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it blows not at all : in others it comes six or right times ; || vegetables. The leaves of one of these, apparently a spes, but seld en continues more than a few minules at a time; and cies of that yenus of sea-weed called by Linnets Fucus passes with the . quickness of lightning where it produces its serratus, after being gathered, are steeped in fresh waler effects. It flies in streams of no great breadth ; so that some and hung up to dry. A small quantity of this weed, boiled persons, at no great distance from each other, may escape; in water, gives to it the consistence of a jelly, and when and others at a few miles' distance, be exposed to different mixed with a little sugar, the juice of an orange, or other samiels. (See Ives' Trav. pp. 76, 77, 273; and Heb. fruit, and set by to cool, there is no jelly more agreeable or iv. 12.)- It sometimes makes a hissing noise, and appears refreshing. -- In the populous islands of Japan also, the red and fiery,
natives of the sea-coasis derive part of their sustenance from CUARDIN, tom. ii. p. 9. various kinds of sea-weeds, and from none more than that
species of fucus which is called saccharinus — another essential ingredient, it seems, in the Chinese jelly. - And
from the shores of Robben island, at the Cape of Good Hope, 2475. [Num. xi. 5. We remember the fish which we did the slaves are accustomed to bring away, baskets of a species eat in Egypt] They had dwelt along the eastern bank of of fucus, whose leaves are sword-shaped, serrated, and the Nile, and in the marshes formed partly by the Nile, and about six inches long. These leaves being first washed partly by the Mediterranean sea. — In ver. 21, 22. fish are clean, and sufficiently dried, to resist putrefaction, are then certainly included under the term flesh, when Moses asks, steeped in fresh water, for five or six days, changing it every if God meant to let all the fish in the sea be collected, morning; after which, if boiled for a few hours in a little to give Aesh to the people. In the very same manner, the water, they become a clear transparent jelly, which, being Hebrew word for flesh is used for the flesh of fish, in Lev. inixed with a littie sugar and the juice of a lemon or orange, xi. Il.; and so is the Arabic one, in the 16th Chapter of the is as pleasant and refreshing as any kind of jelly whatsoever. Koran, ver. 14.
Now as few countries perlaps can boast of a greater number Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii. of species of the fuci and ulve than are found on the p. 114, note.
coasts of the British islands, future generations may discover the lighly nutritive qualities which many of them must necessarily contain. At present, we use only as articles of
food, the esculentus or tangle ; the saccharinus, better 2476.
There are some but few fish in the known in Iceland than in Britain ; the palmalus, or dulse, Nile, ou account of its sea-horses and crocodiles which affright which the Scotch say is not only rich and gelatinous, but and devour them,
communicates to other vegetables with which it may be Portuguese Manuscript translated by Sir PETER mixed, the fragrant smell of violets; and that species of WYCHE, p. 25. See Gen. ii. 13.
ulva well kuown on the coast of Wales by the name of
laver. All other marine“ plants secmn to be uiterly uegof the Lotos the Egyptians make a kind of bread, or broad
lected. thin cakes.
See Sir John SINCLAIR's Code of Nat. Delin. vol. i. p. 250.
Healih, vol. i. p. 897.
Not only are the seeds of the Nymphea Nelumbo (or water lily) sold in the markets and cried about the streets of Pekio (as fish), but its long roots and stem also. - In great entertainments, slices of nymphea are served upon ice, the same as all the fruit is served in summer. It is said to be like turnip in flavour.
Breton's China, vol. iij. p. 50.
2479. [Num. xi 5.] 1. Africa, the tree or shrub that bears the lotos-fruit, is dissemiyated oyer the edge of the Great Desert, from the coast of Cyrene, round by Tripoli and Africa proper, to the borders of the Atlantic, to' Senegal, and the Niger. This shrub, found in Tunis and the negro kingdoms, furnishes the natives with a sweet food resembling bread, and also with a sweet liquor, which is much relished by them. This is what tie Arabs of the present day call seedra, and is pleutiful in Barbary, and the descrts of Barbary.
