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303. [Exod. xx. 1.) The code of laws, translated by Sir | 307. -- The Hop, also, is a plant of the reptile WILLIAM Jones, from the Sanscrit of Menu, affords the best kind, which, from the manner of raising it on poles, has gainand most authentic system of Hindoo policy and manners. ed the appellation of the Northern Vine. Although their chronology and history extend far beyond our

Ibid. p. 36. computation of time, we must allow this book to be one of the most antient records any where extant. (Orient. Memoirs, vol. i. p. 17.)-Hence came that wisdom among the Il 308.

Among the Gentoos, in Asia, there is a Egyptians, which Moses learnt and adopted under Divine Il species of fruit-bearing creeping-tree called Lut, which apdirection. Acts vii. 22.

pears to be a vinous bleeder, as it is prohibited to be cut under penalty of a severe fine.

See Halled's Gentoo Laws, p. 258. 304. (Gen. ix. 4.] Colonel Dow, in his elegant translation of Ferishteh's history, derives Hindoo from Hind, a supposed son of Ham. Hence perhaps the reason why the

I 309.

- Where the lands of Cræsus were infested Brahminical priesthood is almost an exact counterpart to | (or covered) with a multitude (a profusion) of serpents (or that of the Levitical. The Levites were particularly for- || creeping vines), it was observed, that to feed on these, the bidden wine ; so are the Brahmins. The Levites were more horses neglected and forsook their pastures. (HERODOTUS, than others enjoined to avoid the contact of all uncleanness; Clio 78.)- In like manner also, the antient Psylli may be so are the Brahmins. The Levites were to assist the ma understood to have devoured "living serpents,” or the tender gistrate's judgment in difficult cases; so are the Brahmins. sprouts of the budding vine, to the great injury of the parent And, in every other respect, the resemblance might well tree and its future crops. authorise a suspicion, that they had originally some affinity to each other. HALHED's Preface to Gentoo Laws, pp. 21, 69. 310. - As new kinds of grapes are constantly.

raised from seed, the Vine admits of an almost infinite variety, which are all supposed to be the progeny of one mo

ther species. 305. (Gen. ix. 3,4.] And God said, Every moving thing

Speechly, on the Vine, p. 2. that liceth shall be meat for you ; even as the green herb hare I given you all things : but flesh, with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.

311. (Gen. iii, 15.] Two sculptured figures are yet extant The blood is not necessary to life, except

in one of the oldest pagodas of the Hindoos; the former of 80 far as a constant supply of it is necessary for the main

which represents Chrushna, an incarnation of their mediatorial tenance of the functions of the vital organs.—These organs

God Vishnu, trampling on the crushed head of the serpent; are primarily, the brain and the nervous system ; seconda

while in the latter it is seen encircling the deity in its folds, rily, the heart and the alimentary canal.

and biting his heel. (See MAURICE's Hist. of Hind ostan, Phil. Trans. for 1812, part i. pp. 210, 213.

vol. ii. p. 290.)—This is a curious representation of bruising the serpent's head, and wounding the heel or sole of the

foot, in treading the wine-press ; an important part of the 306. (Gen. ix. 3.) The vine is a noble plant or shrub of Priest's office. See No. 213. the reptile * kind, first brought from Asia to Europe by the Phænicians. Wonders of Nature and Art, vol.i. p. 149.

312. (Isai. Ixiii. 3.) The manner of pressing grapes is as follows: Having placed them in a hogshead, a man with naked feet gets in and treads the grapes ; in about half an hour's time the juice is forced out; he then turns the lowest

grapes uppermost, and treads them for about a quarter of an • The vine being a creeper, whose name in Latin is serpens, improperly

hour longer : this is sufficient to squeeze the good juice out of translated from the Antient authors serpent, great mistakes have arisen in

them, for an additional pressure would even crush the unripe consequence : it has been supposed tbat the serpent, instead of the “creeper," the tine, was considered as indispensable in the worship of the Antients. grapes, and give the whole a disagreeable flavor. In Genesis ix. 3, 4., where Noah and bis sons are allowed to eat grapes of

KALM's Trav. in N. America.-Pinkerton's every kind, but prohibited the use of wine when made into an intoxicating

Coll. part liii. p. 497. liquor; instead of creeper, we read “ the moving thing that liveth,” and are thereby led to sappose that permission was then given to eat sucb animals of tbe reptile kind as are expressly forbidden in Levit. xi. 41. This vulgar error has induced thousands to believe, that the blood of animals, and not the 313. [Gen. ix. 4.] The particles which, in pressing, disblood of the grape" (Deut. xxxii. 14.), is there intended ; and they in conse engage themselves from the vine-berry's external coat, give quence have not understood, that the latter is disallowed only, when it has

Il the wine its red tincture. acquired a "life" or spirit by suffering the “flesh with the blood,” the Pulp with the Juice to stand together in their crushed state, till they have spon.

