit him to take air and exercise, he will be punv

to men, or angels, being emanations of the Divine excellencies, and tender; if you supply all his wants, and never leave him

do as much belong to God, as in a bright day, all the luminous to do any thing for himself, he will neither be active nor

beains, that are to be found in the air, belong to the sun-in healthy ; but if you use him to manly (xercises, he will be

whom they are united, and from whom they all proceeded. strong and vigorous ; and if you teach him forbearance, he

Boyle, on the High Veneration Man's will bear fatigue and difficulty. Our involuntary impressions

Intellect owes to God, p. 78. being much more easily acquired than those we receive by the exertion of the will, example is generally found to be stronger than precept; it is of infinite importance, therefore, that we never expect from our children that which

222. (Isai. xlv. 7.] The same Qualities, infinitely good we do not do ourselves, and that all we enjoin or forbid and perfect in God, may become imperfect and evil in the should be strengthened by the powerful authority of our own

Creature; because in the Creature, being limited and fiuite, example.

they may be divided and separated from one another by the BURDON's Materials for Thinking, p. 220.

Law's Appeal, p. 24.

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218. (Gen. i. 31.] Inquire no longer, inan! who is the author 223. (Rom. i. 25.) There is no Evil, no Guilt, 10 Deforof evil : behold him in yourself. There exists no other evilmity in any Creature, but in its dividing and separating in nature, but what you do or suffer ; and you are equally the itself from something which God had given to be in union author of both. A general evil could exist only in disorder; \ with it. but in the system of nature, there is established order which

Ibid. p. 21. is never disturbed. Particular evil exists only in the sentiment of the suffering being; and this sentiment is not given to man by nature, but is of his own acquisition. Pain and | 224. (Gen. iii. 5.) If a man suffer himself so far to be sorrow have but little hold of those who, unaccustomed to misled as to think, that he is not a recipient of life, but reflection, have neither foresight nor memory. Take away life itself, he cannot be induced to think otherwise than that our fatal improvements, take away our errors and vices; take he is a god (or as a god). (SWEDENBORG, on Divine away, in short, every thing that is the work of man; and all Love, n. 4.)--As he that assuines a king's titles and prero. the rest is good. Let us be first virtuous; and, rest assuredl, gatives, is that king's greatest enemy; so he that affects to we shall be happy sooner or later. Let us not require the be as God in wisdom and goodness, is virtually become the prize, before we have got the victory ; nor demand the price direct opposite to all that is Divine. Thus man originally of our labor, before the work is finished. It is not in the fell, or became infernal; and thus the self-wise, and selfliets, says Plutarch, that the victors at our games are crowned, righteous in all ages, ever sin" after the similitude of Adam's but after the conquest is over. The soul is immaterial, and transgression.”

225. (Gen. iii. 17.) But that all the descendants from 1 230. - Whatever may be the cause or causes, the Adam fell also under the curse of God's wrath, and de- fact seems to be, that women of color have easier parturiserred eternal damnation, through the iinputation of their || tions, in general, than white Europeans. parents' sin, is a harsh opinion, which reflects severely on

White's Regular Gradation in Man, p. 73. God's justice and goodness, and does not appear to be included in any of the denunciations contained in the third Chapter of Genesis. Yet St. Austin maintained the doctrine, and has even in our day many disciples under the de 231. (Gen. jii. 17.) Cursed is the ground for thy sake, nomination of Supralapsarians ; though the prophet Ezekiel | in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. is directed to declare, Chap. xviii. 20, that the son shall not bear the iniquity of the father; and though Jesus Christ

The matter which is cursed, is not the orb Himself assures us, Matt. xviii. 3, that, unless we be con of earth and water, as has been asserted, but the productive verted, and become as little children, we shall not enter matter of which fruit, food, &c., are forined; and perhaps it into the kingdom of heaven. Now, if all children were would be better sense, if the word, bebolek, be read, in thy boru under the curse, to be converted into their state, or to provision or food ; in sorrow shalt thou eat it. (HUTCHIN. become like them, would be an inevitable preparation in an SON's Introduc. to Moses' sine Principio, p. cxcii.) adult for hell, not heaven.

After the mind of man was perverted, his sphere commuSee, on this subject, STACKHouse's Body of Divinity, nicated into the earth the essential forms of noxious plants p. 295, &c.

and vegetables ; and then also the herb of the field, or wild herbs, became part of his food. He was no longer fed with

the garden productions of Eden alone, 226.

- Original sin is a contradiction in terms :original signifying innate, and sin the act of an accountable being. By this expression, therefore, of original sin, canuot be meant original or innate guilt, for that is absolute non

CAIN AND ABEL. sense; but only an original depravity, or an innate disposi

[Gen. iv. 4, 5.) And the Lord had respect to Abel, and tion to sin. 1 John iii. 4.

ll to his offering ; but unto Cain, and to his offering, he Jenyns' Works, vol. v.p. 108.

had not respect.

232. [Gen. ii. 8.] The true Patriarchs, from Adam to Moses, appear to have been each, constituted of God, Prophet, Priest, and King.

HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason recovered,

pp. 62–68, 89, 94, 96.

227. (Gen. iii. 16.] Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrows and thy conception; in sorTow thou shalt bring forth children.

This curse, as it is called, applies only to a certain species of women, whole nations of females being entirely free from it. (See MONTAIGNE des Ess. I. i. c. 14.) This hint may lead to a discovery of the people and place where Paradise originally existed.-Is not child-birth comparatively easy among the Indians, under the Equator, particularly in Great Tartary ? But do not the pains of conception and the sorrows of parturition increase even among the Indians, when removed to another, a less genial climate ?

233. [Gen. iv. 5.) In this instance Cain, like Esau, had forfeited his birth-right, but inight, on his goud behaviour, be re-instated, and have Abel under him. The word, nasha, elevare, denotes restoration to that high dignity, which, Gen. xxiii. 6, is denominated Princeps Elohim, or God's chief-priest ; the person from whom God would accept the sacrifice : and by accepting it from Abel, had for that time instituted him in the office. Levit. ix. 23, 24. HUTCHINSON's Introduc. to Moses' sine Principio,

p. ccxxxii.

228.

The women of Africa always deliver themselves, and are well a few hours after; while those of Europe require assistance, and recover more slowly.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, &c., vol. ii. p. 47.

229.

In Hindostan, the women are exceeding happy in having easy labor ; it is even common to see them one day riding big with child, and the next day ride again, carrying the infants in their arms. See Terry, Voy. to Ind. sect. xvii. p. 430.; and THEVENOT,

part iii. ch. 24. p. 47.

234. [Gen, iv. 4.) At the hill of Vulcan, in Sicily, they who
perform sacred rites, spread branches of the vine-tree on the
allar, but apply no fire to the materials so piled aloft: if the
deity be propitious and approve the ordinance, the super-
induced branches, being properly cut for the purpose, though
green and bleeding, spontaneously catch fire, without any
accession of inflammatory matter, purely by virtue of a divine
influence.
See Solinus Polyhistor, cap. v. in fine, as quoted by Dr.

A. CLARKE on Lev. ix. 22.
See the account of a similar spontaneous combustion, in Ler. 11. 94.

235. [Job xxxvï. 18.] The Jews, after the first temple 242. [Gen. iv. 11.] When Marcus Crassus set out on his was destroyed, used to collect fire by burning glasses from expedition against the Parthians, Atteius, tribune of the peothe heaveus for their sacrifices ; as did the Heathens, for their l ple, ran to the Gate of the city; and, setting there a chaffingsacred fire.

dish with fire in it, as Crassus drew near he offered odors Hutchinson's Principia, part. ii. p. 140. and libations ; and pronounced curses against Crassus as he See Exod. xxxviii. 8.

poured them out, thus excommunicating him. Acts xxii. 20.

Porter's Grecian Antiq. vol. i. p. 287. also Pantologia.

236. - When Seleucus, who accompanied Alexander in his expedition from Macedonia, was sacrificing at Pella to Jupiter, the wood advanced of its own accord towards the Image, and was kindled without fire.

Pausanias : as quoted by PARKHURST, Heb. Lex. p. 755.

243. [Gen. iv. 15.) The Marquis of Beccaria (in bis celebrated Essay on Crimes and Punishments) contends, that man in no case whatever is to be justified in taking the life of a fellow creature ; that, in the instance of murder, to punish the murderers with death, is to commit another murder; and that no Divine Law warrants the driving a criminal into the presence of his CREATOR.-Under the inAuence of this idea, murderers, by the most autient laws of some Christian churches, were subjected to a perpetual penance all their lives.

Bingham's Antiq. vol. ii. p. 133.

237. [Gen, viii. 20.] In India, the caste Payshya, founded by Menu or Noah, supply the public with rice, corn, mustard, ginger, pease, millet, naize, and other articles of the like kind; but they preserve their butter and milk entirely for their kings, their Brahmins, and their temples, that the gods may never be in want of such offerings.

BARTOLOMEO, p. 306.

238. [Gen. iv. 4.]

Thrice happy race! that, innocent of blood,
From milk, innoxious, seek their simple food.

Iliad, lib. 13.

244. [Gen. iv. 12.) Rejection of caste however, the severest human punishment inflicted by the laws of Menu, must to a Hindoo appear much worse than death : hurled from the high privileges of a Brahmin or a Nair, the delinquent of either sex is obliged to enter the tribe of Pariars, the outcasts of all raviks of society ; in which both they and their offspring are compelled to remain for ever! No virtue, no talent, no merit of a child can ever atone for the venial sin of the parent, whose whole posterity must feel the full effects of the dreadful sentence: none are to pray, to sacrifice, to read, or to speak with the hapless culprit ; none are to be allied by friendship or by marriage; none to eat or to drink with him; he is become abject, and excluded from all social duties; to wander over the earth, deserted by all, trusted by none; never to be received with affection, nor treated with kindness; but to be branded with infamy and shame.

See FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 306.

239. [Gen. iv. 8.) And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

Anathema signifies something set apart, separated, devoted. It is understood principally to denote the absolute, irrevocable, and entire separation of a person from the communion of the faithful, from the number of the living, or from the privileges of society.

