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as soon as it was parcelled out among their families, each of them built a distinct cot in the centre of his own ground. - These were but slight, temporary huts, as they generally 1 removed to a fresh position every year.

See Univer. Hist. vol. xvii, p. 776,

note (H).

even in the deserts which the Israelites traversed, there were tracts not entirely unfruitful, and unsusceptible of still farther improvement; as, for instance, the wilderuess of Paran, as it was called, &c. &c.

MICHAELIS' Commentaries on the Laws

of Moses, vol. i. p. 149.

2569. [Num. xxxi. 22.] Perab produces more tin than 1 any country in India ; but the inhabitants are so evil-disposed, that no European nation can keep factories there with safety.

Malacca produces nothing for a foreign inarket, but a little tin and elephants' teeth.

The territories of Johore abound in tin, pepper, elephauts' teeth, gold, Agala-wood and canes.

Palaung produces tin. — Sangore yields some tin. — Ligore produces abundance of tin. — Cui produces great quantities of tin and elephants' teeth.

Captain HAMILTON = Pinkerlon's Coll.

part xxxiii. pp. 433, 435, 440, 1 462, 464.

2574. [Num. xxxii. 17.] By referring to Num. xxvi. 7, 18, 34, we may gather that 70,580 slaves, denominated " cattle,” were left, when these tribes passed the Jordan, to protect the women and the children. – In this sense Lucan intimates (lib. iv), that the Gætuliaus were mixed with their catile in the ir mapalia.

See Univer. Hist, vol. xvii. p. 438,

note (D).

2570. [- 28, &c.] As the Midiauiles had their own religious governments to support, the LORD), instead of exacting full tythe, graciously compounds with them by taking to Himself as King only one out of every 500, and by order. ing one in 50 to be taken by the priesthood for the support of the poor, the fatherless, the widows, &c. throughout their gates.

Deut. 2. 11.

2575. [ 29, 30.] This position of the tribes of Israel is similar to the arrangement spontaneously assumed by a flock of sheep on the mountains, when alarmed by the approach of a powerlul eneny, On such occasions they draw up into a complete body, placing the females and young in the ceutre, whilst the males take the foremost ranks, keeping close by each other. Thus an armed front is presented on all quarters, that cannot easily be attacked without danger of destruction to the assailant. In this manner they wait with firmness the approach of the enemy; nor does their courage fail them in the moment of attack; for, wlien the aggressor advances within a few yards of the line, the Rams dart upon him with such impetuosity as lo lay him dead at their feet, unless he judiciously save himself by timely flight. Against the attacks of single Dogs or Foxes, when in this situation, they are perfectly secure.


2571. [Num. xxxii. 1.] It is, methinks, past a doubt, says MICHAELIS, that Mount Gilead, properly so called, from which the whole (desert) country had its name, lay far without the space which the common maps of Palestine include, and was at no great distance from the Euphrates. 1 Chron. v. 9, 10, 18 - 22. See his Commentaries on

the Laws of Moses, vol. i. p. 77.

2576. — 41.] Jair was by nature the son of Segub, the son of Hezron, the son of Judah : but he is here called the son of Manasseh, because his adopting great grandfather by the inother's side, was Machir the son of Manasseb ; See 1 Chron. ii. 21 — 23.

2572. [ 1, 2, &c.] It is remarkable, that Reuben, Gad, and the balf tribe of Manasseh were the first settled in the promised land, and also the first removed on account of their sins.

See 1 Chron. V. 25, 26.

2577. [Num. xxxiv, 6.) The Mediterranean is what the Scripture commonly calls the Great Sea; for the Hebrews knew little of the ocean, and gave the naine of seas to lakes and all great waters.

FLEURY's Manners of the Israel

ites, by Dr. A. Clarke, p. 54.

2573. [- 15.] Arabia not only afforded pasturage for their cattle, but, as we learn from Niebuhr's Travels,

• 2578. [Num. XXXV. 4, 5.] The suburbs of these cities are expressed in the Law to be 3,000 cubits on every side from the wall of the city and outwards. The first thousand cubits are the suburbs; and the 2,000, measured without the suburbs, were for fields and vineyards.


and that prejudices and manners may be softened. The Hebrews were commanded to marry in their own tribe; but it was perhaps a mean of encouraging them all to population. Twelve tribes among the Jews were more certain of agreeing, than the two classes of plebeians and patricians amoug the Romans. Between these two factions nothing could bring back the equilibrium; among twelve classes it maintained itself: all with emulation counterbalanced each other, and each was of sufficient weight to prevent the predominance of any one.

