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prodigious number that belong to the principal officers of the
their merchandize on oxen, which are loaded with cotton goods of every kind. - In India, at Mailapori, draught oxen are yoked to carriages. — Buffaloes, in India, are employed chiefly in cultivating the land instead of oxen ; as the latter there are used for drawing waggons, and in particular for transporting goods.
BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston,
pp. 56, 76, 210.
2659. [Deul. xvii. 16.] To introduce the use of oxen or bulls in any country, is so important an agricultural and political object, that the horse would be considered merely as administering to luxury and war. — In Bengal, oxen trot six miles an hour with coaches.
YOUNG. — See Pinkerton's Coll. part xvi. p. 481. Recollect here the antient philosopher, who travelled I round the then known world on the back of a cow, living ou her milk.
2663. [Deut. xvii. 17.] The People of England, were the king to amass a treasure from the surplus of the civil list, would not bear it very patiently.
See No. 858. Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 281.
The Targuzinian Tartars ride on their oxen. The Nogayan Tartars, of Koundour, do the same. Mandelsloe rode on an ox part of the way froin Ayra to 2664. [Deut. xviii. 10.] These seven nations of Canaan, Delhi, that carried him seven leagnes in four hours. In we find, had seven abominations or idolatrous methods of Kachemire they saddle, bridle, shoe, and ride them as fast as worshipping, or consulting in a religious way, the creature horses : they also use them to draw their coaches. At rather than the Creator : These specific idolatries constituted Surat, in riding them, they take care their horns are not the following distinct castes. 1. Diviners by augury. more than a foot long, to avoid being struck when flies bite : 2. Observers of times, astrologers. 3. Enchanters, using they never shoe them but in rough places : in the caravan serpents deprived of their poison-bag, in the cure of leprosy, from that city, they carry three hundred to three hundred and ulcers, &c. 4. Witches and lizards, who, with medicated fisty pounds : - a camel carries nine hundred to one thousand hands, apparently cured discases by the touch or by frictiou. pounds : but in a late account, of great authenticity, five 5. Charmers, profauely using words or spells, as apparently hundred and six hundred pounds are mentioned as the coininon effecting what was actually done by natural means. 6. Conload of a camel in crossing the Arabian deserts. The hack. sulters with familiar spirils, Pythonesses influenced by rees, a sort of coach, is drawn in Hindostan by oxen; which, demons, or by wicked spirits deceased. Acts xvi. 16 – 18. when well trained and managed, will maintain their rate 7. Necromancers, who by a confederate produced through against horses at full trot. (Those of Guzerat and Cambray a kind of magic lantern, such apparent figures of the dead as are as large as Lincoln beasts, and white.). The oxeu that they, by ventriloquism, could apparently make to speak. are rode in Forinosa, go as well and as expeditiously as the || I Sum. xxviii. 15 - 19. best horses, by being trained youny. The Hottentots train oxen to gallop, and even run down an elk. PINKERTON's Coll. part xvi. p. 639.
Observers of times ] We are informed by Simplicius, that at the siege of Babylon, Aristotle appointed
Calisthenes to preserve with all possible care the ter eseis 2661. - At Zuric in' Switzerland, the oxen,
(Grk.), or Astronomical Calculations of the Chaldeaps. — harnessed like horses, perform their lahor with much inore
Of these observations, known to be very numerous, only three ease, and with greater effect, than those yoked by the
eclipses have come down to us through the hands of Ptolemy; neck.
to which he also added three more of his owu observation : Coxe's Trav. in Switz. — Pinkerton's Coll.
these however have contributed exceedingly to the developepart xxi. p. 673.
ment of Historical Truth. Oxen and asses are employed in Goza for plowing the
See Dr. GREGORY, de Æris et land.
Epochis, p. 132.
