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The Royal Muscadine, or D'arboyce, has a thin skin, and 1 2344. [Lev. xvii. 14.] It is notorious, that blood is the a soft juicy flesh. Its bunches are exceedingly large, some great principle of corruption, and common seat of infection times arriving to six or seven pounds.

|| in all animals. The skin of the Syrian Grape is thick, and the flesh firm

Dr. Grew, Cosmol. Sacra, l. 4.c.7. $ 25. and hard ; the bunches enormously large. — It may, without || Those that eat animal food, eat blood in every creature they difficulty, be kept many weeks longer than any other sort; | kill, because it is impossible to drain it all from them. that is, till January, and even February.

The doctrine of abstinence from blood became, among The skin and flesh of Miller's Burgundy, or Muvier

|| Christians, universal in the Third Century. Grane, are delicate, possessing a sweet pleasant juice.

See No. 936. See Revelation Examined, vol. ii. p. 51. The White Morillon has a thin skin, and delicate juicy

2d Edir. printed 17:33, at London, flesh, like the Genuine Tokay.

by C. Rivington. The Cat's Grape has a thin skin and soft juicy flesh.

The Black Raisin Grape bas a thin skin and a hard firm flesh.

The early White Grape from Teneriffe has a thin skin, aud delicate juicy flesh of an extraordinary sweetness.

The skin of St. Peter's Grape is thin, and the flesh very delicate and juicy.

2345. [Lev. xviii. 6.] To their nearest relations, the The white Parsley-leaved Grape, or Ciotat, has a thin

Hebrew women might appear without a veil, but not to skin and delicate juicy flesh, which is very sweet, but not of

others; and this liberty of appearing without a veil, by the a vinous flavor.

antient traditionary usage of the Arabs, converted by Mahomet The white Corinth Grape has a thin skin, and very delicate

into a written law, extends precisely as far as the Mosaic juicy flesh, of an agreeable flavor.

prohibitions of marriage. The skin of the White Muscat, from Lumel is thin, and

Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii p. 78. the flesh delicate, replete with a vinous juice. The berry of the Cornichon, above one inch and a half

It was never the custom to strip captives altogether naked long, breadth not half an inch, and pointed like a horn, has a

but only to strip them of their best clothes, and to give thick skin and a firin sweet flesh.

them worse and shorter clothing, that they might be better SPEECHLY, on the Vine, pp. 4, 5, 7,

equipped for servitude and labor, as Sanctius and Grotius 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20,

U have observed. 22, 23, 24, 25.

See Bib. Research. vol. i. p. 132.

2341. [Lev. xvii. 7.] La-shairim (Hebr.), to the haired ones, to those priests devoted to the fire-worship, who wore their hair in a pyramidal tuft on the forehead, on the very spot were the Jews were circumcised and wore a scull-cap.

2346. - 19.] In Guinea, the women in this situation are not only esteemed uociean, and separated from their husbauds; but they are not permitted to go into another man's house, at least to lodge, and are consequently obliged to remain in a small hut near their father's or husband's house.

Bosman's Guinea, p. 423. —

Pinkerton's Coll. part Ixvi.

2342.

They shall no more offer their sacri. fices to devils] Shoerim (Hebr.), here rendered devils, properly signifies goats. (Dr. Dopp.) – It is worthy of rcmark, that MAIMONIDES says, “ Some of the Zabians worshipped Demons, believing they had the shape of Goats, and therefore called them Seirim.” We may bence see the reason of this prohibition to offer sacrifices unto Goats, that is to say, Démons, appearing under the fortos of Goats.

2347. - 21.7 Mavy expositors, both Jewish and Christian, understand by this phrase, that the Israelites, in dedicaring their sous to Moloch, made them pass between two sacrifice-fires. — In this way, says MICHAELIS, the incredible barbarity of human sacrifices would appear to have had no foundation in truth.

