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2947. [Judg. xv. 19.] Among the vegetable curiosities of 2950. (Judg. xvi. 9, 12, 14, 20, 30.] If a mixture of Japan, the camphire-tree is well worth our notice, which is gas, such as atmospheric air, containing azote pressing with classed among the laurel-kind, and bears a berry of a purple a force equal to 24 inches of mercury, and oxygen with a or blackisb color. Near the hot springs in that country it force equal to 6 inches, were suddenly condensed into half grows to an uncommon size, and is full of water.

the compass (or their quantities doubled within the same Modern Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 98. space), the azotic gas would then press with a force equal to

- See also KEMPFER, Pinkerton's 48 inches, and the oxygen with a force equal to 12 inches, Coll. part xxx. p. 687.

making together 60 inches. — A similar change in the elasticity of each would take place by heat (doubling) and cold (condensing them).

Dalton's Chem. Philosophy, part i. 2948. - Wherever the date-tree is found, it not

p. 162. only presents a supply of salutary food for men and camels, but Providence has so wonderfully contrived the plant that its first offering is accessible to man alone; and the mere circum

2951. [- 13, 14] The looms of Palestine were stance of its presence, in all seasons of the year, is a vever

worked by women : the web was narrow; generally, little failing indication of fresh water near its roots. (Dr.

more than a hand's breadth : the wool, and in this case the EDWARD Danie: CLARKE.) — Botanists describe the trunk

hair of the sleeping Samson, was drawn into the warp, not of the date-tree as full of rugged knots; but the fact is that

by a reed, but by a wooden spatula ; and the end of the it is full of cavities, the vestiges of its decayed leaves,

web was fastened to a pin or stake fixed, probably, in the which have within them a horizontal surface, fat and even,

wall, or driven into the ground. . exactly adapted to the reception of the human feet and

See Dr. Geddes. hands; by which it is as easy to ascend to the tops of the trees as to climb the steps of a ladder : and it is impossible to view them without believing that he, who in the beginning fashioned • every tree, in the which is the fruit of

2952. [— 21.] With the Greeks and Asiatics, the a tree yielding seedas meat for man, has here manifested

way of putting out the eyes, or blinding, was not by pulling one among the innumerable proofs of his beneficent design.

or cutting out the eyes, as some have imagined; but by Indeed a considerable part of the inhabitants of Egypt, of

drawing, or holding a red-hot iron before then. This method Arabia, and Persia, subsist almost entirely on its fruit.

is still in use in Asia. (Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iv. They boast also of its medicinal virtues. Their camels feed on

p. 114.) — According to Chardin, however, the pupils of the the date.stones. From the leaves they make couches, baskets,

eyes were pierced and destroyed on such occasions. But bags, mats, and brushes; from the branches cages for their

Thevenot says (in his Trav. part ii. p. 98) that the eyes poultry, and fences for their gardens; from the fibres of the in these barharous acts are taken out whole, with the point boughs, thread, ropes, and rigging ; from the sap they re

of a dagger, and carried to the king in a basin. He adds, ceive a most salutary beverage; and the body of the tree that, as the king sends whom he pleases to do that cruel furnishes fuel; it is even said that from one variety of the

office, some princes are so butchered by unskilful hands, that palin-tree, the Phænir farinifera, meal has been extracted, it costs them their lives. which is found among the fibres of the trunk, and has been

Ibid. vol. v. p. 477. used for food. See Gen. ii. 9.

Ibid. Trav. in Greece, Egypt,
and the Holy Land.

2953. [ 22.] The hair of the head is thrust forth by the internal heat like rays; therefore Samson (a type of

the Light, as his name imports) and the other Nazarites, 2949. - Josephus (Antiq. b. iii. c. x) remarks,

were not to cut their hair. — Christ's irradiation, his Divine that God having heard the prayers of Samson, made a foun

Il strength, was to be separated from him for a little, and then tain to spring in a rock, which sent out abundance of sweet

to flourish again with augmented lustre. and clear water. — St. JEROME tells us he saw it; and

Bp. Horne's Hutchinson, p. 272. MICHAEL GLYCHAS who lived about the year 1120 says, it was to be seen in his time, in the suburbs of Elutheropolis, and that it was called the Fountain of the Jaw. See Essay for a New Translation,

2954. - 23. Dagon their god] An Image reprepart ii. p. 6.

seuting the Sun in Pisces.

Dagon hos esti Siton (Grk.). Pailo of Biblos..

Dagon, for having invented the use of corn and the plough, was called the god of husbandry.

EUSEB. Præpar. Evang.