It will never indeed appear white, if once the juice of the takeously fermented, and actually produced inebriating wine.

Il-husks, from whatever cause, intermipgle with that of the pulp.

The stone, and the gout, which are epidemical in most 318. (Gen. ix. 4.] About eleven hundred years before wine countries, are seldom known where the wine is but mo | Christ, a Chinese emperor, at a solemn assembly of the states, derately tinged with the husky, acid particles; a sufficient forbade the use of (intoxicating) wine, as what proves the reason for the prohibition in Gen. ix. 4.

cause of almost all the evils which happen on the earth. See Nat. Delin. vol. ii. pp. 257, 267.

See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. viii. p.396.

319.

From the Arabic MS. of Levinus War314. (Deut. xxxii. 14.] If the juice (or blood) of grapes nerus, cited by Spanhemius, it sufficiently appears, that be fermented, it will yield on distillation, inflammable spirit, the more devout pagan Arabs totally abstained from (such) which the must did not yield before fermentation. If the wine long before the birth of Mahomet.—But Mahomet, by same liquor be further fermented it will yield vinegar, which forbidding the use of inebriating wine, and establisbing stated could not be obtained from the liquid before, either in its days of fasting, it is said, has shewn himself an intelligent meoriginal or vinous state. This is, therefore, called the acetous dical legislator ; and proved that he possessed a profound fermentation. The third state of fermentation is putrefaction, acquaintance with the nature of the human frame. Hence by which the substance is converted into mucilage, and after his disciples, by following his rules, are, in geueral, remarkwards into calcareous earth.

able for their health and strength, and the dignity of their Dr. Elliot. form.

See PINKERTON's Recollections of Paris,

vol. ii. p. 356. 316. (Gen. xl. 9-13.] In Egypt, a distinction made between wine and must put it in the power of their kings and people of opulence, to drink fresh grape-juice. This, accord

320.

The frequent intoxications introduced ing as it is or is not fermented. has very different effects. || among the American Indians by Europeans, have completed a In the grapes, it has no inebriating quality. In the state of

total alteration in their characters. must, it soon would inebriate slightly. By fermentation, it

Carver's Trav. in N. America, p. 141. passes from must, to intoxicating wine. Now, as the Hebrew word, schachat, signifies to mix wine with water, we hence learn how the king of Egypt drank his grape-juice, in Jo

321. [Prov. xxiii. 29, 30.] Wine and other physical exhi. seph's time. The butler, in his dream, thought he took

larants during the treacherous truce to wretchedness which grapes, and after mixing their juice with water in the cap, |

they afford, dilapidate the structure, and undermine the very presented it (as usual, no doubt) to Pharaoh.—As to the Ma

foundation of happiness. No man, perhaps, was ever comhometans, who are so strictly forbidden wine, but allowed

pletely miserable, until after he had fled to alcohol for congrapes and raisius; even they press the juice from their

solation.—The habit of vinous indulgence is not more peruivine-berries through a linen cloth, pour it into a cup, and

cious, than it is obstinate and pertinacious in its hold, when it drink it (under the name of Sherbet) exactly as Pharaoh

has once fastened itself upon the constitution. It is not to did.

be conquered by half measures. No compromise with it is See Smith's Michaelis, vol, iii. p. 131.

allowable. The victory over it, in order to be permanent, must be perfect. As long as there lurks a relict of it in the frame, there is imminent danger of a relapse of this moral

malady, from which there seldom is, as from physical disor316. (Gen. ix. 4.] The Muscogulges, and other American ders, a gradual convalescence. The cure if at all must be Indians, eminently deserve the encomium of all nations, for effected at once ; cutting and pruning will do no good; notheir wisdom and virtue in abstaining wholly from spirituous thing will be of any avail short of absolute extirpation. The liquors. In all their treaties with the white people, the first ll man who has been the slave of intemperance must renounce and most cogent article is, that there shall not be any kind her altogether, or she will insensibly re-assume her despotic of spirituous liquors sold or brought into their towns; aud the power. With such a mistress, if he seriously mean to distraders are allowed but two keys, of five gallons each, for a card her, he should indulge himself in no dalliance or delay. company, as sufficient to serve them on the road : if any of He must not allow his lips a taste of her former fascination. this remain on their approaching the towns, they must spill Webb, the noted pedestrian, who was remarkable for vigor it on the ground or secrete it on the road, for it must not both of body and mind, lived wholly upon water for his drink: come into the towns.