See 2 Kings xxi. 6. xxiii. 10.

Jer. xxxii. 35. — And Smith's Michaelis, vol. iv. p. 19.

2343. 1

1 1. The life of the flesh] The spirit of the grape is in the juice, by fermentution : it then assumes the appearance and denommation of biood.

See No. 313.

2348. {Lev. xix. 3, 32.] In London that alderman who has longest enjoyed the office, is entitled Father of the City, and takes place accordingly, on the death of his senior ; and the oldest member of a society, is generally called the father of that society, though several of the members be his seniors in age.

Edit. of Calmet.

precept ; because where we sow wheat and the unwholesome darnel together, we shall be sure to reap them together, and where we sow only clean wheat, we shall always reap the same.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. jii.

art. 218.

2349. [- 10.] In some parts of Persia, whatever dates are shaken from the trees by the wind, the owners do not touch, but leave them for those who have not any, or for travellers.

EBN HAUKAL, p. 143.

2353. [Lev. xix. 19.] Wool, as taken from slaughtered animals, was esteemed profane by the priests of Egypt, who were always dressed in linen.

Apuleus, p. 64. — Div. Leg. vol. i. p. 318. Among the Jews, the woollen and linen garments were appointed for the priests alone.

Josephus' Antiq. b. iv. ch. viii. § 11.

2350. [- 14. A stumbling block] Originally the word signified the piece of wood, or key in a trap, which being trodden on, caused the animal to fall into a pit, or the

2354. [- 23.] The economical ohject of this law trap to close on him.

is very striking. Every gardener will teach us not to let Dr. A. CLARKE.

fruit-trees bear in their earliest years, but to pluck off the blossoms; and for this reason, that they will thus thrive the

belter, and bear more abundantly afterwards. 2351. - 15.] Men have never reckoned, in the

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 367. number of crimes, a want of humanity in behaviour to our It was one of Numa's laws, not to offer to the gods wine inferiors; nor the taxes, which produce so much misery; nor proceeding from a vine unpruned. war, which they arlorn with distinction ; nor slavery, which

PLUTARCH, vol. i. p. 182. is sanctioned by ambition. Our laws panish an impropriety only in the case of individuals in huinble life, while they pardon the crimes of kings, the sources of the misfortunes of the world.

2355. — Fruit-trees were the chief riches of the See No. 860,810. St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, || Israelites. vol. iii, p. 404.

See Conæus de Repub. Heb.

lib. i. c. 4.

2352. ( 19. Thou shalt not sow thy field with mingled seed] This law meant nothing more than that care was to be taken to have the seed as pure as possible, and that it was to be selected and dressed with the greatest attention, to prevent two different kinds of grain from coming up together : barley, for instance, along with wheat. For botlı sorts will not ripen at the same time; and the consequence is, that in reaping there must be a loss on one of them. - As brome naturally mixes itself with rye, a perfectly clean crop of the latter can hardly be expected; but still it will be much clearer, where it is purged as far as possible, than where the mixed seed is again sown. Cousequently, if we were governed by the statute under consideration, brome, which gives but a very small return of inferior meal, would soon become a rare weed among our rye. — Darnel also, is very apt to grow among wheat, and the bread baked of such mixed wheat, has (like opium) an intoxicating qua. lity; in a very strong degree: when it is fresh ground, and not inconsiderable even after a pretty loug keeping. Of course, we here again see the vast importance of the Mosaic

2356. - - Pliny informs us that Lucullus, after the defeat of Mithridates, transplanted from Cerasus in the kingdom of Pontus the first cherry-trees into Italy : from whence they were propagated in less than a hundred and twenty years all over Europe, England not excepted, which was then peopled with barbarians.

Plin. Hist. Nat. I. 15. sect. 30. The apricot-tree, malum Armeniacum, was brought by the Romanis from Armenia.

According to Pliny, the vine derives its origin from the Archipelago, the pear-tree from Mount Ida, and the peach from Persia.

