Sidor som bilder

tural could be offensively obscene (Sir W. Jones' Works, vol. i. p. 261.); a singularity, which pervades all their pritings and conversation, but it is no proof of depravity in their morals.

: As in the eucharisäical bread and wine, filled with Divine influences, we are said to eat the flesh and blood of Jesus Christ; so in the meat and drink offering, and in the flesh and blood of grapes, when consecrated under the zodiacal influence of good animal-appearing societies in the spiritual world, the Jews were said to eat the flesh and pour out the blood of lambs, rams, calves, bulls, and goats.

In allusion to such animal appearances under the constellations and planets, “ the front and doors of the pagodas on the coast of Coromandel are ornamented with figures of various kinds, which have a symbolical meaning, and represent the Vahana, or riding animals of the gods.

Ibid. p. 380. The Budhists believe that after the spiritual part of man has transmigrated in succession through a sufficient number of (zodiacal) bodies, it is received into the Nimban, that is, eternity (or the eternal world, the heaven of heavens). See No. 101, 114, 115, 920,

Ibid. p. 435. 909, 100, 889.

2303. [Lev. xii. 1-4] Among the Hindoos, the mother, till ten days after childbed, is touched by none but a dry nurse : nor is allowed to have a hand in dressing victuals till the forty days of purification be over.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi. p. 278.


- The Japanes women, when ready to lie-in, are removed into separate houses, into which the men are not permitted to come, during the space of about three weeks.

Ibid. vol. ix. p. 156.


- In Little Buk hâria, the women are reckoned impure forty days after their delivery

. Ibid. vol. v. p. 136.

2299. [Lev. xii.) Now follow cases of such impurity as precluded persons from mixing their spheres with the general sphere rising upon Jehovah froin his people the Jews. — As in the Jewish church, the human spirit of charity which invested the Grand Mau of the solar system into a Jehovah, went up from the people, it was therefore absolutely necessary that every person should be kept apart from the congregation wlio was not in a state of external as well as internal purity.

2306. [- 2,5.] HIPPOCRATES, in his Book de Na. tura Puerp., says, women are sooner purged after the birth of males than females, if they suckle the children.

See No. 890.

2300. 1- 1.) Iu India, a woman for a certain time 2307. [Leo. xiii. 2.) Moses mentions three sorts of after her delivery is considered as unclean; and must remain || leprosy; In I. men; 2. houses; and 3. clothes. a stated period, differing according to her caste, in a separate

CALMET. apartment, in order that the other inhabitants of the house

This dreadful disorder has its name leprosy from a Greek may not render themselves impure, contrary to the strict

word which signifies a scale, because in this disease the body prohibition of their religion.

was often covered with thin white scales, so as to give it the BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 255.

appearance of snow. Hence it is said of the hand of Moses, Exod. iv. 6, that it was leprous as snow ; and of Miriam, Num. xii. 10, that she became leprous, as white as snow;

and of Gehazi, 2 Kings v. 27, that being judicially struck 2301. [- 2.] Among the Malabar Indians, it is

with the disease of Naaman, he went out of Elisha's preesteemed unworthy of a man to inake use of, Ist, a sick wo

sence a leper, as white as snow. lan; 2d, one who has her monthly purifications ; 3d, one

2 Chron. xxvi. 20. who is pregnant; 4th, one who has been divorced ; 5th, one who has been proscribed, or excluded from her caste ; 6th, one who has no shame; 7th, one who is afraid of the inysteries of love.

2308. - As to the cause of the leprosy, CALMET. Ibid. p. 282. is of opinion, that whatever might be the remote causes of

ibis distemper, it was probably owing to little worms, or animalcules, burrowing between the skin and the flesh, which

though not perceptible to the naked eye, are seen by micros2302. [ 4.] It never seems to have entered the heads copes, as is found to be the case in other cutaneous disorders, of the legislators or people of Hindostan, that any thing pa- || particularly in that loathsome distemper, the itch.