See Beloe's HERODOT. Melpomene,
It is remarkable, that the lotos and silphium have for a long time failed in Egypt and Cyrenaica.
Univer. Hist. vol. xvii. p. 494, note (L). In Chipa, most of the plants that grow on the sea-shore are found to possess an invigorating quality, and are, therefore, in constant use as pickles and preserves, or, simply dried aud cut, are mixed with soups in the place of other
About the summer-solstice the river Melas in Grecce overflows like the Nile, and produces plants
of the same nature; only they are meagre and bear but little fruit.
See No. 977, 980, 990. PLUTARCH, vol. iii. p. 146.
magnet, that end shall nianifestly dip or stoop; having acquired a preponderancy, which will continue many yes, unless
Boyle, on the Reconcileableness of
Reason and Religion, p. 80.
2481. [Num. xi. 7.] The Talmudists describe manna to be round as coriander-seed, and white as pearls (Bdolah).
Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 111.
2486. [Num. xi. 20.) The Egyptians, says HERODOTUS, divide their year into twelve months, giving to each month thirty days : by adding five degrees to every year, they have a uniform revolution of time (uearly).
2487. (— 21.] Natural mauna would easily keep a month. This large quantity was sent at once, to convince the people that it was from the LORD, or seat míraculously.
See No. 105, 107.
2482. ( 8.) A quern, in the Highlands of Scotland, is a sort of portable mill, made of two stones about two feet broad, thin at the edges, and a little thicker in the middle. In the centre of the upper stone is a hole to pour in the corn, and a peg by way of handle. The whole is placed on a clotlı; the grinder pours the corn into the hole with one hand, and with the other turns round the upper stone with a very rapid motion, while the meal runs out at the sides on the cloth. — Such are supposed to be the same with what are common among the Maurs, being the simple substitute of a mill.
This method of grinding is very tedious; it eroploys two pair of hands four hours to grind only a single bushel of corn. Instead of a hair-sieve to sift the meal, the inhabi. tants (near Staffa) have an ingenious substitute, a sheep's skin stretched round a boop, and perforated with small holes made with a hot iron. They knead their bannock with water only, and bake or rather toast it, by laying it upright against a stone placed near the fire.
PINKERTON's Coll. part ix. p. 102.
- X. p. 314.
2488. [- 31.] The shrub, on which manna is found, is a species of thorn called by the Persians aru-shiriin (Hebr.), or sweet thorn. It is also called alhag (Hebr.), is the Alhagi foliis simplicibus, lanceolatis, obtusis, caule fruticoso spinoso, of Lipneus. It grows in alınost all the Eastern countries, Armenia, Georgia, Persia, and in both Arabias ; but especially in Arabia Petrea, between Sinai and Tor. The manna itself is an eliquation from this shrub, called by the Persic botanists terengabin ; of which there are two sorts. The one is of a coarse composition, a mass of liquified juice mixed with the seeds, husks, leaves, and prickles of the shrub; sometimes bigger than one's fist, and of a bitter taste. The other, which appears to be the manna of the Israelites, consists of small, round, crystalline, pellucid grains, about the size of coriander, and in color and form not unlike to mastich. This is the pure manna, shaken from the shrub (as it might be at this time, by the wind from the LORD) in the morning, before the sun rises. It tastes like a compound of sugar and honey; and in Kurdistan and Ispahan, and other places, serves for the same uses. It is very different from the manda of our shops, which comes principally from Calabria, and is the condensed juice of a species of ash.
See Hunter's edition of Evelin's Silva,
p. 151. — Also Dr. Geddes' Critical Remarks, p. 237.
There are several methods of crushing rice, that is, of separating the farinaceous part from the husk : the most common mode consists in pounding the grain in a sort of mortar, with a conically shaped stone attached to the extremity of a lever. The lever is set in motion by the alternate pressure of a man's feet.
