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3118. (2 Sam. xii. 31.] Several acts of cruelty, which have been ascribed to King David and the Jewish people, appear, on a more accurate examination, to have been grounded on an incorrect translation of particular passages of the Old Testament. Thus it is here said that when Rabbah (the capital city of the Ammonites) was taken, David brought forth the people that were therein, and put them under saws, and under harrows of iron, and under axes of iron, and made them pass through the brick-kiln ? Hence it is inferred, that he put them to death with the most exquisite and unbeard-of torments. Bnt it has been shewn by several learned critics, that our version of this place would bave been more accurate, and more strictly conformable to the original, if it had rendered the passage thus: He put them to saws, and to harrows of iron, and to axes of iron, and made them pass by or to the brick-kiln : that is, he put them to hard labor, with the tools, and in the places here specified.

Bp. PORTEUS.

ground, over a part of the door of the chamber. By this contrivance the heat being prevented from diffusing itself all at once, it is communicated insensibly, and so pleasantly throughout the whole apartment, that it cannot be better compared than to the effect of a stove. Persons at their meals, or in conversation, and some even sleeping lie on the carpets round this small table, supporting themselves against the walls of the apartment on cushions kept for the purpose, which likewise serve for seats in this country, the tinnor being so placed as to be equally, distant from the sides of the room. Thus circumstanced, those to whom the cold is not unpleasant, put their legs under the cloth; others who feel it more sensibly, their hands and the rest of their body. By bringing their extremities thus towards the central fire, they receive thence a mild and penetrating warmth, which diffuses itself agreeably over the whole body without any injury to the head.

The Persians of the present day build most of their houses with arched domes, that have but one hole in the middle, serving equaliy as a passage for the smoke and an entrance for the light.

PIETRO DELLE VALLE. - Pinkerton's

Coll. vol, ix. pp. 16, 97.

3119,

Then he brought forth its people, and appointed them to the saw, to the iron-mines, to the forging of iron, and to the burning of bricks. (See Bib. Researches, vol. i. p. 68.) —These became servants under the yoke. See 1 Tim. vi. 1. - In the same sense, it is written in

Jeremiah, xxxiii. 13, I will cause you to pass under the · rod, and I will bring you into the bond of the covenant,

3122. [2 Sam. xiii. 8.) “In a tent on the other side of the Euphrates”, says RAUWOLF, "a woman brought us milk and eggs to eat, so that we wanted for nothing. She made also some dough for cakes, and laid them on hot stones, and kept thein turning, and at length she flung the ashes and embers over them and so baked them thoroughly. They were very good to eat, and very savoury."

3120. (2 Sam. xiii. 6.] Among the inhabitants of Little Bukhâria, all victuals are dressed in the master's chamber; where, according to the largeness of the family, are several iron pots, set in a kind of range, near a chimney. Some have little ovens, made, like the rest of their walls, with a stiff clay, or bricks.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. v.

p. 135.

3123. [ 18.] Party-coloured vestments were esteemned honourable. To make them, many pieces of different coloured ribbands were sewed logether.

Shaw's Trav. p. 228.

3124. [ 23. Absalom had sheep-shearers -- and 3121. [ 8.] In the most considerable houses of l invited all the king's sons] What rural simplicity in the Persia, they kindle their fires not under a chimney, as is princely amusements of primitive times ! Gideon was enjoyusual with us in fire-places, but in a kind of oven called | ing himself at the threshing floor, when he received his tinnor, about two palms from the ground, formed of a vase divine mission ; Judy. vi. 1! -- 16. Saul, after he was made of burnt clay, in which they place burning coals, charcoal, kiny, continued to exercise hinself at the plough; J Sam. or other combustible matter. The smoke from the coals is xi. 5. David also, when anointed by Samuel, returned imconveyed by means of a pipe from the oven under ground; mediately to his sheep in the wilderness; I Sum. xvi. 13, 19. and by means of another, communicating with the grated xvii. 28. -- How different are such instances of industry and bottom of the fire, it is supplied with air. Here they cook economy from the luxury and effeminacy of modern princes, their meat, and can bake their cakes on a flat sheet of iron who occasionally expend at one fete, even fifty thousand laid over the tinnor in little more than an instant of time.