2955. [Judg. xvi. 26.] For an idea of this ball, built il zites Gen. xiv. 5), its inhabitants, a brave lion-like people : probably after the Egyptian manner by Philistines originally rendered by the Septuagint ethne ischura, a valiant from Egypt, See VETRUVIUS, l. 6, c. 5.

nation.

2956.

The particular structure of the temple or 2961. (- 30, 31. The graven image! The idol, house of Dagon, must have been similar to the antient which had been brought thither from Micah's house. temene (Grk.), or sacred inclosures, surrounded in part or Thus Dan by drawing aside to idolatry, the people that entirely with cloistered buildings, inade in the fashion of a | should have gone to worship at Shiloh, became a serpent large pent-house, supported only by one or more contiguous by the way, an adder (or cerastes) in the path; Gen. pillars in the front or else in the centre. Several palaces xlix. 17. and courts of justice in the East, are built in this manner; where, on festivals and rejoicing days, a quantity of sand is strewed on the area for the wrestlers to fall upon; whilst

2962.

Whom men could not honour in presence, the roofs of the cloisters are crowded with spectators of their strength and agility. -- On a supposition that in the house

because they dwelt far off, they took the counterfeit of his of Dagon there was a cloistered structure of this kind,

visage (as the Gentiles counterfeited A DONAJ by Adonis the pulling down the front or centre pillars only which

and Apollo) from far, and made an express image of a king supported it, would be attended with the catastrophe de

whom they honoured, to the end that by this their forwardscribed in the Text.

ness, they might flatter him that was absent, as if he were See Shaw's Trav. p. 283. — Bib.

present. And this was an occasion to deceive the world : Research. vol. ii. p. 225.

for men serving either calamity or tyranny, did ascribe to stones and stocks the incominunicable Name. For the worshipping of idols not to be named, is the beginning, the cause, and the end of all evil. - Inasmuch as their trust is in idols, which have no life; though they swear falsely, yet they look not to be hurt. Howbeit, for both causes

shall they be justly punished: both because they thought 2957. [Judg. xvii. 3.) This image was erected to not well of God, giving heed to idols and also unjustly swore the True God; it, of course, implied a sin, not against | in deceit, despising holiness. Wisdom xiv. 17, 21, 27, the prohibition of idolatry, but against that of image | 29, 30. worship.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. iv.
p. 7, note.

2963.

The Jews, to prevent any reproach to the menory of their legislator, have here corrupted the

test, and absurdly put Manasseh for Moses. – The fact 2958. [- 5. An house of gods] Augustus had a however is, that the first image-priest was a grandson of whole apartment of Penates.

Moses, The Teraphim were nothing else but the heads (or busts)

See Smith's MicHAELIS, vol. iv. of first-born males (or priests).

p. 7, and note.
See Dr. Gregory's Assyrian Monarchy,
p. 199.

2964.

The son of Gershom] The son of

Moses. St. Jerome; The Vulgate ; TuEODORET; Dr. 2959. ( 6.) In Persia, after the death of Thamas

KennicOTT. Koulikan, each province had its chief, and for forty years - The captivity of the land] If haarets (Hebr.), the these chiefs were in a constant state of war. In this land, have been written for haaron, the ark, (as it is preview the Turks do not say without reason : “ Ten years bable from the likeness of the final letter); the true reading of a tyrant are less destructive than a single night of will be the captivity of the ark. anarchy."

See Univer. Hist. vol. ij. VOLNEY.

p. 436.

2960. (Judg. xviii. 7.] Laish (Hebr.), which signifies a Lion, agrees well with the Zuzim (Hebr.), Zu

2965. [Judg. xix. 10.) The rulers of the people dwelt at Jerusalem.

Neh. xi. 1.

ix. 29.) The Anet by strict ties, woticed the

posed of sus it was enga oriental Cust

Sv: 9&e it in block were on the

2966. [Judg. xix. 29.) The Antients, it seems, had several, Now an arıny composed of such soldiers, far from retreating ways of uniting themselves together by strict ties, which lasted or disbanding, was invincible as it was engaged by oalh. for a stipulated time : amongst these may be noticed the See No.804.

See Burder's Oriental Customs, sacrifice of Abraham, the circomstances of which are men

vol. ii. p. 103. tioned Gen. xv. 9, &c. Another method was, to take a sacrificial bullock, cut it in pieces, and distribute it. All who had a piece of such bullock were thenceforward conuected, and were to coucur in carrying on the affair which had given occasion for the sacrifice. These engagements,

2967. [Judg. xx. 1.] To-day a savage is oppressed in

the wilds of America ; he sends his arrows round from however, were varied by circuinstances. Thus, if he who

family to family, from nation to nation, and the flame of furnished the sacrifice were a public person, or high in

war is kindled in the four quarters of the globe. office, he sent of his own accord a piece of the victim to

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, all who were subject to him ; and by this act obliged them to enter into his views: see 1 Sam. xi. 7. But if the

vol. i. p. 62. sacrifice were offered by a private person, as in the case before us, those only who voluntarily took a piece of the !