Our flax comes from the banks of tbe Nile, the walnut-tree from Crete, the lucerne from Media, and the Potato froin America.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iii p. 267. — iv. pp. 219,

220, 361.

2357. [Led. xix. 23.] The expedition of the Greeks into | legs with sharp broken flints, tilt the blood flows very Persia, Armenia, and Media, enriched Europe with the plentifully. peach-tree, the apricot, and the citron.

Carver's Trav. in N. America, Virg. Georg. 2. — Plin. Hist. Nat. l. 12 el seq.

p. 264. Pears of the earth, or potatoes, were brought to us by the Taupinambours, the natives of Brazil; or, as some say, by the inhabitants of Canada.

2362. [Leo. xix. 28.] The people of the East are still in Nat. Delin. vol. ii. p. 174. the practice of using Alhenna, which yields an indelible blue

color; they also burn various figures and characters into their skin, sometimes by way of ornament, at other times in honor of soine idol; and while some have these inarks in their

face and hands, others agaiu have them in parts of the body 2358. [- 26.) Lo thocelou wal haddam (Hebr.),

that are covered by the clothes. All this is here evidently non comedetis juxta sanguinem, or super sanguine, or prohibited ; but wbether universally, or ouly on occasions circa fossam victimarum sanguine conspersam. — These of mourning, and in remembrance of the dead, is uncertail). aud other like words the Septuagint have translated by, me To me, says MICHAELIS, the former appears the more proethiete epi ton oreon, ye shall not go and eat on the moun bable supposition; at least, such a strange disfiguration of tains. Here to eat is the same as to sacrifice.

the body ouglit to be in all cases forbidden. — Mourning Abbe Pluche’s Hist. of the Heav. habits they might put on, if they chose, and, with the excepvol.ii. p. 50, note.

tion of the high-priest, rend their garments in token of grief, . but they were not, fanatically, to inake slashes in their flesh.

This, in particular, would have been highly disgraceful in the

Israelites, who were taught to consider death not as the 2359. [ 27.] Some of the Arabian nations, in worst of all evils, but to expect another life beyond the honor of a certain deity, whom the Greeks compare to Bac grave. chus, shaved the hair of their heads in a round form, and cut

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii. the locks or hair on the temples, entirely away. That Moses

pp. 374, 377. would uot suffer this, is not to be wondered at, because it was an idolatrous fashion. — The whiskers tuo, to which some other Oriental nations pay so much respect, are by the Arabs,

2363. - Dampier, the celebrated voyager, according to the testimony of Niebuhr, still cut either en

brought over an East Indian prince, whose skin was very tirely off, or, at any rate, woru quite shurt ; and from this

curiously stained with various figures. — And D'ARVIÊUX circumstance it is, that the Arabs are by the prophet Jere

tells us, in his description of the preparatives for an Arab miah (ix. 26. sxv. 2:3) called, those with cropt whiskers.

wedding, that the women draw, with a certaiô kind of But neither does the Law approve of this fashion, but forbids

iok, the figures of flowers, fountaius, houses, cypress-trees, the Israelites to spoil, or, as we would say, to disfigure,

antelopes, and other auimals, on all the parts of the bride's their whiskers, that is, to shave them off, or even but to crop

body. thein short.

Voy. dans la Pal. p. 223. See Smith's Michaelis, vol. ij.

p. 375.

East Pompier, the

curiously or

2360.

The Arabs shave or cut their hair round in honor of Bacchus, who, they say, had his hair cut in this way. The Macians also, a people of Lybia, cut their hair round, so as to leave a tuft on the crown of the head.

See HERODOTUS, lib. iii. chap. 8;

& lib. iv. chap. 175.

