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2254. [- 2.] A Gentile says to an Israelite, ‘1 have a choice dish for thee to eat of.' He says, 'What is it ?' He answers, Swine's flesh. He answers to him, • Rekah! even what you kill of clean beasts, is forbidden us, much more this.'

Tanchum, fol. 18, col. 4. - Quoted



2-8.] The prohibitions here given are respecting the animals that give milk not fit for food. In consequence of not chewing the cud, their milk is crude and unwholesome. Who, for instance, could think of eating swine's milk? - Those animals, whose milk is not proper for human use, should not be domesticated, not 'touched in the operation of milking. - The breed of domesticated ani. mals, by milking the females, would never become too numerous.

That some men ruminate, the accounts of authors are sufficiently explicit to put beyond all doubt; particularly the instances collected by Peyer from FABRICius ab aquapendente and others, as well as from his cotemporaries, in all six or seven instances. - A case of this kind, says Mr. Home, has come within my own observation : which case he describes in the Phil. Trans. of the R. S. for the year 1807, p. 174.

2260. [ 8.] Swine-herds, says HERODOTUS, were so abominable in the eyes of their countrymen in Egypt, that they were not allowed to enter their temples : none would either give them their daughters, or take theirs in marriage; but they were obliged to marry among themselves.

Euterpe, xlvii. All over China there are dog-butchers, and shainbles appointed for selling their flesh. Io Canton, particularly, there is a street appointed for that purpose; and what is very extraordinary, wherever a dog-butcher appears, all the dogs of the place are sure to be in full cry after him ; they know their enemy, and persecute hiin as far as they are able.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth,

vol. iii. p. 297.


Worms, according to a late discovery of the celebrated Naturalist Gotze, in Germany, are natural to swine. They reside in the cartilaginous vesicles of the liver, and when these vesicles burst in very hot weather, while the worms are yet extremely small, they pass into the blood with other fluids, and gradually increase in size. — Should it be found, that these animalculæ become visible externally, and in great quantities, the butchers ought not to be permitted to kill such hogs, as the flesh easily acquires an uncommon acrimony, is much disposed to putrefy, and consequeutly improper to be used as food. See No. 103— 106.


2256. [ 3.] The clean animals are such as are not carnivorous. Their instincts are to direct us in the choice of our foods. What they eat, we may eat also. The principal domestic kinds even determine in this way, what should be selected for sacrifice.

Vine-leaves are not alone foul winter's prey,
But oft by summer-suns are scorch'd away,
And, worse than both, become th' unworthy browze
Of buffaloes, salt-goats, and hungry cows.

Dryden's VIRGIL, Georg. ii. l. 515.

2262. [ 9.] At Moorshedabad, the Mogul capital of the province of Bengal, one of the gardens, says FORBES, contained a large pellucid tank, stored with tame fish which were taught to repair daily to the steps for food, and perforin

certaiu evolutions. We regaled thern, he adds, with sweetmeats from the bazar, and were much amused by their docility.

Orient. Memoirs, vol. iv. p. 97.

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2263. [Lev. xi. 10.) They who live near Thebes, and the lake Mæris, hold the crocodile in religious veneration : they select one, which they Tender tanie (Jas. iii. 7) and docile, suspending golden oruaments froin its ears, and sometimes gems of value; the fore feet are secured by a chain. They feed it with the flesh of the sacred victims, and with other appointed food. While it lives they treat it with unceasing attention, and when it dies, it is first embalmed, and afterwards deposited in a sacred chest.

The hippopotamus is esteemed sacred in the district of Papremis, but in no other part of Egypt.

The Egyptians venerate others, as they do also the fish called lepidotus, and the eel: these are sacred to the Nile, as among the birds is one called the chenalopex. . In the vicinity of Thebes there are also sacred serpents, very small, with two horns on the top of the head : when these die, they are buried in the temple of Jupiter, to whom they are said to belong.

See Herodot. Euterpe, lxix, lxxi,

lxxii, lxxiv.

2267. - In the English colonies of North America, it was remarked, says MICHAELIS, that the Little Crow of Virginia frequented the peas-fields; and in order to put a stop to its ravages for ever, its utter extirpation was resolved on. But this was no sooner effected, than an insect of the beetle kiud, which had always been knowu to do also some mischief to the peas, multiplied to such a degree that very few peas were left. Au intelligent naturalist thought this occurrence worth investigation, and found that the crows were not in quest of peas, but only devouring these beetles; and, of course, that had they not been extirpated, these insecls could not have increased so much, and the crops of peas would have been more abundant. — At somewhat less expense, the same truth was some time ago confirmed in Sweden. The Common Crow was thought to be too fond of the young rools of grass, being observed sometimes to pick them out, and lay them bare. Orders were therefore given to the people to be at all pains to extirpate thein ; till some person, more judicious, opposed this, and shewed that it was not the roots of the grass, but the destructive caterpillars of certain insects which fud on them, that the crows searched for and devoured. - For a fuller and more detailed account of both facts, Michaelis refers to the Hanover Magazine for the year 1767, p. 6:22, &c.