2309. (Lev. xiii. 2.) M. PEYSSONEL, a physician, who | 2312. [Lev. xii. 25.] The hair is a small animalcule, was sent by the court of France to Guadaloupe to enquire I visible to the naked eye. It is visible in the matter expeeinto the nature of the leprosy that bad broken out in that torated in a scrofulous consumption : is transferrable to other island, writes as follows, on the 3d. February, 1759, “ It persons by contact; will eat garments, and the mortar of is now about 25 or 30 years, since a singular disease ap. houses. — From certain facts, it should appear, that after a peared on many of the inhabitants of this island. Its stated time, this animalcule takes wing, and passes as a blue commencement is imperceptible. There appear only some mist over whole countries, at the rate of about three few spots on the skin, which, in the Whites, are of a German miles a-day, spreading universal desolation throughblackish red color, and in the Blacks, of a copper-red. At out its awful sweep. In this latter state, it constitutes a first, they are attended neither with pain, nor any sort of pestilence communicated from the air directly into the lungs. inconvenience; but no means whatever will remove them. As such, it has arisen from Graves opened in Churches, and The disease imperceptibly increases, and continues for many killed numbers who attended re-interments in such graves, years to manifest itself more and more. The spots become and divine service afterwards in such contaminated Churches. larger, and spread over the skin of the whole body indiscri - With accounts of these things, all history abouuds. minately : sometimes a little elevated, though flat. When Verse 26.] Hence the Black Fever, or common Plague. the disease advances, the upper part of the nose swells, the nostrils become enlarged, and the nose itself soft. Tumors appear on the jaws; the eye-brows swell; the ears become

2313. [ 30.] Hence the Yellow Fever, or late thick ; the points of the fingers, as also the feet and toes, swell; the nails become scaly; the joints of the hands and

Plague of America. - In the year 1793, the yellow fever, feet separate, and drop off. On the palms of the hands, and

which made such terrible ravages in Philadelphia, broke out on the soles of the feet, appear deep dry ulcers, which in

in Water-street, where much filth and dirt is suffered to crease rapidly, and theu disappear again. Daring the whole

remain on the pavement, and where there are so inany waste period of the disorder, those affected with it, experience no

houses, that it is really dreadful to pass through the street. obstructions in what are called the Naturalia. They eat and

- In 1794 this fever appeared at Baltimore; in 1795, at drink as usual ; and even when their fingers and toes mortify,

New York and Norfolk ; and again at New York, 1796. — the loss of the mortified part is the only consequence that

At Philadelphia, in about three months, no less than four ensues; for the wound heals of itself without any medical

thousand inhabitants were swept off by this dreadful malady; treatment or application. When, however, the unfortunate

a namber, amounting to about one tenth of the whole, Balwretches come to the last period of the disease, they are

timore and New York did not suffer so severely; but at

Norfolk, which is computed to coulain about three tbousand hideously disfigured, and falling in pieces, excite the greatest

it. compassion.

people, no less than five hundred fell victims to In It has been remarked, he adds, that this horrible disorder bas, besides, some very lamentable properties;

America, dirt, heat and putridity, are considered as its prinas, in the first place, that it is hereditary (not, however,

cipal causes. perpetually so, but for three or four generations): secondly,

Weid's Travels through N. America, that it is infectious, being propagated by coition, and even

vol. i. pp. 6, 174. by long.continued intercourse : thirdly, that it is incurable, or at least uo means of cure have hitherto been discovered.” See No. 2028, 787. See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. jii. 2314. - There is something very singolar in the pp. 258, 265.

constitution of uegroes, which reoders them not liable to the yellow fever ; for, though many of them were as much exposed as the nurses to this infection, yet, says Dr. LINING,

I never knew au instance of this fever amongst them. 2310. - Among the Japanese, the leprosy being

See his Essays and Observations, so inveterate that it gradually corrodes and rots the flesh and

vol. ii. p. 407. bones, those unhappy persons, who are infected with it, are immediately secluded from the rest, and obliged to live at a great distance from towns and inhabited places. Modern Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 70. 2315. [ 38, 39.] If a man or a woman have white

spots on the skin, and the priest see that the color of these spots is faint and pale; it is, in this case, the Bohak that

has broken out on their skin, and they are clean. – A 2311. - The venereal disease, in all probability, person thus attacked with Bohak was not declared unclean, was originally a leprosy; which, in hot countries, is com because that cutaneous disorder, as appears from the following municated with such great activity, that to converse fami extracts, is quite harmless. — Bohak, says NIEBCAR, is liarly with an infected person, is oftentimes sufficient to neither infectious nor dangerous. He saw a black boy at catch it.

