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2709.

This marriage-veil, having on it the husband's name, when taken off and examined, would necessarily discover to a second husband when it was his father's skirt. Rather, this skirt was a waist-girdle, given the bride in place of her virgin-zone ; or of a waist-girdle given her by a former husband.

The skirt was a curtain-veil, falling from the forehead over the eyes, given to a bride when her virgin-zone was taken from her; and changed, when she married a second time : such was the veil recommended by Abimelech to Sarah, Gen. xx. 16.

2704. [Deut. xxii. 17.) Among the Mahommedans, the tokens of virginity are shewn by the bride's mother, to any of the females who choose to see them ; but to none of the men, save the bridegroom.

See Notes and Illustrations to RUSSEL's Aleppo,

vol. i. p. 433. In that part of Tartary which lies between the Jaik and Sir, and is inhabited by the Eluths, the Russians, about the year 1714, discovered a town, amidst vast sandy grounds, quite deserted. It is about half a league in compass, with walls five feet thick, and sixteen high : the foundation freestone, and superstructure brick, flanked with towers in several places. The houses were all built with sun-burnt bricks, and side-posts of wood, much after the common fashion in Poland. In most of the houses was found a great quantity of writings done up in rolls. One sort was in China ink and silk paper, white and thick. The leaves were two feet long, and nine inches broad, written on both sides ; and the lines ran from the right to left across the same.

. The writing was bounded with two black lines, which lest a two-inch margin.' The second sort was engrossed on fine blue silk paper, in gold and silver, with a line round each, in one or the other. The lines were written lengthways, from right to left; and varnished over to preserve them. . Jer. xxxii. 14, 15, 43, 44. Modern Univer. Hist.

vol. iv. p. 307.

2710. (Deut. xxiii. 1-8.] As the judges of the Jews are called the congregation of God, the prohibitions in the text must mean, that such disqualified persons were not to enter into the council of God, or into the magistracy.

Bib. Research. vol. i. p. 319.

2701. [- 2.] The dispositions of the children will be liberal and virtuous, when they are not born of base parents, and of the lustful conjunction of such as marry women that are not free.

Joseph. Antiq. b. iv. ch. viii. § 23.

2705.

They shall spread the cloth (or zone] before the elders of the city] - When a Husband bad taken off the zone, at the conclusion of a marriage, he gave it to the officiating priest, who laid it up in the gate or court of the city, as a memorial of the marriage.

2712. ( 13.) When, in the year 1760, the king of Spain determined, by a public decree, to free Madrid from the abominable custom of throwing the ordure out of the windows into the streets, it was ordered, hy a proclamation, that the proprietor of every house should build a proper receptacle, and that sinks, drains, and common sewers should be made at the public expense. “Every clašs," says HAWKESWORTH (Voy. vol. iii. p. 192. 3rd Edit. 800.), " devised some objection against it; but the physicians bid the fairest to interest the king in the preservation of the antient privileges of his people : for they remonstrated, that if the filth were not thrown into the streets as usual, a fatal sickness would ensue, because the putrescent particles of the air, which such filth attracted, would then be imbibed by the human body!"

2706. - 23, 24.) Here a betrothed virgin is called the wife of him to whom she was espoused ; and the man to whom she is betrothed, is called her husband.

See Matt. i. 19, 20.

2707. ( 28, 29.] Were it possible to devise a law that more strongly protected female chastity ?

Dr. W. Alexander's Hist, of Women,

vol. ii. p. 236.

2713. - They who are in the hells, correspond to such things as are excreted by the intestines, and by the

bladder; the false and evil spheres, in which they are, being only (from the Graud Mani) urine and excrement in the spiritual sense (of the words).

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 5380. Thas," he that sows to his Aesh, shall of the flesh (of the Grand Man) reap corruption”. Gal. vi. 8.

2720. [Deut. xxiii. 24, 25.] The man who thus steals, as it were, from real hunger, deserves to escape without any punishment; in conformity to the indulgence manifested, to thieves of this description, by the criminal code of Charles the Fifth ; - that truly venerable monument of legislative wisdom and clemency, of which Germany has reason to be proud.