See No. 1428.

2264. [- 13, &c.] When it is said, “Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat, we understand the prohibition to mean, that man was not to eat its fruit : This we understand. aright immediately, because we have not been accustomed to eat the wood or branches of trees. Bạt when we read here of 'fowls that shall not be eaten', we do not so immediately understand ourselves prohibited to eat their fruit or egys; because, in the present depraved state of human appetite and feeling, we every where behold men, like birds of prey, tearing and devouring the limbs and the flesh of fowls. The law of Moses, however, in permitting us to take eggs from a bird's nest, humanely forbids our taking the dam. (See Deut. xxij. 6.) — The fact is, in eating the egg we eat the fowl in miniature, but we destroy not any sentient life; and thus do not kill, any more than when we eat vegetable seed.

See No. 68.

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2265. ( 14.] The vulture is a creature the least mischievous of any, pernicious Deither to corn, plants, nor cattle. It only feeds on dead carcases, but neither kills nor preys upon any thing that has life. As for birds, it does pot touch them even when dead, because they are of its own nature.

PLUTARCH, vol. i. p. 88. Wbat bird is clean that fellow-birds devours ? - ÆSCHYLUS.

2270. ( 17. The great owl] The Ibis. This bird was held sacred by the Egyptians, because it devoured the snakes in the deserts before they came into Egypt. — Also

p. 423.

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the Seleucis, or, as the Persians call it, Abmelek, was held Gesner's Ornithology, - renders, according to Hasselquist, sacred for clearing the land of the locusts that infest it; and important services to the people of Egypt, Palestine, and the Megagarus, because it destroys the fearful swarms of Arabia ; in destroying the dead asses and camels, with which fies that overspread Egypt.

the track of the caravans from Cairo to Mecca always See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii. abouuds, and which, by their stench, could not fail to pro

duce putrid diseases. For the service it thus does the country, the people are so grateful, that devout and opulent Ma. hoinetans are wont to establish foundations for its support.

These eleemosynary institutions, and the sacred regard shewa 2271. [Leo. xi. 17.] The ibis is of the size of a raven

to these birds by the Mahometans, -are likewise testified by hen, and is seen in great numbers, duriog the overflowing of

Dr. Shaw, in his Travels. the Nile, in those places which the water does not reach, and

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii. afterwards in the places which the water has deserted. It feeds on insects and small frogs, which abound in Egypt during the inundation of the Nile, and for some time after, being by this means of great service to the country. They often assemble, particularly mornings and evenings, in the gardens,

2276. [Lev. xi. 18.] The wood pelican, correctly figured in such numbers as to cover the palm-trees. When this bird by Catesby, seeds on serpents, young crocodiles, frogs, and rests it sits upright, so as to cover its feet with its tail, and

other reptiles. He is commonly seep near the banks of great raises the breast and neck.

rivers, in vast marshes or meadows, especially such as are HASSELQUIST.

caused by inondations ; and also on the vast deserted rice plantations: he stands alone on the topmost limb of tall dead cypress-trees, his neck contracted or drawn in upon his shoul

ders, and beak resting like a long scythe on his breast : in 2272. —

To the Egyptian Ibis has succceded the this pensive posture and solitary situation, he looks extremely stork, a bird now become so excessively numerous in that grave, sorrowful, and melancholy, as if in the deepest country, that Dr. Shaw tells us he observed three flights of thought. He is never seen on the sall-sea coast, and yet is them, in their passage from Egypt into Syria, as he lay at never found at a great distance from it. He appears to be of anchor at the foot of Mount Carmel, each of which took up a different genus from the tantalus, and perhaps approaches more than three hours in passing by, and extended itself nearest to the Egyptian ibis of any other bird yet known. above half a mile. (See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xiv.

BARTRAM's Trav. p. 147. p. 162.) – Is it not hence probable, that the modern stork is, at least, a species of the antient Ibis ?


The vultur perenopterus : - The ap

pearance of this bird is as horrid as can well be imagined. 2273.

It was a capital offence in antient Egypt The face is naked and wrinkled ; the eyes are large and to kill an ibis or a hawk; the former was venerated because black; the beak black and crooked; the talons large and it devoured the serpents and reptiles which bred in the extended ready for prey; and the whole body polluted with country after the inundation of the Nile : the inhabitants of filth : qualities enough to make the beholders shudder with Holland are as strongly attached to the stork, because it horror. destroys the rats, mice, and other vermin which undermine

HASSELQUIST, p. 194. their dykes.