2666. - Enchanter] A diviner by serpents : 2662. - Whole companies of Indian merchants, || such were common among the Heathen. from the interior of Malabar, are accustomed to transport
See Dr. A. Clarke, in loco. 2667. (Deut. xviii. 10.] This art, it seems, came origi 2673. [Deut, xx. 7.) Alexander, after his conquest of the nally from Assyria. -- Simctha,' the witch in Theocritus, Marmarians, having been taught this law by Aristotle, sent speaking of her venefical philtres, confesses to the moon in home to Macedon all the new-married soldiers in his army, the Doric language, that she had learnt those tricks of a that they might spend the winter with their wives : an act, traveller from the land of Ashur; that is, says the Scholiast, says Arrian, that peculiarly endeared him to the Macedofrom a friend of hers that was an Assyrian : the Assyrians || nians. being at that time, he adds, a nation the most expert in
See Univer. Hist. vol. viji. p. 86. Magic.
See Dr. Gregory's Assyrian
2674. [- 10— 12.] It was a part of the political
system of the antient Indian kings (as we are told by STRABO, 2668. Pass through the fire] To Molech, or
and by ARRIAN in bis History of Alexander's Expedition to to any other Idol, set up as the Head or Foauder of the
India), that they never entered the territories of their neighdifferent castes throughout Canaan.
bours in a hostile manner but on the most urgent occasions. If they could not possibly avoid it, they at least suffered the people employed in agriculture to remain at peace, and mo
lested neither their temples nor their priests. 2669. [- 15.] The Samaritans contended that this - The chief magistrate shall first attempt with his enemy prophet, promised by Moses to his countrymen, was Joshua, accommodations of peace, and shall not at once prepare for bis immediate successor.
war. If the enemy do not make a composition, then, by dis. See No. 912, 914. See Photii Bibl. Cod. 230. p. 446. bursing some money, he shall shew the way to a reconci.
liation. If the enemy be discontented with this also, he shall send to the adverse party a man of intelligence, well skilled in the arts of political negotiation. If by all these means the affair should fail of being compromised, he way then prepare for battle.
Halved's Preface to Gentoo Laws, 2670. [Deut. xix. 3.] In Portugal,' when a man injures
p. 114. his neighbour in a way that, according to the point of honor in that country, requires to be avenged, he must make his escape, and go abroad, if he wish to save bis life, because
At the Pelew Islands, it is customary for no man, in such a case, is allowed to forgive.
the king, before be engage in war, to send information of his Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iv. p. 258.
proposed attack, and at the saine time terms of peace; and, after a few days, to enquire of his opponents whether they
will submit or fight. - If the terms be refused, he immedi2671. ( 14.] Among the Romans these march
ately orders the conch to be sounded, and waves bis chinam stones were actually held sacred. Indeed, they can be so
stick in the air; the signal for forming the live of
battle. easily removed, and a man be thus so unobservedly bereft of his property, that it becomes necessary to call in the aid of
Captain WILSON. religion and the fear of God, in order to prevent it. Now Moses, who gave his laws by command of God, did so with pre-eminent propriety.
When the American Indians would make Ibid. col. iii.p. 374. peace, their chiefs of the most extensive abilities and of the
greatest integrity, bear before them the Pipe of Peace, which is of the same nature as a Flag of Truce among the Europeans, and is treated with the greatest respect und veneration. It is termed by the French the Calumet, and is about four feet long. The bowl of it is made of red marble,
aud the stem of it of a light wood, curiously painted with 2672. [Deut. xx. 6.] The Hebrew word (kerem) used in
hieroglyphics in various colors, aud adorned with feathers of this passage, comprehends both vineyard and oliveyard;
the most beautiful birds. It is however, differently ornaindeed, all the land strictly employed in horticulture.
iented by the different nations, and is the introduction to Ibid. p. 35.
all treaties, great cereinony attending the use of it on such - Verse 7.] Whoever had betrothed a wife, but had not occasions. yet consummated the marriage.
See No. 828.
Carver's Trad. in N. America, Ibid.
misere the trees ord, the villages
2677. Deut. xx. 19. Thou shalt not destroy the trees 2681. [Deut. xxi. 4 -9.] In the days of Ina, king of In the 19th Part of the Universal History, p. 264, we find a || the West Saxons, who, according to Sir H. Spelman, began similar coinmand respecting fruit-trees given by the Caliph to reign Anno 712, and died 727, Councils in England were Abubcker to his general, Let no palm-trees be cut generally held in open Fields, on the bank of some river, down.
for the conveniency of water. This custom, we find from MICHAELIS. Matt. Westm. (ad An. 1215) continued even to the time of
king John, in whose 171h year a famous parliament was held
in a meadow between Staines and Windsor, called Runemed, 2673.