2364. [Leo. xx. 18.] Astruc in his treatise, De Morbis Venereis (lib. i. c. 9. § 3.) is of opinion that the Lues, which, at present, is communicated only by infection, might originally have arisen under the torrid zone, or in regions considerably to the south, ex concubitu cum menstruata from cohabitation with a menstruous woman, accompanied with some peculiar circumstances in the constitutions of the parties. HUNDERTMARK also, in bis Dissertation, De Ozana Venerea, asserts, that even in Europe, there sometiines arises ex corcubitu scorbuto laborantis cum menstruata — from the intercourse of a scurvied man with a menstruous woman, a

disease of the Verenda resembling the Lues; a circumstance || which serves to confirm Astruc's conjecture. Now, if in the

2361. [- 28.] Among the American Indians called Naudowessies, in mourning for the dead, the men, to shew how great their sorrow is, pierce the flesh of their arms, above the elbows, with arrows; and the women cut and gash their

time of Moses, argues MIHAELIS, such were known to be the fact, legislative policy required the probibition of a practice, which experience had shewn to be instrumental in ori. ginating and in preserving that disease.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iv.

art. 271. p. 202.

2370. [Led. xxi. 14.) In the year of Christ 400, we find it decreed in the Cyprian Council, that if a reader married a widow, he should never be preferred in the church ; and, that is a sub-deacou did the same, he should be degraded to a door-keeper or reader. — This prohibition extended in time to all men in holy orders.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER’s Hist. of
Women, vol. ii. p. 293.

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2371. 1- 17 — 23.] The LORD spoke to Aaron, Behold, I have given the children of Levi all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance, for their service which they serve, even the 'service of the tabernacle of the congregation. Num. xviii. 20, 21. - Whoever is born a eunuch or an ideot; whoever is born blid or duinb; whoever is born without hand or foot, nose or tougue; whoever, on account of any disorder, is not able to perform his religious duties; whoever is afflicted with scrofulous leprosy, or the leprosy breaking out in boils ; all or any of these iinpersections and disorders incapacitate for inheritance. But whoever shall supersede such persons in the inheritance, must allow them victuals and clothing.

Halhet's Gentoo Laws, p. 64.

2367. [Lev. xxi. 1.] In mourning for the dead at Mingrelia in Persia, the women rend their clothes, tear their hair and flesh, beat their breasts, cry, yell, and guash with their teeth, like people inad or possessed ; the meu also tear their clothes and thump their breasts.

Sir John CHARDIN. Pinkerton's

Coll. vol, ix.p. 147.

2372.

In India, all mutilated, blind, squinteyed, or deformed persons; those also who have any kind of scal) or eruption on the skin, or white spots in the eyes, are totally excluded for ever from the priesthood of Brahmins. The same prohibitions obtained primarily in Egypt.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 298.

2368. [- 1, 5.) Some American Indians, to express their sorrow for the dead, cut off their hair, blacken their faces, and sit (as the corpse did before its interinent) in an erect posture, with their heads closely covered, and depriving themselves of every pleasure. This severity is continued for several months; and with some relaxations, the appearance of moorning is sometimes kept up for several years.

Carver's Trav, in N. America,

2373. - 17.] The descendants from Aaron whose birth was pure, but who had some defect of body which excluded them from the priesthood, lived in those apartments of the Temple wherein the stores of wood were kept, and were obliged to split and prepare it, for keeping up the fire of the altar.

Dr. A. CLARKE's Additions to

Fleury, p. 329.

p. 266.

2369. [ 14] Among the primitive Christians, those were excluded from the priesthood who had either married two wives, or a widow, or whose wives had been guilty of adultery. If this last incident happened, they were either obliged to be divorced, or to renounce their professi'n. (BELOE, on Herod. Euterpe, xxxvi.) – It may be pertinent to add, froin Mosheim, that the bishops consi. dered themselves as invested with a rank and character similar to those of the high-priest among the Jews, while the presbyters represented the priests, and the deacons the Levites.