2968. [ 16. At a hair] The word, however, may sacrifice entered into a strict engageinent lo espouse his cause. — Lucian, speaking of the Scythians and Molossians,

signify a goat, or an ear of barley corn.

Dr. GEDDES. says, “when any one had received an injury, and had not the ineans of avenging himself, he sacrificed an ox, and cot it into pieces, which he caused to be dressed and publicly exposed ; then he spread out the skin of the victim, and sat on it, with his hands tied behind him. All who chose to 2969. (Judg. xxi. 11. Ye shall utterly destroy] Actake part in the injury which had been done, took up a cording to LUTHER, ye shall outlaw, or proscribe. (See piece of the ox, aud swore to supply and inaintain for him, - Smith's MichaeLIS, vol. iv. p. 16.) - In this sense one, five horses, another ten, others still more; some, in Hachurim should be juvariably rendered, wherever it fantry; each according to his strength and ability. They occurs. who had only their person, engaged to march themselves. I .See No. 597.

RUTH.

RIGEN, Hilary, Epiphanias, and Jerome, make only one Volume of Ruth and Judges.

Rees.

points; and that he was esteemed the best king who was the
best judge, and the strictest observer of the laws -

To him, their judge, the people turn their eyes, -
On him for justice in their cause rely;
Reason alone his upright judgment guides,

He hears impartial, and for truth decides.
See No. 602.

Cooke's Hesiod, Theogony, l. 134.

2971. [Ruth i. 1.] Le CLERC tells 'us, from Dionysius Halicarnasseus, that, at first, all the cities in Greece looked on their kings as their judges to determine all controverted

plifterence onemper naturbita

2972. [Ruth ii. 14. Dip thy morsel in the vinegar] | dressed, winnowed, ground, and baked, within an hour after This is to be understood pot of simple vinegar, but of such reaping from the ground. as is mingled with a small portion of oil. — Pitts, in his See No. 603. PINKERTON's Coll. part xii. p. 639. Account of the Algerines, says (p. 6) that when be was in slavery among them, his allowance was about five or six spoonfuls of vinegar, half a spoonful of oil, a small quantity of black biscuit, a pint of water, and a few olives.

2976. [Ruth iii. 15.] Dr. Shaw supposes that this veil

was an Arabian hyke, that resembles a Highland plaid, and 2973. — Roasted ears of wheat are a very antient

is generally about six yards in length and five or six feet dish in the East. In Egypt such food is much eaten by

broad. (See his Trav. p. 224, 4to. Edition.) — HANWAY the poor, being the ears of Maize or Turkish wheat, aud

observed in Nadir Shali's retinue, that the poorer sort of of their Dura, a kind of Milium. [When this food was first

women had a white veil which covered the whole hody. invented in the earliest ages of the world, art was in a

See No. 603, 601. Trav. in Persia, vol. i. p. 185. simple state; yet the custom is still continued in some nations, where the inhabitants have not, even at this time, learnt to pamper nature. After all, how great is the difference between good bread, and half-ripe ears of wheat roasted !)

2977. [Ruth iv. 3--5.] A curious custom prevails in HASSELQUIST's Trav. p. 166.

Norway, called odels right, or right of inheritance, by which the proprietor of freeholds may re-purchase an

estate, which either he or any of his ancestors have 2974. - Turkey wheat is a native of America,

sold, provided he can prove the title of his family. But, where it is much cultivated, as it is also in soine

in order to enforce his claim, his ancestors, or he, must

have declared every tenth year, at the sessions, that parts of Europe, especially in Italy and Germany. There

they lay claim to the estate, but that they want money are many varieties, which differ in the color of the grain,

to redeem it; and if he, or his heirs, are able to obtain a and are frequently raised in our gardens by way of curio

sufficient sum, then the possessor must, on receiving the sity, whereby the plant is well known. It is the chief bread-corn in some of the southern parts of America, but

money, give up the estate to the odels-man. For this reasince the introduction of rice into Carolina, it is but little

son, the peasants, who are freeholders, keep a strict account used in the northern colonies. It makes the main part

of their pedigree.

CoXE. — Pinkerton's Coll. part xxiv. p. 358. too of the food of the poor people in Italy and Germany.