It was a merciful provision (in the Divine me mead of Counsel, or of the Council; from the Saxon Law) to spare all fruit-bearing trees, because they yielded
Il word rædan, to consult. the fruit which supported man's life. And it was sound
See Hopy's English Councils, p. 34. policy also, for even the conquerors must perish if the means of life were cut off. It is a diabolic cruelty to add to the miseries of war, the horrors of famine ; and this is done
2682. - Strike off the heifer's neck] “ Cut the where the trees of the field are cut down, the dykes broken to drown the land, the villages burut, and the crops wil
sinews (the neck-bandages, the thongs) of the heifer"-skin. fully spoiled. O, execrable war! Subversive of all the cha
Joseph. Antiq. b. iv. ch. viii. § 16. rities of life.
The neck of a fruit-branch is the bandaged part where Dr. A. CLARKE. the sap is stopped to perfect, ripen, and preserve the fruit.
- When branches are bound very tight with a strong ligament, the parts above the bandage swell till they are ready to
burst; because the lacteous jaice, which rises from the root 2679. [- 19, 20.] As it appears by the evidence of through the truok into the branches, is prevented by such all travellers, that the very roads and hedges of France are ligature from descending in its regular course along the covered with productive fruit trees; might not our hedges, bark even to the root : just as the blood of an animal returns in the like manner, consist of gooseberry and currant trees in from the interual arteries, by the external veins to the heart, their most luxuriaut varieties, intermingled with raspberries, uuless it be obstructed by soine bandage, where it gathers nuls, filberts, bullaces, &c. ? And in our forests and parks, into a mass, and distends the vessels. why should not pear and walout-trees supply the place of
Nature Delineated, vol. i. p. 260. oaks, elīns, and ash ; the apple, plum, cherry, danson, and mulberry, that of the birch, yew, and all pollards ? When wood indeed constituted the fuel of the country, the growth of lumber-trees was essential to the comforts of ihe inhabi
6. Shall wash their hands over the girba] tants, but that is no longer our condition. The primary
Dipping them in the water, which filled the skin. - Washing object of our public economy should now be, an abundant
the hands in reference to such a subject as this, was a rite supply of wholesome provisious in their cheapest form. The
antiently used, to signify that the persons, thus washing, were example has been set us by an illustrious, though oft despised,
innocent of the crime in question. It was, probably, from the weighbour; and whatever might be objected against this
Jews, that Pilate learnt this symbolical method of expressing beneficeut plan, on the score of general depredation, has of
his innocence. course received in that country its practical refutation. Be
Mutt. xxvii. 24.
Dr. A. CLARKE. sides, were paradise to a degree, in this respect restored amongst us; feeling less solicitude in regard to the gross wants of animal subsistence, we should be enabled to employ 2684. [- 11 - 14.) Slavery is much milder in Asia our faculties more generally in improving our moral, religious,
than in the other parts of the world; for it is there not unusual and social condition. - See this practice rationally and for
to see female slaves become the conjugal partners of their cibly recommended in the Month. Mag. for May, 1815,
master, especially when they embrace their religion. p. 316.
St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature,
vol. iii. p. 68.
2680. - It is the opinion of the Americans, that the best wood for fuel is the hiccory, a species of walnut : it beats well; but is not good for enclosures, as it cannot well withstand putrefaction, when exposed to the open air. Ste No. 826. Kalu's Trav. - Pinkerton's Coll.
part liii. p. 407.
