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2514. [Num. xviii. 16.] The first-born belonged not to his parents, till they had paid for his redemption.

See No. 998, 997. .

2520. [Num. xix. 17.) This denotes that the infernal infla. ence from Hades, combined with the celestial influence from Paradise, when falling jointly on a soul purify it from sin, when the soul is desirous of being delivered.

. 2015. [Num. xix. 2, &c.] The regulations before us were entirely necessary for a people, whose very degree and place in society were conditionally dependent on a scrupulous avoidance of all uncleanness.

Halhep's Preface to Gentoo

Laws, p. 60.

2521. [Num. XX. 8.) Filtering jars, as invented at the Serapeum in Canopus, were made by inixing wax with brickearth, and baking the vessei, till the wax consuming, delt it porous.

See Month. Mag. for Feb. 1812, p. 41.

2522. ( 19.] At Suez, says Pitts (p. Ul), we 2516.

This heifer was undoubtedly a type of paid a groal, ur sixpence a gallon, for fresh water the impure humanity taken from the Virgin, and made a If the Israelites solicited from other nations a passage into sacrifice for sin, when the Lord died on the cross. It then Palestine, it was merely to cume at their own property went to Hades never to return, whilst the interior and puri- again : and when they passed the Jordan, and found the fied Human went to Paradise, and returned glorified with the Canaanites in arms against them, the latter had no longer Divine, at the resurrection.

| a legitimate cause to maintain, for they wanted to keep possession of the property of anoiher people.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. i. p. 160.

See, on Deut. 1. 8. 2517.

Mr. Brenkenhoff has imported large quantities of camels and buffaloes from Asia, for the improvement of agriculture. The race of the latter thrive very 2523. [ 21.] The land of Edom, situate between well under the Prussian sky.-- But the laziness of this ani the Dead and the Red Sea, was in alter ages denonmated mal reuders all his other advantages of no account.

Aralja Petrea.
PINKERTON's Coll. part xxiii. p. 181. See No. 769, 772.

Unirer. Hist. vol. 1. p. 14.

2518. [- 14.) This law seems to presuppose, that interment should take place before the seventh day, on which the Hebrews ended their deepest mourning. Whoever, from | 2524. [Num. xxi. 6.) Nechashim seraphim (Hebr.): excessive attachment, thought to keep a corpse longer in his These flying fiery serpents, bred in Arabia and Egypt, are tent, continued unclean alouy with the tent, during the whole

of a shining yellowish color like brass (verse 9), and by the time it was kept.

motion of their wings, and vibration of their tails, reverSmith's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 326. berating the sun-beams, make a glorious appearance, –

Supposed to be the hydra.

Unider. Hist. vol. i. p. 124.

pol. iji. p. 20. 2519. 1- 11 — 22.] Aster touching a dead body, the Kamtschadales use the following purification. Going to the wood, they cut some rods, of which they make a ring, and

2525. - The chersydrus was one of the most creeping through it twice, they carry it back to the wood, noxious species of serpents, subsisting, according to Ni. and throw it towards the west. Those who have been em

cander, on dust ; and found, if Cicero and Enan may be ployed in removing a corpse out of the hut where it ex. credited, in vast numbers in the deserts of Lybia. pired, are obliged to catch two birds, one of which they

Mic. vii. 17. Gen. iii. 14. Univer. Hist. vol. sri, burn, and then participate with the whole family in eating

Isai. Ixv. 25.

p. 695. note (S). the other. Such purification is performed on the very day of defilement; for they must not enier any other hut, nor wili any person enter theirs, before they are purified.

2526.

In America, during summer, fire-flies SMITH. / appear every night. After a slight shower in an afternoon,

the woods are seen sparkling with them iu every direction. 2533. [Num. xxii. 8.] As Balaam worshipped the Jehovah
Their light is emitted from the tail ; each having the power of the Jews, Dr. Geddes is of opinion that he was an
of emitting it or not, at pleasure. ('fhey are undoubtedly | Ammonite.
Aying glow-worms, still emitting light from the tail-part.)

WELD's Trav. through N. America,
vol. i. p. 198.