Mocha, who, attacked with this sort of leprosy, had white spots bere and there on his body; and in whose cure sulphur


had been for some time applied with considerable effect, though it had not then, he says, altogether reinoved the disease. But, as a case completely successful, he quotes from the posthumous papers of Dr. Forskal, what had been there written respecting the Bohak-leprosy in a Jew at Mocha. “ The spots in this disease,” says the Doctor, " are of un. equal size. They have no shining appearance ; nor are they perceptibly elevated above the skin; and they do not change the color of the hair. Their color is an obscure white, or somewhat reddish. The rest of the skin of this patient was blacker than that of the people of the country is in general; but the spots were not so white as the skin of an European, when not suv-burnt. The spots, in this species of leprosy, do uot appear on the hauds, uor about the navel, but on the neck and face; pot, however, on that part of the head where the hair grows very thick. They gradually spread, and continue sometimes only about two months; but in some cases indeed, as long as two years, and then disappear, by degrees, of themselves. This disorder is neither infectious nor hereditary, nor does it occasion any incouvenience.”

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii.

p. 283.

is worn close to the body, and warmed thereby. - We hence see how the disease may appear sometimes only in the warp, and sometimes only in the woof, from good wool being used for the one, and dead wool for the other. — And now that the origin of the evil has been traced in wool, those who are acquainted with the manufacture or sale of linen, leather, and furriery, on a large scale, will fiud no great difficulty in care rying on the investigation farther (respecting tainted flax, cotton, or skins).

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. ij.

pp. 290 — 293.

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zeer maligne

2316. [Led. xii. 46.] At Constantinople, says Dr. MACKENZIE, the plague spreads by contact only, without communicating any malignancy to the ambient air. Otherwise very few could escape : whereas we found this last time (in 1751), and on all such occasions, that whoever kept their doors shut, rau no risk, even if the plague were in the next house; and the contact was easily traced in all the accidents which happened among the Pranks.

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. x. p. 242.

2320. [ - 55.? Whether it be in the warp, or in the cast-up woof: - lo most sorts of Oriental Cloths, the woof is made, in weaving, to rise above the warp on the apper side of the web; so as to leave the under side“ bare” and bald. See No. 883.


2317. [ 4759.] It is a singular circumstance that the animalcules which convey pestilential infection, do not lodge in wood, metal, or stone, but in wool, cotton, silk; and, to use an oriental expression, in every thing bearing the appearance of a thread.

St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, |

vol. ii. p. 124.

2321. [Lev. xiv. 7.] The heathens had vessels placed at the gates of their temples filled with water, which they called lustral or holy. In this water such as intended to go into the temple, washed their hands by way of purification. They likewise sprinkled it on the assembly to cleanse them froin their impurities. An exclusion from the use and benefit of this lustral water, was looked on by the Greeks as a kind of excommunication.

Univer. Hist. dol. xii. p. 463.

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With regard to woollen articles, this Mosaic kind of " leprosy” proceeds from what is called dead wool, that is, the wool of sheep that have died by disease (not wool shorn from the healthy animals, which alone ought to be used). Such dead or fallen wool, if the disease have been but of short duration, is uot altogether useless ; but in a sheep that has been long diseased, it becomes extremely bad, and loses the points : in consequence, the stuffs made of it not only become very soon bare, but full first of little depressions, and then of holes. Besides, according to the established usage of honest manufacturers, it is unfair to fabricate dead wool into any article worn by man; because vermin are so apt to establish themselves in it, particularly when it

2323. [- 34.] This infectious matter seems to have been a nitrous or vitriolic exudation ; which, even in this country, bursting through the strongest lime-plaster, sometiines spreads on it, and affects the health of such as dwell in the house, in much the same manner as is here described.