pounds! When the oven is not thus used, they place a plavk over it Homer tells us (Odyss. xiv. and xxii) that Eumeus made in shape of a small table, which they cover entirely, spread his own shoes, and built stately cots for bis numerous berds ; ang over it a large cloth which extends on all sides to the also that Ulysses (Odyss. v) erected his own fiue house and

ship, whilst his wife's loom supplied the house with hangings and carpets, and the family with clothes.

Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 381.

cut off his hair and carry il them, and then all would be right.

MAVOR.

3125. (2 Sam. xiii. 29.] The name, which the mule bears in Hebrew, is extremely singular. It is quite unknown to the other Oriental languages, and admits of no natural derivation from them. It must, of course, be of foreign origin, as we should suppose, and introduced among the Hebrews along with the creature itself, from a foreign nation. It is ferd, the German word for a horse.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii.

p. 478.

3128. [2 Sam. xiv. 26.) As it was not forbidden the Israelites to deal in common life by different weights, there arose, in process of time, a shekel much smaller than that of the sanctuary, but variable (under the Judges): at last, to prevent uncertainty and imposition, the Kings fixed the weight of this common shekel more accurately ; so that from this time there were two lawful shekels current among the people, the sacred and the royal.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii.

p. 395.

3129. [- 27.] These were adopted children. He had nd natural son; ch. xviii. 18.

3126. [2 Sam. xiv. 26.] Of the different species of men, the European has the longest hair ; next to him the Asiatic ; then the American; and, lastly, the African.

Au Italian lady was shewn at Astley's Theatre in London, in the year 1792, whose hair was so long that it trailed on the ground when she stood upright.

There was in the year 1799 in London, from Canton in China, a man whose hair reached to the ground when he stood upright, though he was a person of stature.

I have myself, says Mr. WAITE, seen an English woman, the wife of a theatrical gentleman, whose hair is six feet in leugth, and weighs upwards of three pounds, without that part which is nearly connected with the head : its color is of a light brown.

White's Regular Gradation in Man,

pp, 92, 93, 94.

3130. (2 Sam. sv. 4— 6.] Any one may speak in a friendly manner with another in external thought, and yet be his enemy in internal thought.

Flatterers and hypocrites can contain themselves, and take care that their interior thought shall not be opened, and indeed can conceal it more and more interiorly, and as it were shut to the door lest it should appear.

If man had not an external and an interval principle of thought, he could not perceive and see any evil in himself, and be reformed; neither could he speak, but only utter sounds like a beast.

SWEDENRORG, on Divine Providence,

n. 104.

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3127. - At the Maldivia Islands, the care and management of the hair is a principal object of female atten 3131. — In simulation, men speak and act what tion. They wash it with a peculiar water, suffer it to float || they do not think and will. in the wind to dry, and then perfume it with odoriferous oils. In the other life, it is not allowable for the speech and To complete its dressing, they collect it in a knot, increase thoughts to disagree. The spirit, who is found guilty of its apparent quantity by artificial ineans, and adorn it with simulation, is reduced by various methods to speak as he fragrant flowers. — Among the men, only persons of rank and thinks, and to think as he wills: until his miud be one and soldiers are allowed to wear their hair uncut, and these dress undivided. If he be, on the whole, a good spirit, he is it nearly in a similar manner to the women. (DE LAVAL.) - reduced to a state of willing what is good, and of thinking At Otaheite, Captain Bligh was visited by a very old man, and speaking what is true, from a principle of goodness. vucle to Tupia who left his native soil with Captain Cook in If he be an evil spirit, he is reduced to a state of willing 1769, and who died at Batavia. This aged sire was treated what is evil, and of thinking and speaking what is false, from with much respect by the natives. He made several enqui a principle of evil. Till this agreement be effected, the good ries after his nephew, and desired, when they came again, spirit is not elevated into heaven; nor is the evil one cast they would bring him his hair. When Tinah, a distinguished iuto hell : because, iu hell, there must be nothing but evil chief, had requested to be carried to England, and the cap- and the false grounded in evil; and in heaven, nothing but tain asked what account he should give his countrymen, in what is good and the true grounded in goodness. case he did not live to return, he replied, that he must

Ibid. Arcana, nn. 4799, 8250.