He was one day recommending his regimen to one of his BARTRAM's Trav. p. 490. friends who loved wine, and urged him with great earnest.

ness, to quit a course of luxury by which his health and his

intellects would equally be destroyed. The gentleman ap317. [Lev. iii. 2.) PLUTARCH, in his treatise, “ De Iside, peared convinced and told him "that he would conform to his et Oseride," sect. 6., says, Beforet he time of Psammeticus counsel, and though he could not change his course of life at the Egyptians neither drank (fermented) wine nor used it once, he would leave off strong liquors by degrees.” “By in their offerings.

degrees! (says the other with indignation) if you should un

happily fall into the fire, would you caution your servants to
pull you out only by degrees?”
Extracted from the Report of Diseases under the care

of Dr. Reid.-Monthly Mag for March, 1810.

328.

The liquor extracted from the palm-tree, is the most seducing and pernicious of intoxicating vegetable juices : when just drawn, it is as pleasant (and as innocent) as Pouhon water fresh from the spring.–From this liquor, according to Rheede, sugar is extracted ; and it would be a happy circumstance, if it were always applied to so innocent a purpose.

See Works of Sir W. JONES, vol.i. p. 257..

vol.ii. p. 117.

322. - The dietetic use of vinous spirit in different forms, has thinned society more thau either pestilence, or the sword ; and the impaired constitution of modern ages marks strongly the baneful cousequences of its influence.

Nisbet's Edinburgh School of Medicine, vol. iii.

p. 151.

323. - It is remarkable, says Dr. Darwin, that all the diseases from drinking spirituous or fermented liquors are liable to become hereditary, even to the third generation ; and gradually to increase, if the canse be continued, till the family becomes extinct.

Botanic Garden, part ii. Note on Vitis.

329.

In Schetland, the inhabitants give an account of one Tairville, who arrived at the age of one hundred and eight, and never drank any malt liquor, distilled waters, nor wine. They say, his son lived longer than he; and that his grandchildren lived to a great age, and seldom or never drank any stronger liquors than milk, water, or bland.—This last is made of buttermilk mixed with water.

See PINKERTON's Voy. and Trav. part xii. p. 693.

330. (Gen. ix. 4.) In the year 1787, the king of Traven324. [Gen. j. 17.) So pernicious is the use of Ardent || cor issued an order prohibiting the use of palm-brandy under Spirits, says Sir John SINCLAIR, that it has often been re

the penalty of confiscation of property.–And the contempt commended to the British Parliament, totally to prohibit the

which the Indians entertain for the Europeans, arises chiefly manufacture of them.

from the circumstance that the latter are so much addicted to Code of Health, vol. i. p. 347. || drinking.

Bartolomeo by JOHNSTON, p. 286.

325. (Gen. ix. 4.] Even Pentheus, Domitian and Mahomet, did their utmost to suppress the use of intoxicating wine.

331.

At the capitulation of Jerusalem, the Khalif Nat. Delin. vol. ii. p. 232. Omar had to prohibit the degenerate inhabitants by an express

Article, not to sell wine, nor any other intoxicating liquors

whatsoever. 326. [Num, vi. 2, 3.) From the Statical Experiments of

See Modern Univer. Hist. col. i. pp. 359–429. Dr. HALES we learn, that fixed air constitutes nearly one third part of the solid contents of the heart of oak. It is found to bear the same proportion in peas, beans, and other vege 332.