CALMET's Dictionary.

240. - Among the Jews, not only the Judges, but even private persons, bad a right to excommunicate : if the grounds were allowable, the excommunication was good; if not, the person who excommunicated another, was himself excommunicated.

Wilson's Archæological Dict:

245.

The cominon lot of slaves, says Dr. John Taylor, was with the antients, in many circumstances, very deplorable. They were held for no men, for dead inen, for | beasts ;- they had no head in the state, no name, tribe or register. They were not capable of being injured; could not inherit property, had no heirs, and were excluded from all civil concerns.

PARKHURST's Greek Lex. p. 174.

241.

During the first eight centuries, the Greek and Roman Churches were in communion with each other; 246. [Gen. iv. 16.] Grotius and Junius are of opinion that but in the ninth century, their disputes became so violent,

the country, into which Cain retired, was Desert Arabia ; that a final separation took place between them. A Patriarch

which lies, as the Septuagint translate Nod, over against was elected for Constantinople as head of the Greek Church;

Eden, but he was soon escominunicated by the Pope, as head of

See WELL's Geog. of the Old Testament, the Romish Church ; the Pope in return was excommunicated by the Patriarch.

Jones's Dictionary of Religious Opinions, p. 76. ||

252. (Gen. v. 3.) Among the natives of America, time is even yet calculated by moons.

Captain Dixon.

THE ANTEDILUVIANS.

247. (Gen. 1. 5.) And all the days that Adam lived |

253.

At the Pelew Islands, they reckon their were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died.

periods of time in the same manner.—Abba Thulle, on the

departure of his son Lee Boo, for England, tied thirty knots or - " As Pharaoh was the name of all succeed.

a cord, as a memento that his darling boy would return in ing kings in Egypt,” and as Levi characterized the Jewish

thirty moons, or, perhaps, a few more, for which he was wilpriesthood as long as it subsisted in a regular succession; so

ling to make allowance. Those moons have long since perAdam, Seth, Enos, &c., were probably the names of formed their revolutions. The knots are untied ; and yet the religious founders, continuing to distinguish their respective reader, who has seen the tomb erected by the East India followers; as Israel and Edom became the specific appella Company in Rotherhithe church-yard, knows, that Lee Boo tions of their descendants and proselytes for many generations. I can return no more!

Wilson's Voy. by Keate.

248. [Gen. v. 2.) At the beginning of the fourteenth century, Khwajah Rashi'd, surnamed Fab'lu’LLAH, a na

254. - At Otaheite, all accounts agreed, that tive of Kasvin ; compiled his account of the Tartars and

Omai had died a natural death, about thirty moons after Mongals from the papers of one PU'LA's, whom the great captain Cook's departure. grandson of HoLacu' had sent into Tátáristan for the sole

CAPTAIN Bligh. purpose of collecting historical information ; and the commission itself shews, how little the Tartarian Princes really knew of their own origin. From this work of Rashi's, and 255. (Gen. xlvii. 9.] The Gonaquas measure the year by from other materials, ABU’’LGHA'Zı', King of Khwárezm, com- | the epochs of droughty and rainy weather. This division is posed in the Mogul language his Genealogical History, general with all the inhabitants of the tropical regions. which, having been purchased from a merchant of Bokhárd

Le VAILLANT's Africa, vol. ii. p. 47, by some Swedish officers, prisoners of war in Siberia, bas found its way into several European tougues : it contains much valuable matter, but, like all MUHAMMEDAN histories,

256. exhibits TRIBES or NATIONS as INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNS.

It would appear whimsical to read a GreenWorks of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 78.

land calendar, in which we might be told, That one of their chiefs having lived forty days, died, at last, of a good old age; and that his widow continued for half a day, to deplore bis loss, with great fidelity, before she admitted a second

husband. 249. (Gen. v. 27.] The notion of a man's living to the

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, vol. i. p. 387. age of 600 or 1000 years, was Egyptian.—How is this reconcileable with their precise knowledge of a solar year, and with their fixing the age of men, one with another, to the term of 28 years ?--This has suggested a supposition, 257. (Gen. xlvii. 8.) The Egyptians reckoned their years that by the 600 or 1000 years in question, they meant the by the inundations of the Nile, which overflowed twice in duration of a tribe or dynasty, distinguished by the name of | every solar year. its founder.

Long Livers, p. 37 WEBB's Pauw, p. 275.

250. (Gen. ij. 19.) By the names (apparently personal), in the first chapters of Genesis, are meant only Churches.

SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 1,114.

258. [Gen. v. 4.] The nearest planet to the Sun is Mercury, which (at the distance of thirty-six or thirty-seven millions of miles) revolves about him in eighty-eight days ; this is the length of his year.

The second planet in order from the sun is Venus, dislaut about sixty-six millions of miles : her year is neariy two hundred and twenty-five of our days.

Wonders of the Telescope, pp. 7, 8. See No. 15.

251. (Gen. v. 5.] The Egyptians introduce an infinite number of years into their genealogies, because they reckon months for years.

UTARCH.

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