2534. [ 20.] As revealed in an elementary body,

God could be seen by Abraham, Moses, &c.; but where not 2527. ( Num. xxi. 6.] One night, says BERNJER (in the ac

so revealed, he could only be seen by the spirit of a man in count of his Voy, to the East Indies), when there was not a

the visions of the night. breath of wind, and the air was so hot and stilling that we could

See Num. xii. 6-8. scarcely breathe in the creek where we had retired out of the main channel, the bushes around us were so full of those little shining worms, that they seemed to be on fire; and there arose flies here and there, which were like Aames, and fright

2535. [- 31.] Walk from the dark into a strong ened my seamen, who said, they were devils. Among the light, or from a strong light into darkness, with a lookingrest there arose two, that were very extraordinary : one was glass in your hand, and you will see the pupil of your eye a great globe of fire, which in falling and spinning lasted dilate in proportion as you enter into the dark, and contract above the time of saying a Pater-noster; and the other, which | in proportion as you approach tlie light. lasted about a quarter of an hour, was like a little tree all in a 1 - Num. xxiv. 3. Nat. Delin. vol, iv. p. 65. — And fame.

See No. 1005.

Priestley's Hist. of Vision, See No. 1001. See Pinkerton's Coll. part xxxii. p. 229.

p. 40.

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2537.

1 8 .) From this and the 21st verse, it ap2530. [- 14.] From this and the following passages

pears to have been Balaam's firm belief, that God's people it would appear as if severał Books of Scripture were now

could never be hurt, uniess they were seduced into sin. utterly lost. Josh. x. 13. i Kings xi. 41. 2 Kings i. 18.

- See a testimony to this purpose, not only in the xiv. ch. 2 Chron. ix. 29. — xii. 15.-- XX. 34.

folławing, but more remarkably in Judith v. 5-21.

From Chap. xxxi. 16, following, and Rev. ii. 14, it appears further, that Balaam wickedly seduced the Israelites to

idolatry by the Midianitish Church-women. 2531.

17.) It is a general practice when all Verses 20, 21. He hath blessed, and I cannot reverse plantation of mango-trees is made, to dig a well on one side it] Intimating, that it were in vain to expect God ever to of it. The well and the plantation are married, a' ceremony desert his people, so long as they continued in their duty; at wbich all the village attends. The well is considered as l. and therefore the only way to hurt and distress them would the husbaud ; its waters which are copiously furnished to the be, to tempt them to idolatry and disobedience. young trees during the first hot season, being supposed to See No. 2553.

Joseph. Antiq. b. iv. c. 6. cherish and impregnate them.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs.
vol. iii. p. 56.

2538.

9.] In 1768, a Bill was passed by the British Parliameut to naturalize the Jews ; but after a few

months it was repealed, the voice of the people demanding 2632. [ 21.] This land, regained by the Israelites, that the devoted nation should not be reckoned with them. originally belonged to the Moavites and Amninonites.

- Thus, we may say, our last national deliberation concerning See Judg. xi. 13, &c. that people, was influenced according to prophecy. - But it

is predicted again, that Israet shall return to the LORIS

their God. Agreeably to this, and to promote their con- || unfrequented retreats. “ At least,” says SPAREMAN, “they version, let our nation procced, without delay, to take away describe an animal exactly corresponding with the usual chathe reproach of the Jewish people ; and announce the Chris- | racter of that creature, whose existence has been so much tian Act in the most public and solemn manner, as an example doubted by naturalists.” to the rest of the world.

Also, in the proximity of the Cordilleras in South AmeChristian Researches in Asia, rica, there is an animal called Danta or grand bestia, the p. 212.

size of a bullock, and very swift, its color generally white, and its skin very inuch valued for making buff leather ;

which has, says Ulloa, in the middle of its head, a hora 2539. [Num. xxiii. 22.] The word rim (Hebr.), trans

bending inward. Jated unicorn, wherever it occurs in the Sacred Writings, will

Voyage, Edit. 4th. vol. i. p. 362. be found to be distinguished by its fierceness, its strength, or the prominency of its horn; properties, which all naturalists ascribe in an eminent degree to the rhinoceros. (BURTON.) — After the elephant, says BUFFON, the rhinoceros is the most

2543. [Num. xxiii. 25.) To curse is to disinherit; and

to bless is to settle in an inheritance. powerful of all quadrupeds. He is at least twelve feet in height, and the circumference of his body is nearly equal to his length, Deprived of all feeling in the skin, he has nothing instead of a trunk, but a moveable lip, in which centers all his dexterity. This muscular and fexible lip, which cau be lengthened six or seven inches, is indeed a sort of trunk, very incomplete, yet well calculated for strength