2374. - 20.) When the wretches in the lower class of Virginia fight, they eudeavour to their utmost to tear out each other's eyes and testicles.

Weld’s Truv. in N. America. 'vol. i. p. 192. In all the sacred books, there is no proper name for those parls in either sex, which modesty forbids to utter. So say the Jews, but not Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 296.

2380. [Lev. xxiii. 17. Wave loaves] Heave loaves; that is, bread raised with barm or leaven. These two loaves, like what our bakers call rolls, were each divided a-top, comparatively as waves in the sea, into six connected parts, representing altogether the twelve tribes of Israel. (See Shew-bread.) – Hence the breaking of bread among the Jews.

CALMET.

2375. [Lev. xxii. 20.] The Acari, a species of Red Spi 1 ders, attack the bunches of grapes at the time when tbey are almost ripe ; and as they extract the juices from them, the grapes soon become soft, flabby, and ill-flavoured.

The insects called Thrips, also, attack the bunches as well as the leaves of the Vines, and commonly prey on the extremities of the berries, but more particularly at the end next the foot-stalk. In white grapes, the part of the berry injured changes to a dark color, the foot-stalk turns black, aud the berry withers.

Verse 22.] Too much wet, which frequently happens at the time grapes are ripening, occasions the rotting and bursting of the fruit.

Speechly, on the Vine,

pp. 233, 235, 243.

2381. [- 24.] This new moon would fall prelty geuerally in our month of October : it was the festival of the new year, which had always been observed froin the earliest ages.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii.

p. 211.

2376. [ 25. Because their corruption is in them] This proves that such offerings were not of living animals, but of skins whose contents might be spoiled by putridity.

2382. ( 27.] This was to the Israelites, the most sacred of all their solemn days, and the only day of fasting enjoined them.

Ibid. p. 212.

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2377. - 27. When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat is brought forth] The creature called an ox, is a bull castrated; surely then a bullock was never yet brought forth! (Dr. A. CLARKE.) — But when we have the idea that they were not animals, but only vessels which were brought forth into the Church, being filled with the sacramental elements, all is clear. — It shall be seven days under the dam. Who would eat veal seven days old ?

Verse 28. Ye shall not kill it and her young both in one day.) No people were ever so brutish as to kill a cow and her calf of seven days old, in order to eat them.

Dr. A. CLARKE's Additions to Fleury, p. 289. Iu like manner the Athenians began their day at sun-set. But the Chaldeans counted their days from sunrise; the Egyptians, from noon; the Romans and all European nations, from midnight.

2378. [— 27.] In Scio, they plant their vines on the hills, and cut their grapes in August, letting them dry in the sun for seven or eight days after they are gathered.

THOMrson's Trad. in Asia,

vol. i. p. 30.

2384.

34.) At the feast of tabernacles, the Jews went to the Temple with palm and other branches in their hands, especially with those of a kind of citron, called attrog, with the fruit on thein. These branches, when stripped of their fruit, they liroke or cast away, on the seventh day, wbich closed the festival. — In Holland, Gerinany, &c. these attrogs, procurable only from Greece, are still carried by the richer sort of Jews to their synagogues, as formerly to their Temple. Sometimes, however, through contrary winds, the capture or foundering of vessels, &c., they are constrained to substitute other odoriferous trces instead of the attros ; while the poorer Jews content themselves generally with branches of willow. See No. 944.

Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 90.

2379. [Leo. xxiii. 14.] The kourmatsch of the Tartars, or the parched corn of antiquity ; is very much in use among them even at this day. It is either wheat, rye, barley, or Turkish corn parched at the fire and then brayed in a mortar, avd either eaten in that state or boiled, or in porridge with water or milk. Ruth ii. 14.

History of Russia, See No. 946, 947.

vol. ji. p. 33.

2385.

This feast of tents was instituted as a record that the most antient people dwelt in tents, under themselves, securely and solitarily without doors and bars.

SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 10,160.

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