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from the Egyptians. Pausanias in his Bæotica, where he

2429. [Num. iji. 4. - they offered strange fire] They speaks of those Thebans who so stoutly fell in the Macedo- should have offered incense without fire, that fire from the nian war, says, Their tombs had no inscriptious, but the

LORD might have consumed the incense as it had previously statue of a lion stood by to represent their courage and for

consumed the burut-offerings on the shew-bread altar; See tude.

Lev. ix. 24. x. 1.
See his Episcopus Puerorum, p. 118.
The Tartars, on their banners of coloured stuff, waving
at the top of a lance twelve feet long, exhibit the figure of a

2430.

13. I smote all the first-born] The dromedary, cow, horse, or other animal, putting under it the

Magi, the priesthood of Egypt, for opposing themselves to name of the tribe : and as all the branches of the same tribe

Him; as the Jewish priesthood were afterwards smitten, for still retain the figure represented in the general ensign, adding | opposing the Messiah. only the name of the particular branch for whose use it is designed, these ensigns serve them, in some measure, instead of a genealogical table. — Since the Tartars called Mungls, have put themselves under the protection of the emperor of

2431. [- 15.] Every male, from a month old and China, they have been divided into forty-nine districts called

upward shalt thou notuber them : - a Jewish month was 30 Shassaks, that is, banners or standards, under an equal num

days: they were to be priests after 30 years : here then, as ber of princes or chiefs.

in many other cases, a day represents a year,
Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iv.
Pp. 278, 319.

2432. [ 22.] Formerly the numbers in the Hebrew

Bible were expressed by letters, and uot by words at full 2426. [Num. ii. 2.] As we nowhere find that Moses

length; and if two nearly similar letters were mistaken for appointed these chiefs, their institution, as very antient,

each other, many errors in the numbers must be the consewould seem to haye been brought by the Israelites from Egypt

quence. Now it is probable that here, instead of 7500, we into the wilderness. Indeed, from Exod. iv. 29 we see that,

should read 7200, as the Hebrew letter, caph, which stands while in Egypt, this people actually had their elders, who

for 500, might have been easily mistaken for resh, 200, probably were nothing else than these same chiefs of families.

especially if the down stroke of the caph had been a little Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 233.

shorter than ordinary, which is often the case in MSS. The See on Gen. xxxvi.

extra 300 being taken off, the total is just 22,000 as mentioned in the 39th verse.

Dr. KENNICOTT.

2427. [ 17.] The priests had the first place about the tabernacle ; then the Levites, who, because their whole multitude was reckoned from thirty days old (chap. jii. 15), were twenty-three thousand eight-bundred and eighty males.

JOSEP. Antig. b. iii. ch. xii. $ 5.

2433. [- 41.) The Levites and their cattle were given to supply and serve the priesthood, instead of the first-born and firstlings previously claimed by the LORD from every family of Israel.

See Num. viii. 11, 21.

2434. [ 45.] Among these first-born of Israel, the patriarchs, it seems, had been high-priests; otherwise the

following assertion by JosePAUS could not be true: “We 2428. [Num. iii. 1.] Here, says R. Moses Giron, the || have,” says he, “ the names of our bigh-priests from father posterity of Aaron are called the posterity of Moses, because to son set down in our records, for the interval of two thouMoses had taught them the Law; and whosoever, he adds, sand years.” becomes a teacher of the Law to another, is looked upon as

Against Apion, vol. vi. h. i. 87. though he had given him life. And the Jewish Doctors more strongly remark, that “whosoever teaches the Law to his friend's son, is to be looked ou as if he had begotten him." (See Essay for a New Translation, part ii. p. 81.) Such sons are properly disciples (John xxi. 5), and the Original, when in this sense, should be invariably so ren 2435. [Num. iv. 8.] The Faufel is a kind of nut somedered ; or more properly perhaps, though less agreeably, by thing smaller than the nutmeg, yielding a red juice, with the moderu terw pupils.

which the (East) Indians paint the chintses we admire so

say for be looked soeve

much in Europe. The tree from whence they gather this nut is very straight, and resembles in its leaves the cocoatree.

Modern Univer. Ilist, vol. x.

p. 390.

certain bitumen distilled from trees, and to quench the same in water; and afterwards to give that water to the supposed criminal to drink; which if he be guilty, will do him barm; but if not, will cause no alteration in him.

MEROLLA's Voy. 10 Congo. - Pinkerton's

Coll. part Ixv. p. 222.