PINKERTON’s Coll. part ii. p. 372.

2579. - 12.] From Josh. xx. 4 - 6, it appears that the fugitive underwent two trials : first in the city of refuge, where the judges summarily examined the affair ; secondly, in his own city, where the magistrates examined the cause more strictly. If the latter judges declared him innocent, he was re-conducted under a competent guard to the city of refuge.


2580. [ 13.] In England, previous to the Reformation, pillars and crosses were placed occasionally in the neighbourhood of churches, to mark the boundaries of those privileged spaces, in which fugitives, whether for debt or crimes, were sure to find protection. — At Hexam, in Northumberland, at St. Edmundsbury, and in a few other places, four such crosses are set up at the distance of a mile in every direction from the church.

Josh. xx.2,-9. Archæologia, vol. xiv. pp. 41, 47. See No. 806, 805, 810, 812.

2582. [Num. XXXVI. 8.] The assertion that no Israelite durst marry out of his tribe, and which we find repeated in a hundred books, is a silly fiction, directly confuted by the Mosaic writings. Even the high priest himself was not obliged to confine himself to his own tribe; nothing more being enjoined him, than to look out for an Israelitish bride. It was only in this single case of a daughter being the heiress of her father's land, that she was prohibited from marrying out of her tribe, in order that the inheritance might not pass to another tribe.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ij. p. 36.

2583. [~ 11, 12.] An Heiress was obliged, by the laws of Greece, to marry her nearest relation, that the estate might not go out of the family; and this relation, in case of her refusal, had a right to sue for the delivery of her person, as we do for goods and chattels.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, - vol. i. p. 135.

2681. [Num. xxxvi. 6.] It is necessary for families to intermix, in order that fortunes may circulate, interests unite, I


I His speech, says Josephus, was delivered near Jor- 1 Inca by the superior officer of each district, whose jurisdicdau, wbere the city Abila now stands; a place full of palm tion extended over a thousand families. trees.

See No. 2025.

Heriott's Canada, p. 565. Antiq. b. iv. ch. viii. § 1.

2585. [Deut. i. 8.] From time immemorial, Palestine had been a land occupied by wandering Hebrew herdsmen, in which even Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, bad exercised the right of proprietorship, traversing it with herds, without being in subjection to any one, or acknowledging the Canaanites as their masters. The Phænicians, or Canaanites, were certainly not the original possessors of this land, but had at first dwelt on the Red Sea, as Herodotus relates ; with whom Justin and Abulfeda so far coincide, as that the former says, that they had another country before they came to dwell on the Lake of Gennezareth, or Dead Sea ; and the latter, that they first dwelt in Arabia. (See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. i. pp. 154 — 169. — See also Num. xx. 19.) — Phænicians is the Greek name of the people who in Hebrew are called Canaanites.


2587. [Deut. i. 13, 15,] The territory of England is divided into counties, bundreds, tithings, or towns. Which division as it now stands seems to owe its original to king Alfred ; who to prevent the rapines and disorders which formerly prevailed in the realm, instituted tithinys, so called, because ten freeholders with their families, made one. These all dwelt together, and were surelies to the kiug for the good behaviour of each other.

A hundred was originally made up of ten tithings, consisting of ten times ten families, and is governed by the high constable.

A County or shire, is a district made up of an indefinite number of hundreds. See No. 774. See a Concise View of the Constitution

of England, by Geo. CUSTANCE, p. 50.