3132. [2 Sam. xv. 7. After forty years] Instead of || city to be carried to Skutari, beyond the Bosphorus, with an arboim (flebr.), forty; read arbo, four.

allowance of bread and flesh for their maintenance : but The Syriac and Arabic Versions ; Jose becoming uneasy to the inhabitants, they were transported to PHUS; THEODORET; HOUBIGANT, &c. a desert isle, 16 miles from the capital, where they all pe

rished for want of food. The lives of the dogs, though held unclean by the Turks, were deemned of such importance that

the sultan demanded of the Mufti, whether it were lawful to 3133. [- 23.] Kidron, according to MAUNDRELL (Journ. p. 100.), running southward, on the east side of

kill them? But that head of their religion answered, that Jerusalem, along the bottom of the valley of Jehoshuphat,

every dog had a soul, and therefore it was not lawful to

kill them. but sometimes dry.

See No. 202.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xii.

p. 442,

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3134. [- 29.] It is probable, that Saul after he had killed all the priests in Nob, except Abiathar who fled to David, might set up in Zadok to officiate as high-priest in Israel, at the same time that Eleazar so officiated in Judah; and that when David came to be king over all the twelve tribes, he did not choose to deprive either of his office, but suffered both to continue as high-priests, till Abiathar was divested of his dignity, in consequence of his revolt to the party of Adonijah, 1 Kings i. 7, 8. ii. 35, &c.

See Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p, 322.

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3135. [ 30.] In antient times the shoes of great and wealthy persons were made of very rich materials, and ornamented with jewels, gold, and silver. When any great calamity befel them, either pablic or private, they not only stripped themselves of these ornaments, but of their very shoes, and walked barefoot. In this manner prisoners taken in war were forced to walk, both for punishment and disgrace.

See BRYNÆUS de Calceis Hebræor.

1. ii. c. 5. and Guier de Luct.
c. xv. § 4.

3140

The choosing or confirming of a new king in Guinea seldom continues long in dispute; for the eldest son no sooner hears of the king's death, than he immediately makes his interest amongst bis friends, to take possession of the late king's court and wives; and succeeding happily in these particulars, he need not doubt the remainder, for the commonalty will not easily consent that after that he shall be driven from the throne : this seems somewhat like Absalom's design on his father David. To accomplish this design, the younger brother's party are always careful enough that he is near at hand, in order to take possession of the Court.

Bosman's Guinea. Pinkerton's

Coll. part Ixvi. p. 492,

3136. [2 Sam. xvi. 9. Why should this dead dog curse - the king] In Ethiopia it is an antient custom for slaves to petition their masters and subjects their sovereigns, either in the ear with, an humble and submissive voice, or at a distance in the cry of some animal — barking like dogs, or howling like wolves, being distinguished as to the province or place they belong to by their imitation of the various cries of different beasts.

See the Portuguese Manuscript, trans

lated by Sir PETER WYCHE, p. 51.

3141.

The name of Quiteva is common to the sovereign lord of the country bordering on the river Sofala in Ethiopia. He maintains a number of wives, the chief of whom are his near relations, and are denominated his queens, the residue are regarded merely as concubines. As soon as the Quiteva ceases to live, a successor is chosen, capable of governing with wisdom and prudence ; and indeed should he be deficient in this respect, it would be enough that a majority of the king's concubines should join in his favour, as on these the possession of the throne depends. He therefore repairs to the royal palace where he meets with some of