Ibid. vol. iv. p. 266.

2714. [Deut. xxiii. 16.] If we think this strange, and incompatible with justice, let us remember, that we ourselves act precisely in the same manner, when a deserter comes over to us, if we have no cartel established with the prince from whose service he has filed; besides that he has broken his oath, which the runaway slave has not.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii. p. 158.

, 2721. [Deut. xxiv. 1, &c.] Ou account of the “ hardness of heart” or want of affection among the Jews, Moses allowed betrothing, and divorce after betrothing; but not after full marriage. This is Jesus CHRIST's owu explanation of the subject in Matt. xix.

2715. [- 18.] Le CLERC and ROSENMULLER contevd, that the word dog is to be taken here, not in a literal but in a figurative sense.

2716.

- The reproachful name dog, was commonly used by the Jews of the heathen.

Boyle's Seraphic Love. p. 37.

2722. [ 5. Respecting the solemnization of marriage among the Israelites, previously to the Babylonish captivity ; we gather from Moses and the other writers of the Hebrew Scriptures, says MICHAELIS, That the father, or some relation, sold, or gave away the bride ; between the espousals and the marriage there usually intervened the space of ten months, or a full year (as is still the practice of the Jews); the marriage was then celebrated, and among the more opulent, there was a feast that lasted for a week. — But Moses no-where says one word as to the manner in which marriage was to be concluded, but either presupposes this as fully known, or leaves it to future times to change what they might think fit in the forms.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. i.

pp. 475, 477.

2717. - - We are not to keep the wages due to any slave, under the pretence of giving such wages in fulfilment of a vow; or as a corban due to God.

See Matt. vii. 11.

2718. ( 20.] In the laws of Menu, we find a curious passage on the legal interest of money, and the limited rate of it in different cases, with an exception in regard to adventures at sea; an exception, which the sense of mankind approves, and which commerce absolutely requires, though it was not before the reign of CHARLES I. that our own jurisprudence fully admitted it in respect of maritime contracts.

Works of Sir W. Jones,

vol. i. p. 32.

2723. ( 6.) Though corn-mills were thus early invented, water was not applied to them before the year of Christ 600, nor wind-mills used before the year 1200.

EMERSON.

2719. [ 24, 25.] It would hence appear, that not only servants, but also day-labourers, might eat of the fruits they gathered, and drink of the must which they pressed. The wages of the latter seem to have been given them over and above their meat, and, in consideration of this privilege, to have been so much the less ; for with a labourer, who found his owo victuals, and yet had the right of eating and drinking of whatever came under his hands, a master would have stood on a very disadvantageous footing.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii. p. 191.

2724.

As the Israelites had no public mills, every family was obliged to grind its corn at home; and, for that purpose, had either a hand-mill, or one soinewhat larger, turned by asses. Now, such a hand-mill, or the stone of the larger sort, would, no doubt, have been a most likely pledge to enforce speedy payment of a debt : but then the debtor, even though not absolutely poor, would thus, if unable to pay at the proper time, have beeu brought into a difficulty, utterly disproportioned to his loan ; for however abundant bis corn, be and his family inust have wanted bread.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. i.

p. 320.

· · 2725. (Deut. xxiv. 10, 11.] A person in want, and much 2729. [Deut. xxiv. 17.) Work-houses, which after all,

straitened for a loan, stands in so dependent a relation towards form almost a species of slavery, cost the public more than his rich neighbour, and is so humbled, that he will inake they bring in. many compliances contrary to agreement and to justice.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 156. Now, if the creditor himself may go into his house, he will probably be disposed to lay hold of the very best article he sees, pretending that the pledge agreed ou is not sufficient; or, at any rate, he may choose some other pledge that strikes him as more valuable : nor will the other party venture to remonstrate against it. Such cases may, perhaps, have then 2730. [Deut. xxv. 3.] Instead of then thy brother should happened, and given occasion to this law. Such cases, seem dile to thee, MICHAELIS translates that the Israelite at least, says Michaelis, I myself recollect to have seen at

might not be cruelly beaten. the university ; where pawn-brokers, that lent money to the

Ibid. vol. iii.p. 446. students, came into their apartments to choose their pledges : and yet our students are seldom so submissive and humble as other debtors.