2544. [Num. xxiv. 5-9.] This poctic prophecy, says and facility in gathering and dividing the grass into sinall Bp. Lowth, abounds in gay and splendid imagery copied quantities, as the elephant does with his trunk. Without

immediately from the tablet of nature, and is chiefly conspibeing ferocious, or carnivorous, or even wild, he is neverthe cuous for the glowing elegance of the style, and the form and less untameable. He is of the nature of a hog, blunt and diversity of the figures. grunting, without intellect, without sentiment, and without tractableness. He fears neither the claws of the tyger nor the Jion, nor even the fire and weapons of the huntsman. Yet his superiority consists solely in his strength, size, and in the

2545. 6.] No aloe-trees grow in Mesopotamia, offensive weapon which he carries on his nose, and which is which was Balaam's country ; nor in the land of Moab, peculiar to hiin. This weapon is a very hard horn, solid where these words were originally expressed. What we call throughout, and so placed as to defend all his vulnerable the wood of aloes comes to us from the Iudies, and the best parts, the muzzle, the mouth and the face from insult: so of it from Suniatra and Molucca. We should therefore transthat, on account of this horn and the tremendous claws ou late Ahalim by tents, as the Septuagint, the Vulgate, the his huge feet, the tyger more readily seizes the elephaut than Syriac and the Arabic Versions have done. the rhinoceros, which he cannol attack in front, without in The aloes is of a bad smell, and cannot enter among the curring the danger of being instantly killed.

perfumes which are mentioned in Ps. xlv. 8. Prov. vii. 17. See Ps. xcii. 10. and Deut. xxxij. 17. and Cant. iv. 14 (See Prod. vii. 17). — See Essay for a

New Translation, part ii. pp. 163, 156.

But the Indian calambac, which appears to be here meant,

is the most resinous and fragrant of all woods. The Indians 2540.

Of the Rhinoceros there are two species ; || account it holy, and burn it as incense in their temples. one with two horris, the other with one — the unicorn.

Dr. GEDDES. See a Portuguese Manuscript trans

lated by Sir PETER WYCHE, p. 42.

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inhabit Pondicherry, subsist chiefly on rice boiled in water, or formed into a paste which is baked on the coals.

Rees. For an idea of the antient Bucket, See No. 2184.

2.553. [Num. xxv. 1, 2, &c.] It is said by Jesus Christ in the Revelation, that Balaam taught Balak to cast this stambling block before the Israelites, i. e. to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit fornication.

See Reo, ii. 14.

2548. [Num. xxiv, 7.] His king shall be supremely ex- || 2554. ( 4. Hang them up] Let them be put on alted, and his kingdom shall be highly elevated.

their trial, whether they be guilty or not. See Deut.

See Dr. Dopo. xxviii. 66. Hosea xi. 7. - Agag] The Samaritan, Septuagint, Syriac, and Ara

Gen. xl. 19. Essay for a New Translation, p. 69. bic read Gog the Scythians, preferred by the Editors of Univer. Hist.

See vol. iii. p. 24.

2555. - - At Paris, 80 late as the 7th of Jan. 1816, there were burnt in the square of Falaix, different emblems of Buonaparte's Government, such as cockades, flags,

prints and busts. 2549. [- 17.] Bp. Newton applies the literal mean Deut. xxi. 22. Esth. vii. 9.

Public Prints. ing of this prophecy to the person and actions of David.

It was a custom among the Jews at the Feast of Purim, See his Dissertations on the Pro

or of Lots, instituted ju remembrance of Haman's wicked phecies, vol. i. p. 139.

attempt to destroy them, to erect a gibbet, and hang upon
it the figure of a man, which they called Haman.
Esther ix. 13. Martin's Magazine of Arts and

Sciences, vol. iii. p. 122. 2550. [- 20.) The kingdom of Amalek was bounded The Effigy of Count de Lavalette, who had escaped from by Canaan on the north ; by Egypt, on the south; by Edom,

prison after being condeinned to suffer death, was burnt in on the east; and on the west, by the deserts towards the sea, Paris Jan. 1816, agreeably to an autient law of France. or by the inargin of the sea itself.

Josh. x. 22 — 27.

Public Prints. Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 150.