The presence of line is necessary to the natural production | 23:26. (Lev. xiv. 44. – a fretling leprosy) These guawof saltpetre; and wherever this saline efflorescence occurs, ling, these troublesome animalcules, find their well-being in the surface of the stone becomes permanently discoloured, the slovenliness which infects our bodies of our apartments, as if from the effect of damp. It appears indifferently on the and which may be the death of ourselves. The attacks of surface of the stones composing a wall, and of the mortar by such enemies then, are wholesome warnings of the danger we which those stories are cemented ; and it is sometimes obo are in; and by being perpetually in pursait of them, we either servable on the surface of studded partitions, consisting en dissipate or prevent that uncleanliness which would be more tirely of wond-work plastered over with mortar or stucco: fatal to us than they are. but it is a fact established by invariable experience, tirat this

Abbe Pluche’s Hist. of the Head. efiorescence takes place only where the exterior of the wall,

vol. ii. p. 145. on which it is formed, is either exposed to the direct influence of the weather, or is in contact with the adjacent ground. See Phil. Trans. of R. S. for 1814,

2327. [ 49. — to cleanse the house &c.] This part ii.p. 508, 8c.

proves that the wine was to kill the aniinalcules : Animal 1. What we usually term the saltpetre that appears on blood, speedily turning putrid, would have fed and increased walls, has much the same symptoms as this house-leprosy, them. and is at the same time attended with such noxious effects as require the attention of a well-regulated police.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. üi. p. 294.

2324. [Lev. xiv. 34.] In Bern, the people complain of

2328. [Lev. xv. 2, 3.] The celebrated Astruc, who a disease that in au especial manner attacks sand-stone,

published in 1753, after describing the different periods, so as to make it exfoliate, and become as it were cancer

which the discase brought from America has kept, and the ous. This they ascribe to the saltpetre contained in the

mitigation of its violence in the course of each of them, at stone. It is however, properly speaking, either an acid

last concludes with this idea, that if no fresh infection were of nitre, an acid of sea-salt, or a vitriolic acid and

transported into Evrope from America itself, the probability magnesia, which, efflorescing on the stones or walls of

is, that the disease would become more and inore mild, and different kinds of buildings, can, by the addition of a

at length entirely disappear. What this great physician fixed alkali, be made into saltpetre. By the effects of

looks forward to as probable, may, perhaps, have actually this efflorescence, the walls become mouldy; the lime

taken place in the interval between Moses and Hippocrates ; blisters and falls off; the very stones corrode away entirely ;

for they were, at least, ten ceuturies asunder. The disease books and other articles, that cannot bear dampness and

in question might have been brought into Egypt froin the acids, suffer by their contiguity, and are eventually spoiled ;

south-west part of Africa; it might have become so much besides, the apartments where it predominates becoine ex

mildened, as to be no more Liles venerea, but merely ceedingly pernicious to health, often causing the preinature

Gonorrhea ; and in this state brought by the Israelites out death of such as sleep close to the wall. - The consideration

of Egypt into Asia. — But, on the suppositiou that the of these circunstances will render the ordinances of this chap

Gonorrhæa virulenta was not knowu in the time of Moses, ter easily intelligible. Their object was to check the evil in

the Gonorrhæa benigna is a disorder (attendant on weak the very bud; to extirpate it while it was yet extirpable, hy

habits) wbich, though not painful, is nevertheless extremely making every one, from the loss to which it would subject

pernicious, as it gradually undermines the constitution, and bim, careful to prevent bis house from becoming affected with llincapacitates for the propagation of the species. leprosy, which he could easily do, where the houses had no

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii. damp stone cellars below ground; and thus also, to place not

pp. 308, 312. only himself in perfect security, but his neighbours also, who might very reasonably dread having their houses contaminated by the infection.

2329. 5- 4-12.) When physicians maintain that Ibid. Art. 211. || the Lues is a disease not propagated by beds, they speak of

our beds, that are on every occasion furnished with clean

linen; and would never advise any one to sleep in the bed of 2325. 1- 40, 41.] These are the very same a person infected with that disease, unless the bed were so things that must be done at this day, if we want to clear furnished. But we must never think of our abundance of a house of the salt petre-evil. The stone or spot which linen, in speaking of Eastern countries; where even at this produces it, must be absolutely reinoved : and the scrap day it is a luxury attainable only by the most opulent. We ing, and fresh plastering, is also necessary; for it is in must, on the contrary, rather figure to ourselves, the universal the very line that the acid of nitre establishes itself most use, first, of woollen cloth, which is much more apt to firmly.

catch and to lodge infection; and remember next, that the Ibid. p. 302. very sampe piece (the hyke) is always used, without being almost ever washed, unless when declared onclean :- and fur. 1 one part is rejected or put down as a hell, the other assumed ther, that betwixt what is called the bed, and the naked body, and glorified as a heaven. there is nothing more than the blanket, in which they wrap See No. 878. themselves when they go to sleep, and not even that perhaps; so that the bed &c. might (in such circumstances) communi. cate infection.