Ibid. p. 317.

2731.

1 4 .] When Moses, in terms of this benevolent custom, ordained, that the ox was not to be muzzled while thrashing, it would seem that it was not merely his

intention to provide for the welfare of that animal, but to 2726. [ 10— 13.] Among a poor people, such as

enjoin with the greater force and effect, that a similar right we must suppose every people to be in their infancy, the

1 should be allowed to human labourers, whether birelings or evils of pledging are peculiarly oppressive. The poor man, in

slaves. He specified the ox, as the lowest exainple, and that case, often finds himself under a far greater necessity of

what held good in reference to him (proverbially), was to he borrowing than we can easily imagine, because there is

cousidered as so much the more obligatory in reference nothing to be earned ; and the husbandman, who has had a

to man. That he wished to be understood in this way, bad barvest, or his crop destroyed by hail, or locusts, must

we have the less reason to doubt, from this consideration, ofteu borrow, pot money, but bread, or else starve. In such

that in Chap. xxii. 24, 25, we meet with other statutes, in circuinstances, he will give in pledge, whatever the rich

which he carries his attention to the calls of hunger so far, lender requires, however greatly it may be to bis loss. Nor

as to allow the eating of fruits and grapes in other people's has he, like borrowers in our days, many articles which he

gardens and vineyards, without restraint. cau dispense with, and pledge ; such as superfluous apparel,

Ibid. vol. ii. p. 191. changes of linen, household furniture, and various little Juxuries, that are become fashionable among our poorest people; but he must instantly surrender things of indispensible use and comfort, such as the clothes necessary to keep

2732. - The natives of Aleppo still religiously him warm, his implements of husbandry, his cattle, and (who

observe the antient practice of permitting the oxen to remain could suppose it ?) his very children.

unmuzzled, when they separate the corn from the straw. Job xxiv. 3,9.

Ibid. p. 315.

See Russel's Nat. Hist, of Aleppo,

vol. i. p. 76.

2727. [ -12, 13.] The Hyke, commonly six ells · Doug and five or six feet broad, serves the Kahyls, as well as

2733.

The Antients, in separating their grain the Arabs, for a complete or full dress by day; and as they from the ear, drove an ox backwards and forwards over the sleep, as the Israelites did, in their clothes, it becomes their sheaves, till he had trampled out the grain ; or they made covering by night: (Dr. Shaw.) — The common Arab, on || him drag over thern soine heavy carriage. For the same the floor or couch where he means to rest, spreads out bis purpose, even to this day, the Gascoigns and Italians use large girdle, and forms with it an under bed ; and then with wains, or sledges ;. as the Turks do broad planks, sufficiently the Hyke that he throws across his shoulders, he covers his furnished with iron spikes, or sharp flints. whole body and his face, and sleeps naked betwixt the two

Nai. Delin. val. ij. p. 224. in peace and contentment.

NIEBUHR's Description of Arabia,
p. 64.

2734. - Through all the southern parts of Languedoc, they tread out the corn with horses and mules ; a

man in the centre of the thrashing-floor, in the open air, 2728.

16.7 Among the Gentoos, if a son commit drives them round, and other men supply the floor, and clear a fault, the father stall uot be held as guilty for the fault of away the straw. - In some conversation had on this method, the 500.

A. Young, Esq., was assured that it was far preferable to Halbed's Gentoo Laws, p. 260. the use of fails. - At Paous in Spain, they were thrashing, says he, by driving mules around on a circular floor of earth, in the open air : a girl drove three mules round, and four men attended for turning, moving away the straw, and supplying the floor with corn.

In Germany, their common use of thrashing is, hy driva ing oxen over the corn; by which half of it is left in the straw.