- And System of Geography, printed by This is the sort of wheat, parched and dipped in vinegar. with which Boaz treated Ruth.

SOWLER AND RUSSELL, Manchester, 1802. This method of eating the roasted ears of Turkey wheat is still practised in the east; they gather in the ears when about half ripe, and having scorched them to their minds, eat them with as much satis 2978. [- 7.] The Targum here, instead of shoe has faction as we do the best flour bread.

right-hand glove ; it being then perhaps the custom, to give Dr. Reece. that in room of the shoe. Even so late as the middle ages,

the giving of the glove was the ceremony of investiture in bestowing lands and dignities. Thus two bishops, in A. D.

1002, were put in possession of their sees, by receiving each 2975. - In the Western Islands of Scotland, the a glove. Also in Englaud, in the reign of Edward the antient way of dressing corn, called graddan, from be Second, the deprivation of gloves was a ceremony of degraIrish word grad siguifying quick, is as follows. A woman dation. But with regard to the shoe as the proper token of sitting down, takes a handful of corn, holding it by the investiture, CASTELL (Lex. Polyg. col. 2342) mentions stalks in her left hand, and then sets fire to the ears, which that the emperor of the Abyssinjans used the casting of the are presently in a fame: she has a stick in her right || shoe as the sign of (assumed) dominion : See Ps. lx. 8. hand, which she inanages very dexterously, beating off the (BURDER's Oriental Customs, vol. ii. p. 106.) - Possession, grain at the very instant, when the husk is quite burnt ; possessio, quasi pedis posilio, an action by which we hold for if she miss of that she must use the kiln, but experience or occupy any thing, either de jure or de facto. has taught them this art to perfection. The corn may be so !!

Rees,

: THE FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL,

OTHERWISE CALLED,

THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS.

actions, good or bad, without comment of his own upon them. This, when the king dies, or at least soon after, is delivered to the council, who read it over and erase every thing false in it, whilst they supply every material fact that may have been omitted, whether purposely or not.

BRUCE's Trav. vol. ii. p. 596.

I HIS history contains experimental knowledge, in reference to the religious principles of the Jews.

The Reader will find several apparent anachronisms between the Books of Kings and the Chronicles. To reconcile these, he must bear in mind that all the kings elected of God, were twice anointed : first by a prophet in the name of the Lord; afterwards by the high-priest for the time being, or again by a prophet, under the consent and approbation of the people : Hence a variation in the account of their reigns; soine being reckoned kings from the time they were auointed by the prophet, others from their second anointing by the highpriest or prophet. Again : When the kings of Scripture, who led their armies to battle, went out to war, their successors were appointed as vicegerents of the kingdom during their absence : In consequence, the reign of some kings will be found to bear date, in one place, when they became viceroys; in another, when they were more fully kings, on the death of their fathers or predecessors : See this, in the case of Ahab and his cotemporary Jehoshaphat with his viceroy son Jehoram, fully proved by Archbishop USHER in his Annals sub. A, M. 3106.

Among the Egyptians and Babylonians, their priests had the care of writing dowu the records from the earliest antiquity. And such records, says Josephus, have been written by our high-priests and prophets, all along down to our own times with the utmost accuracy. - From the death of Moses till the reiga of Artaxerxes king of Persia, the proplets wrote down what was done in their times in tliirteen books. And during so many ages, says he, no one has been so bold as either to add any thing to, take any thing from, or make any change in our twenty-iwo sacred books.

Contra Apion, b. i. § 6, 8. The king (of Abyssinja) has near his person an officer, wlio is meant to be his historiographer: he is also keeper of bis seal; and is obliged to make a journal of the king's

Among the Chinese, the rule is daily to commit to writing the actions of their princes, and drop the papers into close chests, which are never opened while the family then reigning possess the empire. On the accession of a new family, the chests are opened, and the history of the preceding is compiled from the memoirs found inclosed therein.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. v. p. 42. and vol. viii.

p. 199. note (H). See on this subject 1 Chron. xxi. 9. XXV. 5. 2 Chron. xxv. 15, &c. and xxxiii. 19; where, in every instance, particularly in the last, the word seer evidently denotes a journalist or writer of memoirs.

ch. ix. 9.

2980. (1 Sam. i. 2, &c.] Were Peninnah and her children only adopted for the sake of Heirs ? — not real Wife, and begotten sons and daughters ?

2981. ( 11.) Tsabaoth (Hebr.) is the plural, not of isaba a host, but of tsabi glory. Hence the rendering will be GLORIOUS JEHOVAH. :

Biblical Researches, vol. i. p. 12.

2982. [

18.] Panim, wbich generally denotes

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