The Gauls, Spaniards and Britons, were pro. fable substances. Heat and formentation render it elastic. || bibited the culture of the Vine, under Domitian ; but were allowIt is again capable of being absorbed and fixed :-He thus || ed it again, under the emperor Probus, in the year of Christ 282. discovered it in Ithe Vine, ascending with the sap in the

Sce Vopiscus in Probo, & Eutrop. bleeding season.-Were the whole air of the universe brought at once into an elastic and repulsive state, every thing would suffer a sudden dissolution. Were it entirely fixed, then all 333. The juice of the ripe grape is a nutritive things would be reduced to an inert lump. ALMIGHTY Pro and agreeable food, consisting chiefly of sugar and mucilage. VIDENCE has in a wonderful manner, argues Dr. Hunter, The chenical process of fermentation converts this sugar into provided against these extremes in nature, and by “PROHI spirit; converts food into poison ! And it has thus become the Biting fermented liquors would preserve the balance in curse of the Christian world, producing more than half of our man. (Georgical Essays, p. 79.) —When Vines get wounded chronical diseases. at the bleeding season in the spring, it is astonishing, says Darwin's Botanic Garden, part ii. Canto iii. p. 119, Mr. Evelyn, that some trees should, in a few hours, “weep more than they will weigh.”

334.

Every apartment, devoted to the circula

tion of the glass, may be regarded as a temple, set apart for 327.

- The dangerous effects of intemperance in- | the performance of human sacrifices. And they ought to be duced the early legislators of India to prohibit the use of all fitted up, like the antient temples in Egypt, in a manner to spirituous liquors; and it were much to be wished, that so shew the real atrocity of the superstition that is carried om wise a law had never been violated.

within their walls. Asiat. Researches, vol. ii. p. 250. #

BEDDOES's Hygëia, dol. ii. Essay viii. p. 118.

336.

We are told by M. Muret, that he had the ever, its enervating effects, when used improperly, it should èuriosity to examine the register of deaths in one town, and be known that neither the Chinese, Japanese, nor any other to mark those whose deaths might be imputed to drunkenness; Eastern nation, will drink it either so strong, in such quantities, and he found the number so great, as to incline him to believe, or so bot, as we do in England ; but use it rather as their comthat hard drinking kills more of mankind, than pleurisies, mon drink, and without any sugar, or other sweetener. They fevers, and all the most malignant distempers.

commonly keep, especially in large families, a boiler, or some PRICE on Reversionary Payments, vol. ii. p. 250. other vessel, over a fire; and, whenever they are thirsty or

faint, they put a few leaves of it in a basin, pour on the hot water, drink it when cooled sufficiently, and return to their

business. The custoin of sitting at the tea-table, so long 336. Spirituous, and perhaps also fermented,

as we do, is unknown to them; and is only an idle, luxuricus Jiquors, must be wholly prohibited, or they will be abused ;)

refinement (or rather abuse), we have made on their way of because the stimulus which they create at one time, is sought

using it. (Modern Part of Univer. Hist. vol. viii. p. 228, at another, and the oftener it is repeated, the oftener it is de

Note.)-Tea, as a beverage, bas been made use of for ages, sired and required; till at length it becomes necessary to the

by millions of people in various parts of Asia. sense of well-being, or apparently essential to the power of

Sir John SINCLAIR's Code of Health, vol. i. p. 287. sustaining the fatigues of life.

Dr. Reid.-Month. Mag. for Sep. 1814, p. 117.

341.

The first discoverers of the Floridas used 337. [Lev. ii. 13.] Do we prefer to wine, a dish of warm | sassafras, to correct the saltness of the water. (Dr. Geddes.)liquor ? Canada presents us with its capillaires, the Caraccas The sassafras, which forms part of the materia medica of offer us their cocoa-nuts and vanilla, China and Japan their America, is a yellow wood, of a brisk aromatic scent, the teas, and Arabia its coffee. The bitterness of these leaves produce of a shrub or tree, very abundant in Florida, as also and grains shall be immediately corrected by the pleasant || in Virginia and other English provinces. It is, in decoction, salt (or sugar) of the canes that grow at Martinico or Il principally of use in removing obstructions and strengthening Cayenne.

the internal parts. It is reckoned a sovereign remedy for caNat. Delin, vol. v. p. 61. || tarrhs; and is esteemed in the gout, and sciatica. In some

families also it has (used in shavings or raspings) become of

late a common tea.--It yields by distillation an extremely 938. (Lev. x. 9.] In a warm season or climate, the best fragrant oil of a penetrating pungent taste, so ponderous (notarticles to use under severe corporeal hardships, are the acid withstanding the lightness of the drag itself) as to sink in water. fruits, such as the lemon and orange, apple, &c. In wiuter, See Wonders of Nature and Art, vol. vi. p. 47.. plain diet with moderate exercise, is the best security for

Carver's Travels in North America, p. 336,preserving warmth of body. Spirituous liquors give but a

And London Dispensatory, p. 223. temperary glow, and in the end render the effects of cold more speedily hurtful. Dr. J. TROTTER's Essay on Drunkenness, p. 165.