2440. [Num. v. 21, &c.] This curse is enforced at this day on the human race, in what is called the venereal disease, without the formality of the bitter water.

2436. (Num. v. 18, &c.] Trial by Ordeal was an appeal to the immediate interposition of God, and was therefore called God's judgment; and we may naturally suppose was never resorted to but in very important cases, where persons accused of great crimes protested their innocence, and there was no sufficient evidence by which they could be cleared from the accusation, or proved to be guilty, of the crimes Jaid to their charge. They were brought before the altar to inake their last solemn appeal before God, wben the sacrifice was upon the altar, and at the time of the divine communication above the Cherubim. And it before this awful tribunal, in the presence of the Judge of hearts, the person's knowing their guilt were so abandoned às to assert a downright falsehood in the Divine Presence, dying in this state, they sealed their elerpal misery when they quilted this world.

21, 22, 27, 28.] These are the symptoms that usually attend the hydrops ovarii; a disease of the female sex, which is very rare.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iv. p. 102,

2442. [- 23.] Among the Hindoos, trial by the Cosha is as follows: The accused is made to drink three draughts of the water in which the images of the Sun, of Devi, and other deities have been washed for that purpose ; and if, within fourteen days, he has any sickness or indisposition, his crime is considered as proved.

Asiat. Research. p. 79. - Hasting's

Acct. of the Ordeal Trials of the
Hindoos,

2437.- Trial by Ordeal is one of the most antient jostitutes for the distinguishing criterion of guilt and innocence that has been handed down to us by sacred or profane history: fire or water were the usual resources on these occasious, and they were constantly prepared and sanc. tified by the solemuities of a religious ceremonial. The modes of this ordeal are various in India; but the infallibility of the result is to this day as implicitly believed, as it could have been in the darkest ages of antiquity.

Halhed's Preface to Gentoo Laws,

p. 55.

2443.

It appears that the curses which were written down in a kind of ink prepared for the purpose, were washed off the parchment into the water which the woman was obliged to drink; so that she drank the very words of the execration. The ink used in the East is almost all of this kind — a wet sponge will completely efface the finest of their writings.

2438. - Water ordeal was performed (in EngJand) three ways; if the offence were great, by plunging the bare arm up to the elbow in boiling water; if sinall, by immersing the hand only as far as the wrist ; but if adultery vere the crime, by casting the person suspected into a river or pond of cold water :- In Sicily, Japan, and on the coast of Malabar, an oath taken of the accused in writing, is laid on water, and if it do not siuk, the woman is held to be inuocent.

See Archæologia, vol. xv. p. 195. —

And ALEXANDER'S Hist. of Women, vol. ii. p. 235.

2444. ( 24.] Among the Negroes of Guinea, every person entering into any obligation is obliged to drink the oath-draught. Oaths taken in this manner are generally kept anviolated and punctually performed. If you ask what opinion the Negroes bave of those who falsify their obligations confirmed by the oath-drink, they believe the perjured person shall be swelled by that liquor till he bursts; or if that doth not happen, that he shall shortly die of a languishing sickness : the first punishment they imagine more peculiar to women, who take this draught to acquit themselves of any accusation of adultery; and if I may be allowed, says BUSMAN, to make a comparison, this drink seems very like the bitter water adininistered to women in the Old Testament by way of purgation from the charge of adultery.

If any person is suspected of thievery and the indictment

2439. [- 17-28.) At Congo the following mode of trial is adopted : which is, to light a torch, made of a

is not clearly made out, he is obliged to clear bimself by 2451. (Num. vi. 9.] i Cor. xi. 6. The woman, 80 sepadrinking the oath-draught.

rated to be the head of a congregation, is tot to be shorn, See his Trad. in Guinea. - Pinkerton's l uor to drink the sacred wine. Lev. xxii, 13. — XI

Coll. part lxvi. p. 398.

2445. (Num. vi.] In Lev. viii. and ix, we have the forma of consecrating the priesthood at the Lord's Tabernacle: here we have the ceremonies of separating a priest, or a mother of a Church, to any particular congregation — such were the woman of Samaria and her man, John iv. 16.

2452. - 18.] Among the Romans, the ceremony of granting freedom publicly, was thus performed: The slave was brought before the consul, and in after-ages before the prætor, by his master, who, laying his hand on his slave's head, said to the prætor, Hunc hominem liberum esse volo, and with that took himn by the hand, and immediately let go his hold ; then, giving him a blow on the cheek, presented bim to the consul or prætor, who also striking bim gently with his vindicta or wand, pronounced these words, Aio te liberum esse more Quiritium. This ceremony ended, the slave was registered on the roll of freed-men. He was then shaved, and received a cup in token of bis liberty.