3137. - In the year of our Lord 1613, when the plague had ceased in Constantinople, the sultan, for fear the infection should be renewed, ordered all the dogs in that

the concubines of the late king, and with their consent he 3145. [2 Sam. xvii, 28, 29.] “ On the road from Acre to seats himself on the throne prepared for him in the midst of || Seide we saw,” says HasselQuisr, "a herdsman eating his a large ball ; when seated here, a curtain is drawn before dinner, consisting of half-ripe ears of wheat, which he him and his wives : hence he issues orders for his procla. roasted and ate with as good an appetite as a Turk does mation through the strects; this is the signal for the people his pillau. In Egypt such food is much eaten by the poor, to flock to render him homage and swear obedience, a cere being the ears 'of maize or Turkish wheat, and of their mony which is performed amid great rejoicings.

dourra, which is a kind of millet. When this food was first The officers and soldiers belonging to his guard in the invented, art was in a simple state ; yet the custom is still mean time place themselves at the gates, and prevent the continued in some nations, where the inhabitants have not entrance of more than sufficient to fill the hall, that no dis. even at this time learnt to pamper nature.” turbance or confusion take place. At first those admitted | Rutn ii. 14. Travels, p. 166. — Burder's Oriental prostrate themselves on their knees, and thus advance towards

Customs, vol.ii. p. 137. the throne one after the other, when they address the monarch, In West Barbary, what is most used by travellers is he remaining constantly behind the curtain, without exposing zumeet, tumeet, or flour of parched barley for limereece. himself to the public view until every one that has entered, They are all three made of parched barley-flour, which they has done him homage. After this has been effected, each,

carry in a leathern satchel. Zumeet is the flour mixed with according to the custom of the country, shakes hands with the

honey, butter, and spice : tumeet is the same flour done up Quiteva, and retires; he again places himself behind the cur

with origan oil : and limereece is only mixed with water, and tain till the hall is re-filled, and the same ceremony is again

so drank. This quenches thirst much better than water alone, repeated : in this manner the whole day passes in receiving

satiates a hungry appetite, cools and refreshes tired and homage. The next day, the king sends his ambassadors to

weary spirits, overcoming those ill effects which a hot sun publish the death of the late prince, and the peaceable in

and fatiguing journey might occasion. stallation of the new sovereign.

See Jones' Account of the Diet of the SANTOSHist. of Eastern Ethiopia.

Maurs of West Barbary. Miscell. Pinkerton's Coll. part lxvii. p. 683.

Cur. vol. iii.p. 390.

3142. (2 Sam. xvi. 22.] The men of Athens after a time decreed, that their women should have no vote in public matters ; and that no children should thenceforth bear their mother's name.

See Univer. Hist. vol. v. p. 465.

3146. (2 Sam. xviii. 18.] Such a pillar is the monument, erected purposely to record the Fire of London.

On the pier at Calais, is a print of Louis the 18th's foot, cut in the stone, where the king first stepped on his return to France. A temporary post communicates the fact, and advertises the intention of the civil authority to raise a more durable monument on the spot.

Month. Mag. for Octr. 1814, p. 204.

3143. [2 Sam. xvii. 14.] An evil man will ever be better pleased with what is wrong, thao with what is right or more expedient.

3147. (2 Sam. xix. 35. Can I discern between good and bad ?] Evil should be restricted to denote moral edil only: bad, with propriety, may be used when we would describe what is pernicious in food, &c.

3144. ( 18, 19.] About Aleppo in Syria, their granaries are even at this day subterraneous grottos, the entry to which is by a small hole or opening like a well, often in the highway; and as they are commonly left open when empty, they make it not a little dangerous riding near the villages at night. (Dr. RUSSELL, Hist. of Alep. p. 18.) The houses at Pompeii are on a small scale, generally of one, sometimes of two stories : the principal apartments are always behind, inclosing a court with a portico round it, and a marble cistern in the middle. (Rees.) - Barley, wetted with water, was pounded in a stone mortar until it quitted the busk; and then it was exposed to dry.

Dr. Geddes.

3148. [2 Sam. xxij. 15.) A thunderstorm in Palestine, ia exceedingly tremendous.