Forbes' Orient. Memoirs,
vol. ii. p. 308.

2278. - 19.7 As to uncommon birds, there are bred vast quantities of an extraordinary beauty in the

plains of Grand Tartary. That mentioned by Abu'lghazi 2274. - A very rare bird, the Bay Ibis (Tan!alus

Khân seems to be a kind of heron (Bentink thinks it may be Fancinellus of Linueus) was in Nov. 1814, shot in Wales,

the stork) which is found in the country of the Moguls and reposited with Dr. Dyer, of Bristol. There is only one

towards the frontiers of China. It is all over white, except other British specimen known to naturalists, and that was

the back, wings, and tail ; which are of a very fine red. shot the 26th of September 1793, while skimming with

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 289. another over the Kiver Thames between Henley and Reading.

Public Prints.

2279. - The crested heron is only the male, pot

another species : it makes a most beautiful appearance with 2275. [- 18.] The Racham, the Mountain Falcon | its snowy neck and long crest streaming in the wind. of Linneus, the Egyptian Vulture, the Perenopterus of

PINKERTON's Coll. part ix. p. 8.

2285. [Lev. xi. 25.] These lares used to be placed near fire-places.

2280. [Lev. xi. 19.) Almost all the different species of 1 tcood-peckers are very noxious to the maize, when it begins to ripen ; for by picking holes in the membranc round the ear, the rain gets in, and causes the ear, with all the corn it contains, to rot.

See Kalm's Trad. Pinkerton's

Coll. part liii. p. 425.

2286. [ 30.] The Chameleon swarms all over Africa.

Modern Univer. Hist, vol. xiv. p. 85. The learned PANCIROLUS Romanus, in his anatomy of the chameleon, assures us that it is altogether of a gray or ash color (the bue it actually retains after death); and that, whatever change is observed in it, is not caused by the proximity of any object, but is rather owing, as many suppose, to the transparency of its fat and emaciated body, through which the objects on the other side easily transmit their various colors,

Ibid. note.

2281. [- 20.] Of volant animals in Africa, we may mention, as very remarkable, what the vatives call the fourwinged bird ; not that it has really so many, but because there is a kind of additional one which grows at the end of each of its pinions which leaves a kind of chasm between, so that, when it spreads them abroad, they look so like double wings, that any person might easily suppose it to have four wings. It is a bird of prey, and of the size of a large turkey-cock, well shaped in body, with a fine tuft on its head, a large hooked bill, and its feet armed with long claws. What is most singular in this creature, we are told, that it stirs not out for its prey but in the night, or dusk of the evening, and yet finds provision enough to keep itself, contrary to other birds of prey, fat and full of flesh. (Modern Unitcr. Hist. vol. xiv. p. 81.) - Is not this a marvellous description of the large oriental bat ?

stirs not, and yet, Sist of prey, 1.– 15 16

2287. - The skin of the chameleon seems to be in some respects similar to a mirror, which reflects without distinction, all the coloured light that falls on it.

Priestley's Hist. of Vision, p. 130. —

Sec Forbes' account of the cameleon, in his Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 198.

2282. [- 22.] In order to paint the air, the vicissi. tudes and agitation of which every body feels though it be invisible, the Egyptians in their symbolical writing made use of the scarabeus or the wings of a fluttering insect, the motions of which wary every instant. To intimate that He who rules the motions and changes of the air, is likewise the dispenser of the productions of the earth, and the master of the seasons; a globe, accompanied with the wings of the scarabeus or butterfly, is found at the top of most of their pictures relating to religion.

Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Head.

vol. i.p. 44.


Leto, and letoa, lacerta, the lizard. Abbe Pluche’s Hist. of the Heav. vol. i. p. 160. At Cairo, a singular species of lizard made its appearance in every chamber, having circular membranes at the extremity of its feet, which gave it such teuacity that it crawled on panes of glass, or ou the surface of pendent mirrors. This revolting siglit was common to every apartment, whether in the houses of the rich or of the poor. .


2283. [ 23, &c.] The unclean animals in this Chapter are such as were used by the augurs in prognosticating future events. — Those who thus looked to thein instead of God for direction, made them, as it were, the source of an unclean or unholy influence. — These animals were kept by the augurs, as Fort tellers of Weather, &c.

See Deut. iv. 16 – 18.


In autient Egypt, they prevented the plague from breaking out, by very great attention to cleanliness, and especially by burying all the dead animals which the Nile left behind it, of which lizards are the most noxious.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iii.

p. 333.

2284. [ 24.] For an Egyptian Priest to touch a dead body was an abomination, aud required to be justantly expiated.