255). [ 21.] The Grecian fortresses are invariably placed on high and commandivg rocks ; in which excavatious were made, to serve as wells, and as gravaries. This rational inode of adapting the works of art to those of nature, obviated the necessity of ditches. — Vallies, ravines, and the beds of torrents, generally form their dykes and intrenchments, and the precipices above them are nearly as inaccessible as the walls which they support.

Archeologia, vol. xv. p. 323.

2556. — 6. One of the children of Israel - led to his brethren &c.] With the cords of a husband, with bands of love, Hosea xi. 4. — These cords were the marriage yoke. 1 Kings xx. 31, 32.

N. B. Covenants between God and man, Ps. oxviii. 27; – between a king and his subjects, Ps. ii. 3; - between a master and his servant, Matt. xxiv. 51; — and between a husband and wife, Hos. xi. 4, — were all formed by girdles, cords, and belts of wampum. JOSEPHUS says expressly, that Zimri had married Cozbi.

Antiq. b. iv. chap. 6.

2552. [- 24. Shalt afflict Eber] Shall afflict the other side of the River. (Hyde de rel. vet. Pers. p. 67.) When this prophecy came to be fulfilled, Ashur was reduced to its primitive bounds, and in subjection to Elam or the Persians; as were also the Babylonians, and the inhabitants of Aram, or Mesopotamia : who, we think, say the Editors of the Univer. Hist. (vol. i. p. 259) are to be understood by Eber, or the other side of the Rider, that is, the Euphrates.

See No. 1006, 1003.

2557. [Num. xxvi. 59.] The Greeks, having no words ending in M, frequently expunged that letter from Oriental proper pames, in order to accommodate them to their own language of which Maria, Gehenna, &c., are sufficient instances. See No. 831.

Unider. Hist. vol. xvi. p. 688.

note (P.)

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- 2560.

Thus from the first, in the antient Hebrew republic, one supreme magistrate presided.

See Univer. Hist. vol. xvi. pp. 450, 457,

nales (I) & (N). Honor is of goodness ; glory, of truth.

2565. (Num. XXX. 4,5.) Thus fathers were to determine, what might be reasonable for their children, while under their care, to vow and promise ; because the vows made by such children signified nothing without a father's consent. And it appears from the case of Jephthah's daughter, that if a father vowed any thing in the name of his child, such father might be released from his yow, unless it were sanctioned and confirmed by the daughter's consent.

Judg. xi. 30, 31, &c. See Essay for a New TransSee No. 514, &c.

lation, p. 91.

2561. 21.) What this Urim and 'Thummim was, has been the subject of great and extensive controversy : but if, without stating the grounds of it, I might briefly mention my opinion, says Michaelis, it was three very antient stones, which the Israelites before Moses' time used as lots; one of them marked with an affirmative ; a second, with a negative ; and the third, blank, or neutral; and which Moses commanded to be kept within what was called the chosch, or breastplate of the priest; but which had no connexion with the twelve precious stones therein set.

See No. 2116, &c. Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 261.

2666. [Num. XXX.] According to the Mosaic law as laid down in this Chapter, when intruders were dispossessed or usurpers disinberited, the spoil in persons and cattle did not belong to the individuals who took it, but was collected, reckoned, and distributed, 1. To those who went against the enemy, one half; of which however, they had to give every five hundredth individual to the priests : 2. To all the other Israelites, the other half; but with the deduction of every fiftieth individual for the Levites. Whilst thiogs inanimate belonged to the individual who seized them ; see v. 48, 54.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iii. p. 51.

2562. (Num. xxviii. 1.] The prophet Amos, in chap. v. 25, says, the Israelites brought no offerings to God in the wilderness during forty years.

Ibid. vol. ii. p. 415.

2567. ( 7.) Instead of “they slew", we should read – they cut (or circumcised) all the males. — The Israelites, it seeins, in forming their leagues with other nations BY CIRCUMCISION, always cut them with the sword, or with the edge of the sword.

See Gen. xxxiv. 25, 26.

2563. (Num. xxix. 7.] This solemn day of propitiation was lustituted among the Jews to preserve the memory of the pardon proclaimed to their forefathers by Moses on the part of God; who thereby remitted the punishment due for their worship of the golden calf.

Rees.

2568. [ 10.] Among the Celtes, Gaula, and Scythians, it was an antient custom for every tribe to have a separate canton assigned to it, and to be governed by magistrates of its own election. These cantons were by the Romans called pagi (ch. xxxii. 41), which took up more or less ground, according to the largeness of the tribe ; and,

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