PINKERTON’s Coll. part. xvi. p. 533. —
xvii. p. 657. — xxiii. p. 104.

2740. [Deut. xxv. 9.]. The shoes antiently wore, in the Western Islands of Scotland, were a piece of the hide of a deer, cow, or horse, with the hair on, being tied behind and before with a point of leather.

Pinkerton's Coll. part xii. p. 640.

2735. [Deut. xxv. 5. The wife of the dead] Through. out the whole Mosaic law, the widow is denominated wife.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 52.

2741. [- ll, 12.] Those refined in speech, while debased in conduct, may feel, or pretend to feel, a greater shock at the inention of certain crimes, than it is to be suspected they would undergo in the commission of them; but for the warning of the subject, and for the guidance of the magistrate, no delineation of offences can be too minute, and no discrimination too particular. See No. 2331, 2302. Halhep's Preface to Gentoo

Laws, p. 69.

2736.

Marriage with a deceased brother's widow is prohibited, Leo. xviii. 6. XX. 21.

Ibid. p. 114.

2742. 17 13, 15.] As the people were allowed to use, beside the shekel of the sanctuary, a royal shekel, and foreign shekels in their dealings with other nations ; the meaning here is, that they were not to have two different weights of the same denomination, a larger to purchase by, and a lesser to sell by. 2 Sam. xiv. 26.

Smith's MICHAELIS, col. iii. See No. 863.

p. 397.

2737. 5- 10.] When an hereditary chief of the Brahmins has no children, he must adopt his nearest male relation, who succeeds him as his son.

Buchanan. -- Pinkerton's Coll.

dol. viii. p. 615.

2738.

7.] When in a certain case, a Turkish lady sues for a divorce, her husband being suminoued before a judge, and the charge read against him, she is asked if 2743. [Deut. xxvi. 5.] JUSTIN (1. xxxvi. c. 2) reckons she will then affirm the truth of that accusation ; hereupon Abraham among the kings of Damascus. she stoops, and taking off her slipper, spiTS ON THE SOLE,

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 257. aud strikes it on her husband's forehead. Modesty requires no further confirmation ; sentence is immediately pronounced in her favor, and she is thenceforth free to marry as she pleases.

2744. - 14. I have not given anght thereof for Aaron Hill's Trav. p. 104. the dead) That is, I have not consecrated any of it to an For a peculiar sense in which the word foot or feet is || Idol, which was generally (the figure and shrine of ] a dead used, See Jer. ii. 25. Ezek. xvi. 25. Isai. vii. 20. xxxvi.

|| man, whom superstition and ignorance had deified. 12, &c.

Dr. A. CLARKE. See on Psal.

cvi, 28.

2739. ( 9, 10.] The Hindoo, religiously abstaining from animal food and intoxicating ligaors, becomes 2745. - In the year 1744, as some persons were thereby of so very mild a temper, that he can bear almost digging a 'cellar in East Jersey, they caine at a huge stone, any thing without emotion, except slippering; that is, a like a tomb-stone. This being removed, they found under it, stroke with the sole of a slipper or sandal, after a person has at the depth of about four feet, a quantity of human bones takeu it off his foot, and spit on it. This is dreaded above and a cake of maize. The latter being yet uninjured by all affronts; and considered as no less ignominious, than time, several of the people present tasted it out of curiosity. spilting in the face, or bespattering with dirt, amony Eu- From these and other circamstances it was concluded, that ropeans.

this had been the grave of some distinguished Indian ; it Seç QVINGTON's Voy. to Surat, p. 357. || being their custoin to bury along with the deceased, such

meat and other things as he had been most accustomed to use.

See Kalm's Trad. - Pinkerton's Coll.

part liii. p. 422.