2290. - 34.] Perhaps many of our diseases arise from such waters as have monoculi in them. I have frequently observed, says Kalm, abundance of these minule insects in water taken frem the deepest wells, which has been also remarkable for its clearness.

See Pinkerlon's Coll. part liv.

P. 583.

2291. (Lev. xi. 34.] The Persians are much inore scru. || the significant figures relating to each of these months pulous than any other Eastern nations in permitting foreigners 1 were put, in order to inform the young priests educated there to go into their baths. — A Mr. Jones, a gentleman of the ll of the order of the heaven and the Egyptian polity. Bassora-factory, while residing at Shirauz, going one night

Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Heao. to the bath there, after he was undressed, was informed by

vol. i. p. 143. the keeper of the house, who understood he was an European, that he must dress himself immediately, and quit the place; alleging in excuse, that if it were known he had admitted a Feringy (a Christian), he should lose both his custom

2298. [Leo. xi. 46,47.] The animals of the zodiac denote and reputation, as the bath would thereby be deemed pol uot sidereal constellations, but societies of good and evil spi. luted.

rits seen in the spiritual spheres around our earth, and referred FRANCKLIN. — Pinkerton's Coll. to by the ancient sages, as directly under the different colle vol. ix. p. 243.

stellations. The spiritual sphere of a constellation, dipping in the spiritual atmosphere of our earth, gives, according

to their combined qualities, a receptacle for good or evil 2292. [- 36.] We hence see the reason, why the

spirits represented there in the appearance of good animals Antients, particularly the Patriarchs, were so auxious to

or of evil beasts. The prohibitions in this Chapter denote

that the sacrificial offerings of Gentiles, cousecrated under dig and preserve wells for their cattle, and for every do

the influence of evil societies, were not to be eaten in the mestic use.

Jewish Church. - It is very remarkable, that the zodiac of the Iudians contains the same signs as that of the Greeks and

other western pations ; that these signs were, in part, used by 2293. [ 40. He that eateth of the carcase] That

the Egyptians; and, as limited bere by Moses, still more is, what has beeu touched by the carcase of it; for no one

partially by the Jews. The Turks, Persiaus, Tartars and would eat of the dead carcase itself, peither is it allowable

Chinese have iu their zodiac a series of signis totally different, on any account.

consequently must have derived their knowledge from a different source; but at the same time from a people who had ob

served the courses of the heavenly bodies (and their conco2294.

The Egyptian priests, says HeRODOTUS, mitant societies, perhaps in the opposite hemisphere). On are so regardful of neatness, that they wear only linen, and the whole, it should seem that the people of Upper Egypt that always newly washed. — They wash themselves in aud Nubia, who were considered as Ethiopians, were the first cold water twice in the course of the day, and as often in (at least in their hemisphere) who had a knowledge of the the night.

planets and heavenly bodies; and that their knowledge was Euterpe, n. 37. communicated to the Egyptians, Arabians, and Indians, and

to the whole East.

As the Iudians believe that the world was created under

the sign Aries, on the commencement of April, when the sun 2295. [ 42.] The most dreadful of all the African

enters into that sign, they offer sacrifice to the sun and the insects are their ants, of which they have such a variety, and

planets, in order that the genii of these stars may confer such innumerable swarms, that they destroy not only the

good fortune and happiness on their worshippers during the fruits of the ground, bat even men and beasts, in so short a

course of the new year. time as one siugle night ; and would, without all doubt, prove

A complete revolution of signs and fixed stars, they say, more fatally destructive to the inhabitants, were they not de

cannot pass from the Eastern to the Western hemisphere in stroyed by a proportionable number of monkeys, that gree

less than 24,000 years. dily ferret and devour them. Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xiv.

See BARTOLOMEO, note by Forster, pp. 347, 348. p. 86.

The Redemption effected by Jesus Christ extending to the spiritual world, the societies of evil spirits previously

stationed in the unclean bestial and reptile appearances under 2296. A single female house-fly, according to

their respective constellations and planets, were ejected, the

zodiacal creatures seen by Peter thus cleansed, the GenKELLER, is capable of producing in one season, twenty mil

tile world redeemed, aud the spiritual “obsessing” hells relions eighty thousand three bundred and twenty !

moved from mankind,

Before the Incarnation, the influence of heaven came

through the spiritual societies represented by the clean zo2297. [ 45] As the Cretians had their original and diacal beasts specified in this Chapter. Since the glorireligious customs from Egypt, on this account they had at fication, all heavenly influence comes to meu through Jesus first a labyrinth of their own, or a place divided into as Christ alone, the true and genuine Mediator now of God and many apartments as there were months in the year, where

cold water te newly washed that they weaty o HERODOTO


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