BRETON's China, vol. iv. p. 27.
2484. [ 16.] The Mosaic scribes were also judges ; and seem to have had a power similar to that of the present Mahometan cadis,
2485. [ 17.] A somewhat long needle being placed horizontally, and equally poised on the point of a pin, if you gently touch one end with the pole of a vigorous
2489. [- 32. The people stood up - all that night During the bright moonlight evenings at Bombay, the sinallest print inay be read without inconvenience, through the medium of a cloudless atmosphere.
FORBES' Oriental Memoirs.
2490. [Num. xi. 34.) At this place, now called Gabel. el-mokateh, NIEBUHR says that, he found sepulchral inscriptions, in Egyptian hieroglyphics, of exquisite beauty.
2494. [Num. xjii. 19.) It should seem, that in the couutries of the East subterraneous caves were very frequent; and used by shepherds to sleep in, or as folds for their flocks in the evening. The mountains on the Syrian coast, in particular, are remarkable for the number of caves in them.
See HARMER, vol. iii. p. 01.
2491. [Num. xii. 1, 10.) As Miriam was the represen
2495. [ - 22.] Zoan in Egypt is not Memphis, but talive head of the Israelitish women and Church; so was the Tanuis the seat of her antient kings. Ethiopian woman taken to be the head of the adopted Cushites
Univer. Ilist. vol. ii. p. 360. frem Egypt. - Miriam's envy, ou this account, shews itself Janis, the Zoan of Scripture, was the royal residence of in consequence of the late insurrection of the Cushites. — Pharaoh, and situated at one of the mouths of the Nile. Miriam's punishment exposed the absurdity of her opposition (See Ps. Ixxviii.) – Its present naipe San bears some affinity to the Cushites. She had supposed that none but the uatural to its autient appellation Tanis. descendants of Abraham ought to be admitted to the privi.
BELOE's Note on Herod. Euterpe, xv. leges of the Jewish Covenant. To shew her the imparity of such natural descent, she herself, being of the line of Abraham, was smitten in the seminal Auid with leprosy.
2496. [ 20, 23.] At Rudesheim ou the banks of the glassy Rhine, says RIESBECK, we were invited by an
ecclesiastic of Mentz to a splendid festival. After dinner 2492. [ 14.] The Arabs shew great sensibility to our host led us in procession to his great saloon ; the doors every thing that can be construed into an injury. If one of which opened on a sudden, and there came forth in festive dan should happen to spit beside another, the latter will order a band of musicians, followed by two well-dressed not fail to avenge himself of the imaginary insult. In a giris, who brought in a large bunch of grapes, on a table caravan, I once saw, says NJEBUHR, an Arab highly offended covered with a fine cloth. The sides of the table were at a man who, in spitting, had accidentally besputtered his ornamented with flowers. They put the bunch of grapes in beard with some small part of the spittle. It was with the middle of the saloon, on a kind of throne which was difficulty that he could be appeased, even though the offender
raised on a table; and I now discovered that our host was humbly asked him pardon, and kissed his beard in token of celebrating the festival of the first-ripe bunch of grapes in submission.
bis vineyard; a custom, it seems, most religiously observed Travels in Arabia, p. 197. | by all the rich inhabitants of this country.
Pinkerton's Coll. part xxiv. p. 259. Spitting before any one, or spitting on the ground in speaking of any one's actions, is, throughout the East, an expression of extreme detestation.