Sicilians to desert the consumptive patient, and when he dies, they burn his bed and bed-clothes, and well ventilate and fumigate the apartments in which he lay. It does not seem probable, however, that phthisis pulmonalis is infectious, at least it is not regarded so among us at present, although Morgagni, Van Swieten, and of a still later date, Morton were of that opinion, but it often occurs in a family froin an exposure to the same occasional causes, or from a similarity of constitution and hereditary predisposition. The only way in which I conceive the disease can be conveyed from one person to another, if at all possible, is by sleeping constantly in the same bed with one who labours under it, in its ulcerative stage, accompanied with fetid expectoration and cadaverous-smelling night-sweats, and so inhaling the breath.

Thomas's Modern Practice of Physic,

p. 444.

2746. [Deut. xxvii. 4.] Dr. KenniCOTT seems to have proved that we should read here, not Ebal but Gerizim. When the Samaritans had built their temple on inount Gerizim, because there Moses had ordered the covenant-stones, and an altar to be erected, it was quite natural for their enemies, the Jews, in order to discredit their temple, to alter the names in the book of Deuteronomy, and for Gerizim insert Ebal. (Dr. Geddes.) – Rosenmuller thinks that the altar, mentioned ver. á, is the same with the stones on which the law was to be written.

2747. [- 15 - 26.] Thus the person to be sworn did not pronounce the formula of the oath, either when it was a judicial one, or taken on any other solemn occasion. He only heard it pronounced ; but when it was finished, he, in all cases, ratified it, by uttering the words Amen, Amen, thus subjecting himself to the curse it contained.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iv. p. 342.

2748. [Deut. xxviii. 5.] The tana, though not similar in form, had the saine use as our hamper or panniers. And the masheret, in which the Israelites carried their dough out of Egypt, was a kind of leathern 'bag drawn together by rings. (See Harmer's Observations, vol. ii. p. 181.) — Baskets made of the leaves of the palm-tree are still used by the people of the East on journeys and in their houses.

See HASSELQUIST, p. 261.

2751. [Deut. xxviii. 23, 24.] This is descriptive of a volcanic eruption : In the sky, the glowiny clouds appear like sheets of brass ; on the ground, the burning lava runs like fused iron; while the ejected cinders and ashes, in their descent, form, as it were, a raiu of powder and dust.

Mr. EdwaRD BERKELEY, afterwards bishop of Clogher in Ireland, gives the following description of an eruption of Mount Vesuvius which happeued in the year 1717. “On the 5th of June, the mountain was observed to throw a little out of the crater, and the same continued the day following. On the 7th, in the evening, it began a hideous bellowing, which continued till noon the next day, causing the windows and even the houses in Naples to shake. From that time it vomited vast quantities of melted matter to the south, which streamed down the side of the inountain, like a pot boiling over. On the 10th, it roared and groaned ipost dreadfully; of which one cannot form a juster idea, than by imaginiog a mixed sound, made up of the raging of a tempest, the mur. inur of a troubled sea, and the roaring of thunder and artillery confused together.” This induced our author, it appears, with three or four more in company, to visit the mountain ; and they arrived at the burning river about midnight, when the roaring of the volcano was exceedingly loud and horrible. There was," says he, “a mixture of colors in the cloud oder the crater, a ruddy dismal light in the air over the fiery torrent, and ashes continually showering on our heads; all which circumstances, augmented by the horror and silence of the night, made a most uncoinmon and astonishing scene. — During this eruption," he adds, “ the cinders showered down so fast at Naples, that the citizens were obliged to screen themselves beneath umbrellas; and vessels at the distance of twenty leagues were exposed to equal inconvenience.”

See SMITH's Wonders of Nature and

Art, under the Article Italy.

2749. [- 22:] It has been computed that not less thau 200 persons die in London weekly by consumption alone, which makes 10,000 such deaths annually.

See Month. Mag. for Dec. 1814,

p. 407.

2750.

All over the Levant, not only the vatives, but also ihe physicians, entertain an opinion that phthisis is a disease of a contagious nature; and in the Venetian states there is a law, I understand, which directs the clothes and even furniture of those who bave died of consumptions to be burnt. Under the same idea, it is customary among the

2752.

Such would be the burning effects of threatened volcanic eruptions. — At Ahmedabad, situated at

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