Univer. Hist. dol, xi. p. 246. Achilles, in Homer, offers his bair to the river Sper| chius :

But great Achilles stands apart in prayer,
And froin bis head divides the yellow hair ;
These curling locks which from his youth he vowed,
And sacred grew to Sperchius' hovour'd food,

Then sighing, to the deep bis locks be cast, &c.
When the young men of Athens presented themsives to be
enrolled amougst the citizens, they had then their hair
cut off.

POTTER.

2446.

The Nazarite was one that, during bis separation, was doiug Penance by devotiog himself to a single life.

The Spirit of God is in all alike; but all are not equally separated from every other spirit.

2447. [ 3.] In this sense “once in grace always in grace” – he that sets his hand to the plough, must not look back ; but must endure to the end by "final perseverauce,"

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- 2456. (Num. vii. 13. One silver charger) Weighed four pounds and one ounce, avoirdupoise, being in value fourteen pounds sixteen shillings and sevenpevce.

Verse 14. One spoon - of gold] Weighed five ounces.

after ages offered their sons and their daughters to Moloch and other idols.

See Lev. xviji. 21. Deut. xviii. 10. 2 Kings

xviii. 17. - xxiii. 10. Jer. xxxii. 35. Ezek. xvi. 21.- IX. 26,31. Rom. xv. 16.

2457. 84.] The Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, Prince of Oels, is said to be still (1814) possessed of | the celebrated Pagan Sacrificial Cup, which has been valued at £30,000 sterling. This noble piece of art is cut out of a single stone, which, according to the opinion of experienced jewellers, has ever been taken for an onyx, so perfect in its kind as to be surpassed by none other in Europe. Its name and use will easily be determined if we consider it as a Sacri. ficial Cup, of that sort which went under the name of Gutti, and out of which the Libamina (or sacrificing wines) were poured between the horns of the victim, on the altar, and into the fire.

See Month. Mag. for July, 1814,

p. 637.

2462. [Num. viii. 24.] This apparently contradicts what is written above, at Chap. iv. 3 ; namely, that the Levites were not admitted into the service of the tabernacle till they were thirty years of age. But the fact is this: they served as oovitiates for five years, beginning their probation at twenty-five : during which period they carefully learnt all that related to their ministry.

See Dr. A. CLARKE's Fleury, p. 323.

2463. [Num. ix. 1.) Now it was that Moses offered that sacrifice which was called the Passover in the wilderness, as the first he had offered after the departure out of Egypt, (J08EPH. Antiq. b. iii. ch. xii. $ 6.) - Was not the uulea. vened bread, this year, of manna ?

2458. [Num. viii, 7.) According to Herodotus, the Egyptian priests shaved the whole body every third day.

Dr. A. CLARKE, on Lev. xxi. 5.

2459.

8.] N. B. Peccatum, sin, is from pecus, cattle : that is, while a man is full of evil, he is enveloped with an animal sphere, which is characteristic of his parti, eular eyil.

2464. [ 5.] At the Passover, A. D. 65, JosePhus informs us, that 3,000,000 of the Jews were present; and that at a Passover a little later, 256,500 paschal lambs were counted, which at the moderate computation of 12 to each lamb, will prove that at least 3,078,000 persons must have then attended.

See Wars, b. i. ch. xiv. § 3:

And b. vi. ch. ix. § 3.

2465. [ 15.] A distinct Chapter should begin here, and end at the twenty-eighth verse of the following Chapter,

CALMET

2460,

12. an atonement] A covering :-“ Put on Christ Jesus,” in the surrounding sphere. In this sense, blessed is the man whose sin is covered by a Holy Spirit emanated from the Christ within.

The Hebrew word which is translated expiated, origi. nally signifies to cover, or cover over, in general; and thence it is particularly applied for covering or causing to cover, that is, to remove, or take away. And hence when it is applied to God it signifies his covering sin, which is the same as not imputing it, or pardoning it, that is, his being propi. tious. And hence the Mercy Seat, which was the coder of the Ark, is called kapporeth (Hebr.). Rom. iv. 7. Ps. xxxii. 1. Essay on the Sacrifices,

p. 152.