2588. [Deut. ii. 9.) Ar, called also Rabbah, and by the

Greeks Arcopolis, was the chief city of Moab, situate on the 2586. - 15.] In the kingdom of Peru, the state

Il river Arnol. The other cities given to the descendants of was separated into decuries, or divisions of ten families in

Lot, were Mizpeh, Lutheth, Horonaim, and some others, each, which were committed to the guidance of an officer.

whose situations are not certainly known. Over five of these decuries, or fifty families, an officer of

Univer. Hist, vol. ii. p. 81. superior rank presided, and these ascended in pre-eminence and gradation, to the command of a hundred, five hundred, and a thousand families. It was the duty of each of the subordinate superintendants of police, to report to his immediate superior, all actions whether good or bad, which had occurred within the limits of his observation; - for the former 2589. [Deut. iii. 11.] The inhabitants of Little Buk liária he solicited rewards, — for the latter, punishments. --- He have a sort of bedsteaid half a yard high, and four yards likewise rendered an account of the state of provisions and long, which is hidden in the day with a carpet. otber necessaries. The several reports were laid before the

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. v.p. 135.

2590. [Deut. iii. 11.] In the houses of the Russiau peasantry, there are no beds, but broad benches, on which they sit in the day-time, and sleep by night.

See Sir John SINCLAJR's Code of

Health, vol. i. p. 739.

Verse 38.] Here it is positively asserted that the nations, where the two tribes and a half were now settled, had not been killed, but banished.

2591. - A cubit was twenty-two inches nearly.

Essay for a New Translation, part ii. p. 39. Dr. A. CLARKE thinks 18 iuches, the average of the cubit of a man.

2597. (Deut. iv. 34.) Wars, though of a civil nature, represent in heaven states of the Church, and are correspondent to its spiritual conflicts. Such were all the wars described in the Word ; and such are all wars at this day. But in this world it is not known, which are the kingdoins in Christendom, that represent the Moabites and Ammonites, which the Syrians and Philistines, and which the Chaldæans and Assyrians, and the rest with whom the Israelites waged war; nevertheless there are kingdoms in Christendom which represent those peoples.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence,

n. 251.

2592. - - Rabb

Rabbah of the children of Ammon] This city, thus distinguished from the Rabbah of Moab, is called also Ammana ; and in process of time, after it had been rebuilt by Ptolemy Philadelphus, it was named Philadelphia. The other cities belonging to the Ammonites, were Minnith, Abel of the vineyard, Jaser or Jazer as some suppose.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 98.

2598. [- 48.] The river Jordan arose under the summit of a very lofty ridge of Mount Lebanon, which was by a particular name, called Hermon. See No. 783, 776, 1009. Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. i. p. 89.

2593. [- 19.] Vetaphekem (Hebr.), and your little ones, Taph comprehends women, children, slaves ; in a word, the whole family, bag and baggage.

Dr. GEDDES' Critical Remarks, p. 201.

2699. [Deut. v. 6 — 21.] On the proper division of the Ten Commandinents, see Joseph. Antiq. lib. iii. c. 5. § 5. - His division corresponds with that of Philo, and was fol. lowed by the Greek Fathers, and by the Latin Fathers too, before Austin.

Dr. Geddes.

2594. ( 25.] Mount Lebanon, from the remotest antiquity, bears the Arabian name of Liban, which siguifies White, on account of the snows with wbich its summit is covered all the year round.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. i. p. 223.

2600. - 7.] It is to be understood that, in every Spiritual Sun of every Solar System throughout the universe, God exhibits forth His Infinite Human Spirit in its appropriate human form, as he does all other spirits and gases in the distinct and varied forms of subordinate creation; that the One God, so putting Himself forth into manifestation, stands represented in each of such suns, as any luminous body would appear multiplied in so many mirrors.

2695. [Deut. iv. 2.) The Jews had, says Josephus, so great a veueration for their Sacred Scriptures, that after the lapse of many ages, no one had dared to add any thing to them, subtract any thing from them, or make any alteration ju them.

Contra Apion, lib. i. sect. 8. vol. ii.

pp. 441, 442. ed. Havercamp.

2601. - 22.] Sir Isaac Newton has proved, that the gravitation of bodies on the surface of the sun, is 27 times stronger than it is with us. Hence the compression of the elastic gases of which the solar atmosphere consists, if similar to our own (in its dark under stratum), must be greater than that of ours, in proportion to the superior force by which they are compressed, namely, their own powerful gravitation towards the sun. See No. 790.

Phil. Trans. 1801, part ii. p. 300.