2685. [ 12. and stipple her nails] Egyptian females, of whatever condition, or religion, dye their nails a dingy red with the dried leaves of the cypress, or henna. This custom, which is probably here alluded to as adopted by the Israelitish women, appears to have been very autient; for the wails of mummies are, most commonly, of a reddish hue. (SONNINI.) — At Johanna, one of the Comoro Islanda, be
tween the continent of Africa and Madagascar, persons of distinction are known by the immoderate length of the nails on their fingers and toes. These they tinge of a yellowish red with the alhenua, a shrub growing in the marshy spots of the island. (Mavor.) — The Bedouin Arab, in describing the beauties of his mistress, omits not to mention her eyelashes blackened with kohl, her lips painted blue, and her nails tinged with the golden-coloured henna.
adopted their figures; one particular manner of worshipping them was for men to put on women's clothes, and for women to dress like warriors in order to enter their repective temples.
Hence the Israelites were strictly forbidden to use disguises of this kind, which not only shocked decency, and might favour disorderly manners, but were at that time an act of idolatry.
Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Head.
vol. i. p. 132.
2686. [Deut. xxi. 12.] Among the Pagans of Hindostan, there are still certain Dervises who, retiring to the tops of hills shaded with trees, undergo very rigid penances. Letting their hair and nails grow to their full length, they will perish, sooner than go out of their cells, depending for relief on the charity of others, who send them clothing and victuals ; which, however, they will not accept unless they be of the coarsest kind, and the latter only for their immediate sustenance.
See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi.
2690. [Deut. xxii. 5.) At Rome in the 15th century, the disguise of sex was deemed a capital crime. A Maur was there burned (or inarked with a hot iron) in 1498, for wearing a female dress, in order to conceal an amorous connexion.
Month. Mag. for Oct. 1811, p. 252.
2691. [- 6.] In Holland, at this day, the stork is under the protection of governinent; as the ibis was formerly, in Egypt.
2687. - 21.] At Canton in China, if children grow incorrigible, and despise the threats or admonitions of their parents, according to law, the parents are to complain of them to the magistrate, and on full conviction the magistrate will severely correct them. For if a son break the established laws, the parent suffers punishment as well as the criminal son, if he had not before made the magistrate acquainted with his son's vices.
Captain HAMILTON.- Pinkerton's
Coll. part xxxiii. p. 506.
2692. [ 7.] Thou shalt in any wise let the dam go. — These words seem to import, that we should take veither dam nor young, unless we see the nest on the ground, or in a tree, where they are liable to be hurt; for, iu that case, it inight be a kinduess to take the young to our protection, but in no wise to take the dam.
See No. 138.
2688. [ 22.] At Dhuboy, in the inner court of the durbar, immediately fronting the open side of the hall of justice, was a sacred pepal-tree, and in an adjoining square a noble banian-tree. — In whatever light the reputed sanctity of these trees may be viewed in Europe, to me, says judge FORBES, they were of great advantage. Under their sacred shade the ordeal trials were performed; the Hindoo witnesses examined ; and the criminals were allowed a solemu pause, while waiting for their trial.
Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii.
pp. 360, 362.
2693. [- 8.] The roof of an Eastern house, always flat, is usually surrounded by two walls; the outermost of which is partly built over the street, and partly makes the partition with the contiguous houses, being frequently so low that a person may easily climb over it. The other hangs immediately over the ceutral court, heing always breast high, and answering to maakeh (Hebr.), which may be rendered the parapet wall.
2694. - The Aat roofs of the houses in the Eastern countries, on which the people sit, walk, and, in suinmer, sometimes sleep, and sometimes, where the houses are of equal height, go from roof to roof over the whole city, require this precaution; and to this day it is common to have on the side towards the inner court a parapet, somewhat lower than the one on the other side towards the street, which is generally a wall breast high.
Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iji. p. 372.
2689. [Deut. xxii. 5.) The Egyptian Isis, the Astarte or great goddess of Syria, and the Atergatis of Sidon, being indifferently gods or goddesses among certain nations who had
2695. [Deut. xxii. 8.] It has ever been a custom with the Eastern people, equally connected with health and pleasure, to pass the nights in summer on the house-tops, which for this very purpose are made flat, and divided from each other by walls. We found this way of sleeping extremely agreeable; as we thereby enjoyed the cool air, above the reach of goats and vapors, without any other covering than the canopy of the heavens, which unavoidably presents itself in different pleasing forms, on every interruption of rest, when silence and solitude strongly dispose the mind to contemplation.