Dr. GEDDES. 3149. [2 Sam. xxiii. 3,] Among the antient Egyptians, | four thousand men, which jointly formed a grand army of the king could neither punish an individual from caprice or two hundred and eighty-eight thousand ; and as a separate passion, nor pass sentence, in any case, otherwise than as body of twelve thousand men naturally attended on the twelve the laws ordained.

princes of the twelve tribes, mentioned in the same chapter, MAVOR. the whole will be three hundred thousand; which is the

difference between the two accounts. — As to the men of

Israel, the author of Samuel does not take notice of the 3150. [- 6.] Belial seems to be derived from two

three hundred thousand, because they were in the actual words which signify rejecting the yoke.

service of the king, as a standing army, and therefore there was no need to number thein; but Chronicles joins them to the rest, saying expressly, ' all those of Israel were one million

one hundred thousand'; whereas the author of Samuel, who 3151.

15.] In regard to diet, with a view to the reckons only the eight hundred thousand, does not say 'all preservation of health, no one rule is of so much importance as those of Israel', but barely,' and Israel were' &c. It must to avoid all sorts of compound liquors, water being the only also be observed that, exclusive of the troops before menwholesome beverage, the best solvent, and diluent of the tioned, there was an army of observation on the frontiers of solid portions of our food; supporting the tone of the sto

the Philistines' country, composed of thirty thousand men, mach, without exhausting its vigor; and furnishing the most

ås appears by 2 Sam. vi. I, which, it seems, were iucluded in simple, the most bland, and manifestly the most suitable

the number of five hundred thousand of the people of Judah, supply to the secretory vessels, and general humidity of the by the anthor of Samuel; but the author of Chronicles, who body. In a word, good water is the only fit and salutary mentions only four hundred and seventy thousand, gives the liquor for the ordinary uses of man; all others are noxious, number of that tribe exclusively of those thirty thousand and that in proportion as they recede in their qualities from men, because they were not all of the tribe of Judah, and water.

therefore does not say .all those of Judah,' as he had said See No. 346. Sir John Sinclair's Code of Health, all those of Israel,' but only and those of Judah'; and thus vol. i. p. 264.

both accounts may be reconciled, by only having recourse to other parts of Scripture treating of the same subject, which

will ever he found the best method of explaining difficult 3152. [ 17.] Hitherto they had fed themselves out passages. of the public miseries, and drank the blood of the city.

BARUH. JOSEPH. Wars, b. v. ch. viii. § 2. 0. yi.

3155. (2 Sam. xxiv. 10.} If Moses presupposed the lawfulness of this measure, and did actually twice number the people, wherein consisted David's sin when he did the same ?

- Agitated, in all probability, by the desire of conquest, he 3153. [2 Sam. xxiv. 1.) In the Hebrew theology, God is aspired at the establishment of a military government, such immediately, or mediately, the author of every event, good

as was that of Rome in after-times, and at subjecting, with or evil. The writer of Chronicles, accordingly, makes Satan

that view, the whole people to martial regulations; that so the mediate agent.

every man might be duly enrolled to serve under such and Dr. Geddes. such generals and officers, and be obliged to perform military duty at stated periods, in order to acquire the use of arms.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iii. pp. 19, 23. 3154. ( 9.] It is said here, that Joab found the Israelites to be eight hundred thousand men, and the men of Judah five hundred thousand ; whereas 1 Chronicles says, ch. 3156.

David's sin was, that by numbering the xxi. 5, that Joab found Israel to be one million one hundred || people, and appointing afresh captains of thousands, &c., be thousand, and those of Judah only four hundred and seventy was attempting to new-model the government, as established thousand. Now it appears by Chronicles, ch. xxvii, that under Moses by God Himself. See Num. i. &c. The fact there were twelve divisions of generals, who commanded was, that the descendants of those first chosen, like the posmonthly, and whose duty was to keep guard near the king's terity of Levi, were to continue in office as judges, so long person, each having a body of troops consisting of twenty- | as the Jewish polity endured.

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