2596. [- 34.) It is certain that between the hosts of Pharaoh and the Israelites there was in Egypt no war, 1 but much debuting between Moses aud Pharaoh.

2602. [Deut. vi. 8.] Not that phylacteries should be made | 2607. [Deut. vii. 2.) The Hebrew word rendered smite, of the law, to be worn ; as the Pharisees interpreted the in- || denotes here, and in general, to rout. junction, and others through them have mistaken : but that

See Dr. Geddes, on Judg. xv. 15. they should have the law in continual remembrance, as it were always in their sight, and continually fixed in their bands.

2608. [- 3.] Most of the Grecian states required Origines Sacræ, p. 102.

their citizens to match with none but citizens; considering the freedom of their cities as too great a privilege to be

granted on easier terms to foreigners, or their children : 2603. For general information, therefore, the hence we find the Athenian laws sentencing the children Mosaic laws were to be written in all public places, on the of such matches to perpetual slavery. They also had posts of houses, and on the city gates ; Deut. vi. 6 - 9. la law, that if a foreigner married a free-woman of Athens, it In like manner, in Syria, and the adjacent countries, it is should be lawful for any person to call him to account before usual at this day to place inscriptions above the doors of the the magistrates called Thesmothetæ; where, if he were houses, which, as quoted in the books of travels, appear | convicted, they sold him for a slave, all his goods were well calculated to impress the laws on the minds of posterity confiscated, and the third part tbereof given to tbe accuser. in their earliest years. Among us indeed, where, by the aid

MOORE's Marriage Customs, p. 72. of printing, books are so abundantly multiplied, and may be put into the hands of every child, such measures would be quite superfluous; but if we would enter into the spirit of

2609. [ 5.] As no mention is here made of temthis Mosaic institute, we must place ourselves in an age, Il ples to be destroyed, Sir Isaac Newton concludes that the when the book of the Law could only come into the hands of Canaanites had none in those days. a few opulent people.

See No. 176.

See his Chronol. of Ant. Kingd. Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 31).

Amended, p. 221.

2610. [ 22.] The beasts of the field, here, as in many other places of Sacred Scripture, deuote not animals, but savage tribes of untutored human beings. See Gen. i. 28.

Jonah iji. 8.

2604. [Deul. vii. 1.] The seven idolatrous nations are to be cast out of the Interior Canaan, as the seven Dernons were out of Mary of Magdala. (ch. vi. 19.) — Of these seven nations, five are descendants of Canaan the son of Ham. But it does not clearly appear, whence were, the Perizzites, and the Canaanites peculiarly so called.

Univer. Hist, vol. ii. p. 157.

2605. [ 1—3, 24.] This interior Canaan, whence the seven nations were to be utterly routed, was but on an average 160 miles in length, and 50 in breadth; yet it afforded food for thirteen hundred thousand men, besides women and children, iinpotent persons, and all the unpumbered Levites, and Benjamites.

Compare 2 Sam. xxiv. 9 with 1 Chron.

xxi. 5 and 2 Chron. xiii. 3.

2611. [Deut. viij. 4.] Here are abundance of mysteries, occasioned by a writer's not saying in direct terms, that nothing was wanting to the Israelites in the wilderness ; which defect Nehemiah, magnifying God's providence on this very subject, literally supplies, saying, Forty years didst thou sustain them in the wilderness, so that they lacked nothing; their clothes waxed not old, and their feet swelled not. Neh. ix. 21.

Bib. Research. vol. ii. p. 403.

2612. [ 7-9.] It is said, that the fertile soil of Armagh in Ireland turns barren under the addition of artificial compost.

See Camb. Brit. in comitat. Armach.


There is an old tradition, that this country did originally belong to the childreu of Shem, by virtue of a division made among the sons of Noah; but that the descendants of Canaan dispossessed them. (See EPIPH. Haeres. 46, n. 84.) — Whence it is argued, that God did but strict justice in restoring the line of Shem to their rightful possessions.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 165.

2613. ( 8.] Hasselquist says, the olives of Judea are incomparably the best he had tasted in the Levant. He praises also the fig-trees be inet with in the neighbourhood of Joppa ; and tells us that the Asiatics use their excelleut

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