Woon's Balbec, Introduction.
2700. (Deut. xxii. 15.] We read of the elders of the Gate (ch. xxv. 7), and (Isai. sxix. 21, Amos v. 10) of him that reprovetb and rebuketh in the Gate, and (Dan. ii. 49) that
he sat in the Gate of the king. The Ottoman court likewise | seems to have been called the port, from the distribution of
justice and the despatch of public business that is carried on in the gates of it. . See No. 1756. Shaw's Trav. in Barbary. - Pinkerton's
Coll. part Ixv. p. 677. note.
2696. [- 9.) Kerem, which we here translate vineyard, has other significations : an olive-ground is so denominated, and perhaps any garden whatever. It properly means the nobler sort of land, in contradistinction to the common land of the fields; and is, by the Syriac version, rendered field, and even plough-field; and that too, with a word (kereb) differing from the Hebrew term only in one letter b, which in the Oriental languages, says MICHAELIS, we often find exchanged for m. We may therefore, he adds, really ask, Whether the Syrian translator had had a different reading before him ? Lev. xix. 19.
See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iij.
2701. - " The virgin-zone, or girdle, was first worn by maids who had attained a marriageable age; and, when once assumed, was constantly preserved till the day of marriage, or, at least, till the conclusion of a marriagecontract. It was then loosed or laid aside, sometimesówith peculiar ceremonies. In Apollonius, Medea asserts her chastity by an allusion to this custom : - My virgin-zone yet remains untouched, and unpolluted, as when I lived beneath the roof of my father.'” (Athenæum. vol. ji. p. 42.) – These “ tokens of virginity” appear to have been such close linen garments, such zones or sashes, as were never put off virgins, after a certain age, till they were married, but before witnesses, and which, while they were entire, were certain evidences of such virginity.
See 2 Sam. xj. 18. Isai. vi. 1. — And
Joseph. Antiq. b. vii. ch. viii. § 1.
2697. - - In grafting, it is necessary that the stock and the scion should be both of the same family, or lineage, according to the sexual system of botany, in order to form a substantial and lasting union.
See No. 2352. Speechly, on the Vine, p. 226.
2698. ( 10.) At this day economists areof opinion, that it would be greatly to the improvement of our agricultural system were we to plough only with beeves, which, while they (as clean animals) afford us milk, are neither so expensive in price nor maintenance as horses (or even those excellent asses of Palestine, whose milk, as proceeding from unclean beasts, could not be eaten according to the law in Leo. xi. 3).
See Smith's Michae Lis, vol. ii.
2702. - 17.] In Hindostan, on the day appointed by the Brahmins for a marriage, the bridegroom, distinguished by a crown on his head, richly decked with jewels, and attended by the sons of all the persons of the same trade in the town, some on borseback, others in palaukins and coaches, dressed in a shewy manner, proceed through the chief streels, accompanied with music and gilded pageants. Next day the bride takes her turn, attended by all the maidens of the same family, in the same pompous way; and towards evening, relurns home to be joined in wedlock, that being the time of performing the ceremony among the Hindoos. It begins by kindling a fire, and placing it between the parties to be married, to intimate the ardency which ought to be in their affections : then both are enclosed with a silken string, to denote the insoluble boud of matrimony. After this, a cloth is put between them, to signify, that before marriage there ought to be no intimacy between them. This done, the Brahmins pronounce a certain form of words, enjoining the mau to allow the woman all things convenient for her, and charging the woman to be faithful to her husband: then a blessing being pronounced upon them, that they may be fruitful, the cloth is taken away, and the silken string unloosed; which puts an end to the ceremony.
Modern Univer. Hist. pol. vi. p. 277.
2699. [ 11.) It appears by this statute, that not only the garments of the priests must have been free from any mixture of wool (unclean, probably, as causing sweat, Ezek. xliv. 18, particularly in summer), but also the dresses of the other Israelites; only that the latter were permitted to wear woollen (but, perhaps, only in wiuter), whereas the former could wear none other than linen robes of office (at any season). See No. 2353.
Ibid. p. 367.
- The Brahmins at the Hindoo temples never appear without the zenbar, or sacred string, passing