2466. [Num, x. 4.] Thus, according to JOSEPAUS," the Jews used trumpets for

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Pages.) — As Halet is the father of them all, so Abraham is the common father of every individual Jew.

ancestors, to begin their march after sun-rising. When it became clear day, the signal was given by a trumpet from the King's tent.“ Above this tent tire image of the Sun, inclosed in crystal (Nergal) made so splendid a show, as to be seen by the whole camp. The order of the army was after this manner. The Fire, which they called sacred and eternal, was carried before on silver altars : next caine the magi, singing a hymn, after the custom of their country. After the magi followed three hundred and sixty-five young men, clad in scarlet robes, being equal in nuinber to the days of a whole year: for by the Persians, the year is divided into so many days. Then proceeded the consecrated chariot of Jupiter, drawn by white · horses. These were followed by another horse .of extraordinary size, wbich they called the Horse of the Sun. .. vis...... ... See the whole procession,

lib. iii. cap. 3.

2471. (Num. x. 29.] Though it be here said, that Hobab was the son of Raguel the Midianite, some highly respected critics make Raguel or Rehuel, Jethro, and Hobab, to be one and the same person ; but on comparing the various scriptures where these names occur, it will be found that Raguel never came to the Hebrew camp, Jethro but once, and that Hobab always accompanied Moses and the Israelites. Compare Exod. xviii, 7, 27, Bib. Research. dol, ži,

pp. 360 366.

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2468. [Num. x. 6.] [When you blow a third alarm, the camps that are on the west shall march : and when you blow a fourth alarm, the camps that are on the north shall inarch] They shall blow an aların for each their marchings.

Septuagint ; HỌUBIGANT,

2472. [ 33.] HUTCHINSON appears to have proved, though not in very perspicuous language, that the Israelites had now two tabernacles, two arks with Cherubim, two ephods, &c.; and that one set had been prepared in Egypt, the other made in the wilderness. (See his Treatise entitled Glory or Gravity, pp. 138 — 147. – 1 Sam. iv. 18; also 2 Sam. vi. 6, 7.) - If this be correct, we may hence see the reason why the Cherubim are differently described ; one set is represented as consisting of a man, an ox, an eagle, aud a lion; another class consisted of a lamb, a calf, and two pigeons on the ark of the covenant (Exod. xxv. 18-20). The latter, being clean animals, denoted societies of that appearalice in Paradise ; who, in judgment years, are offered up to the Shechinahs there, and pass thus into the Angelic Heavens. The other representations of unclean animals denote the infernal, the bestial societies of spirits in Hades, as they are offered up to man, to Antichrist there, when they have been adjudged to be cast down thence into Hell.

See Acts vji. 43.

2469. - 10.] Evening prayers were announced, says Mungo Park, yot by the call of the priest, as usual, but by beating hollow drums, and blowing through large elephants' teeth hollowed out in such a inanner as to resemble bugle horns; the sound is melodious, and in my opinion, comes nearer to the human voice than any other artificial sound.

Travels in Africa, p. 96

2470. 29. Hobab, the son of Raguel] Jethro was Hobab's father, and Raguel his grandfather. But.in the Hebrew style of speaking, while a grandfather is living, he is still head of the family, and called father by all his descendants. This was a common usage in the East, of which there are many examples in the Old Testament, where even a deceased grandfather is called father by his grandchildren. Except the God of my father, says Jacob to Laban, the God of Abraham, and the terror of Isaac, had been with me, surely thou hadst sent me away now empty. Thus Laban also calls Jacob's children his own, because they were born of his daughters. Now Raguel was the grandfather of Zipporah, Moses' wife, Jethro's daughter; though she and the rest are, after the oriental manner, named the children of Raguel, who for the same reason was called Moses' father-in-law. (TOLAND.) – The Arabs of the Bedouin tribes assume the name of the common stock ; hence some are called Ben Halet, or the children of Halet. (De

2473. (Num. xi. 1.] In the desert between Egypt and Mecca, where Israel were now wandering, if the north wind happen to fail, and that from the south come in its place, then the whole caravan is so sickly and exhausted that three or four hundred persons are wout, in coinnion, to lose their lives; even greater numbers, as far as fifteen hundred, of whoin the greatest part are stifled on the spot, by the fire and dust of which thuis fatal wind seems to be composed.

MAILLET, p. 228.

2474.

The samiel is a noxious blast to which travellers are sometimes exposed in passing the deserts of Arabia, in the months of July and August. In some years

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