2336. [Lev. xvi. 12.) “When thy charming letter (peri lbid. p. 311.

fuined according to custom) was brought to me, I said ; ' Is it the zephyr that breathes from the gardens, or is the sky

burning wood of aloes on the censer of the sun ? or is a 2330. (Lev. xv. 13.] This ablution, which is renewed

caravan of musk coming from Khoten every morning, has been introduced iuto India in the earliest

Aloe-wood is a favourite perfume of the Asiatics. periods, and is a general practice among the inhabitants of the

Works of Sir. W. Jones, vol. v. country, as they are of opinion that purity of soul cannot

pp. 578, 580. exist without personal cleanliness. BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 72.

2337. ( 14.]

I started from my bed, and raised on high -233). [ 18.] Let it be remembered, that the lan

My hands and voice iu rapture to the sky; guage here used is the language of law, which ever insists

And pour'd libations. on a simple defiaition of fact; and that even in the modern

Æneid. iii. ver. 176. — Pitt. courts of polished Europe, on trials for rape or adultery, neither rauk, nor sex, nor innocence, can protect the most refined female, when called in as a witness, from being obliged to authenticate every circumstance in question, without the 23:38. [--- 15, &c.] The commandments, statutes, &c. least disguise of circumlocution or reserve in favor of mo. here specified, are all analysed and explained in the alpha

betical order of the Hebrew words. See Halhed's Preface to Gentoo

Laws, p. 59.


2339. [ 27.] The animal.named grapes used this 2332. Theano, the wife of Pythagoras, being day, probabi

day, probably, answered to the constellations hearing the asked how soon a woman became pure after intercourse with

same names, as then configured into one central aspect. a man, answered with great propriety, " She is pure inmediately, if the man be her husband; but if he be not her "husband, no time will make her so."


The skins (of the White Muscat Grape DIOGENES Laertius.

of Alexandria) are thick, and the flesh, or pulp, hard, and

not very juicy, but of a most exquisite flavor. 2333. [ 20.) The women of Lima are subject to a

The skin of the Black Damascus is thin, and the flesh

delicate, rich, juicy, and of an exquisite flavor. distemper extremely painful, very contagious, and almost

The Aleppo Grape is middle-sized and roundish, with a incurable ; namely a cancer in the matrix; and such is the

thin skin, and delicate juicy flesh. coutagiou of it, that it is contracted by only sitting in the

The skin of the Black Muscadel is thin, with a delicate same chair commonly used by the infected person, or by

juicy flesh. wearing her clothes.

The skin of the Red Muscadel is thick, and the flesh hard, Ulloa's Voy. vol. ij. p. 93.

something like the raisin grape. -- This is one of the latest grapes.

The berries of the Red Hamburgh, or Gibraltar Grape, have thin skins and juicy delicate flesh.

The White Hamburgh, or Portugal Grape, has a thiek skin 2334. [Leo. xvi. 8.] From all that the Learned say of

and hard flesh. Hazazel, it plainly appears that it signifies a thing far re- | The skin of the Malvoise, or Blae Tokay, is thin and moved or scparaled.

the flesh delicate, replete with a vinous jaice. See Essay for a New Translation, p. 5.

The skin of the Genuine Tokay is thiu and flesh delicate, abounding with a very agreeable juice.

The berry of the White Muscadine, or Chasselas, has a 2335. [- 8. — one lot for the LORD, and the thin skin, and delicate juicy flesh. other lot for the scape-goat] To denote that, in making the The flesh of the Black Muscadine is not so delicate and atonement, or in reconciling the human spirit to the divine ; || juicy as the foriner.

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