2497. - The Syrian Vine is supposed to be the sort of grape here alluded to, as it produces bunches of
eight or ten pounds weight and upwards. In the year 1781, 2493. Of him who gives natural birth, and him
a bunch was produced at Welbeck that weighed 19 pounds who gives knowledge of the whole veda, the giver of sacred
and a half. (- Was this the bunch cut down by Dr. A. knowledge is the more venerable father ; since the second CLARKE; -- See his Note on this passage.) It was presented or divine birth insures life to the twice-born, both in this
hy his Grace the Duke of Portland to the late Marquis of lise and hereafter-eternally. Let a man cousider as a mere
Rockingham, and was conveyed to Wentworth-House (a human birth that, which his pareuts gave him for their mutual
distance of more than 20 miles) by four labourers, who cargratification, and which he receives after lying in the womb;
ried it, suspended on a staff, in pairs, by turns. Its greatest but that birth, which his principal acharya, who knows the
diameter, when hanging in its natural position, was 19 inchies whole veda, procures for him by his divine mother, the
and a half; and its length 21 inches three quarters, – gayatri, is a true birth : that birth is exempt from age and
Strabo, who lived in the reign of Augustus, testifies, that from death.
the Vines in Margiana and other places in that quarter of Institutes of Menu, cop. ii. p. 146.
the world were so big, that two men could scarcely compass them in their arms, and that they produced bunches of grapes tuo cubits or a yard long, which is more than a foot longer than that vast bunch produced by his Grace the Duke of
2503. [Num. xv. 6.]
Da mihi thura, puer, pingues facientia flammas,
OVID L. v. de Tristibus, Eleg. 5.
Marginia, a province of Persia, bounded on the east by Hyrcana, on the north by Tartary, on the south by Asia, and on the west by Bactria ; is by many antient authors celebrated for its fertility in vines of so ex. traordinary a size, that two men can scarcely fathom the trunk of one of them, bearing clusters, some of which are two cubits long.
Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 416. Proin the most authentic accounts, the Egyptian grape is very small; and this being the only one with which the Israelites were acquainted, the great size of the grapes of Hebron would appear still more extraordinary.
Dr. A. CLARKE, in loco.
2504. [- 38.] The Egyptian habit, which they call calasiris, is made of linen, and fringed at the bottom; over this they throw a kind of shawl made of white wool, but in these vests of wool they are forbidden by their religion either to be buried or to enter any sacred edifice.
HERODOT. Euterpe. Ixxxi. In Syria and Egypt, according to the accounts of modern travellers, garments lined and bordered with costly furs are the dresses of honor and of ceremony. See No. 869.
Ibid. Melpomene, note 119.
2500. [ 28.] It appears from Homer's Iliad, passim, that the word anax or anak, applied only to kings and heroes, was a term of great honor with the most antient Greeks. BOCHART considers it as a common name answer. ing to the Latin torquatus ; and shews that the great men in the East were in the earliest times so called, on account of the rich collar or chain which they usually wore about their necks. (See Univer. Hist. vol. xvi. p. 441, note (A).)
- The fact is, their gilded statues, which were of euormous size, wore torques of gold, and were called by the Greeks Anakes, or Anakim, on account of their superior stature and majesty. (See Cicero de Nat. Deorum, lib. iii. — Ibid.) — In these statues their great men were enshriyed at death, and thus deified.
See Jer. xvi. 18. Ezek. xliii. 7, 9.
2505. [Num. xvi. I.] And Korah, the son of Izhar, the sou of Kohath, the son of Levi, took Dathan &c.
Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 12.,
1 3 1 - 35.] Equally dreadful was the earthquake at Catania in Italy, in the year of Christ 1692. This was felt not only over all Sicily, but likewise in Naples and Malta ; and the shock was so violent, that people could not stand upon their feet, and those who lay on the ground were tossed from side to side, as if upon a rolling billow. The earth opened in several places, throwing up large quantities of water; and great numbers perished in their houses by the fall of rocks that were loosened and rent from
2501. [Num. xiv. 43.] The scarlet-flowering bean twists round its support against the sun (as is the common way of expression), or the same way a common corkscrew is made,
ages have their crosiers : all which are ensigns of dignity and office.
Burder's Oriental Customs,
vol. ii. p. 68.
the mountains. The sea was violently agitated, and roared dreadfully; mount Etna threw up vast spires of fame ; and the shock was attended with the loudest claps of thunder. Fifty-four cities and towns, with an incredible number of villages, were either destroyed or greatly damaged ; and it was computed that nearly sixty thousand persons perished in different parts of the island, of whom eighteen thousand were inhabitants of Catania, very few escaping the general and sudden destruction of that City.
See Smith's Wonders of Nature and Art,
under “ Italy.” On the morning of the 28th, October, 1810, the greater part of St. Jago de Cuba, which had escaped the fury of two preceding shocks of an earthquake, was instantly swallowed up; and a chasm, 80 feet broad, remained the only vestige of this frightful ruin.
25/1. [Num. xvii. 8.] In Homer (Il. i. 234), Achilles is introduced as swearing by a sceptre, which being cut from the trunk of an (almoud) tree on the mountains, and stripped of its bark and leaves, should never sprout again, much less produce leaves and branches. - Such a one the Grecian judges carried in their hands.
Ibid. p. 267. When a branch of the almond-tree is once lopped from its parent, it perishes for ever.
Dr. A. CLARKE.
2507. [Num. xvi. 31 — 35.] On the 21st of October, 1766, the city of Cumana was entirely destroyed by an earthquake. The whole of the houses were overturned in the space of a few minutes, and the shocks were hourly repeated during fourteen months. In several parts of the province the earth opened, and threw out sulphureous waters. — It is a generally received opinion at Cumana, says HUMBOLDT, that the most destructive earthquakes are announced by very feeble oscillations, and by a hollow sound, which does not escape the observation of persons habituated to this kind of phenomenon ; so that, before the above catastrophe took place, the greater part of the inhabitants could and did escape into the streets.
See his Trav. to S. America.
2512. - 10.] In the East, any person preferred to bonors bore' a sceptre or staff of honor, and sometimes a plate of gold on the forehead (where the hair had been circumcised) called Cadosh or caduceus, siguifying a sacred or separated person; to inform the people that he who bore this rod or mark was a public man, who might “go in and out” or hither and thither freely, and whose person was inviolable. — This distinction was so inseparable froin the chief of each great family, that in the oriental idiom a tribe has 110 other name than that of the sceptre (or standard) to which it is subordinate. Thus the famous prophecy of Jacob (Gen. xlix. 9, 10) has been totally obscured, by mistaking the sceptre therein mentioned for a royal sceptre; whereas, if we judge of the sceptre by the person who is to wear it, that is, by the chief (Dux) of the tribe of Judah, who is immediately mentioned (as coming to Shiloh), we find no difficulty in the immediate) application of the prophecy (to Joshua who set up the Taberuacle and stationed the ark at Shiloh, till it was carried away thence by the Philistines under Eli the high-priest. (Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Heav. vol. i. p. 187.)- The Shiloh, here alluded to, may denote the Angel of the Divine Presence sent to lead Israel in the pillar of the cloud. This Angel was well known to Jacob, and had revealed to him the going forth of his descendants to Canaan.
1 4 8.] A plate of iron only, but no other body interposed, can hinder the operation of the magnet, either as to the attractive or directive quality.
SMITH's Wonders of Nat. and Art,
vol. iii. p. 34.
2509. [Num. xvii. 2.] Esculapius' staff was composed of a palm-rod with a vine-branch twisted round it; to denote that be was a physician and a priest.
2513. [Num. xviii. 12.] In the Hebrides, the Gruagich stones (consecrated by the Druids for emblems of the Sun), as far as tradition can inform us, were only honoured with libations of milk from the hands of the dairy-maid : This was one of the sober offerings that well became a poor or frugal people, who had peither wine vor oil to bestow.
PENNANT. — Pinkerton's Coll.
part xii. p. 553.
2510. [- 6.] The priests among the Greeks and Romans bad their recurved rods; and bishops in later