342. (Lev. X. 9.] As to national drinks,-the common | beverage of the peasants in Russia is quass, a liquor somewhat

like sweet wort, made by pouring warm water on rye or bar339. _ - In a most severe frost which happened about || ley-meal, and deemed an excellent antiscorbutic. the year 1800, the Hackney-Coachmen of London suffered ex

Coxe.-Pinkerton's Voy, and Trav. part xxv. ceedingly by the practice of drinking ardent spirits ; many

p. 651. died in consequence of dram-drinking ; while those who resorted to the use of tea, which a few did, not only weathered the cold, but acquired health and activity from the regimen.

See Enquiries into the Effects of Fermented Liquors, 343. [Gen. xl. 11.) The Bougharian Tartars, besides milk by a Water DRINKER, P. II.

in an acescent state and water, drink tea in which they iyfuse anise-seeds; and are particularly fond of the juice of the

grape, newly expressed and unfermented. 340. (Exod. xv. 25.) We are assured by Martin, Le

History of Russia, vol. ii. p. 144. Compte, Kæmpfer, Du Halde and others, that in China the virtues of the tea-tree were first discovered in correcting the brackishness of their water, especially in the lower provinces, where the water is not only very unpleasant, but unwhole 344.

The French and Spaniards take coffee disome to drink. Used properly, it was found to possess other rectly after dinner, instead of wine : a custom worthy of excellent qualities, which gradually raised it into the highest initation. -esteem as a beverage, all over the empire. To prevent, how

Dr. WATERHOUSE.

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343. (Judg. iv. 19.) An advantage is conferred on children | 350. (Lev. xi. 44.] It hence appears, that those who had for life, when they are confirmed in the habit of drinking water. the Holy Spirit of the Lord were to avoid such unclean See HUFELAND's Advice to Mothers ( Crosby, 1817.), p. 75. || meats and drinks, as would, in the language of the Apostle,

grieve or quench that Spirit.

Eph. iv. 30. 1 Thess. vi 19. 346.

“Water is the fittest drink for all persons of all ages and temperaments; of all the productions of nature or art, it coines the nearest to that universal remedy, so much 351. [Acts xv. 28, 29.j searched after by mankind, but never discovered. By its flui

Thou, Lord, my table shalt prepare, dity and mildness, it promotes a free and equable circulation

And feed me with a past'ral care : of the blood and humours through all the vessels of the body,

With herbs and fruits my stores supply ; upon which the due performance of every animal function de

Preserve them fresh with watchful eye; pends; and hence water-drinkers are not only the most active

My daily meals, invoked, attend; and nimble, but also the most cheerful and sprightly of all

My sober feasts from wines defend. people.-In sanguine complexions, water, by diluting the

When in the sultry glebe I faint, blood, renders the circulation easy and uniform. In the cho

Or on the thirsty mountain pant; leric, the coolness of the water restrains the quick motion and

Withdrawn beneath thy bann’ring love, intense heat of the humours. It attenuates the glutinous

From nature's scrip I timely prove, viscidity of the juices of the phlegmatic; and the gross earthi

What uative sweets spontaneous grow ness which prevails in melancholic temperaments. And as to

Near peaceful rivers, soft and slow. different ages; Water is good for children, to make their tena

Though in a bare and rugged way cious milky diet thin and easy to digest; for youth and middle

Through devious, lonely wilds I stray, aged, to sweeten and dissolve any scorbutic acrimony or

Thy bounties still my toils beguile, sharpness that may be in the humours, by which means pains

Causing each wilderness to smile, and obstructions are preveuted ; and for old people, to moisten

With sudden greens and herbage crown'd, and mollify their rigid fibres, and to promote a less difficult

From streams that murmur all around. circulation through their hard and shrivelled vessels."

HOFFMAN.

3:47.

SMOLLETT, in his Travels in Italy, remarks, that a porter in London quenches his thirst with a | 352. (Gen. ix. 12, 13.) And God said to Noah and his draught of strong beer; a porter of Rome or Naples refreshes Il sons, This is the token of the covenant which I make between himself with a slice of water-lemon, or a glass of iced water. | me and you: I do set my bow in the cloud and it shall be The one costs three half-pence,the last a farthing :- which of for a token of a covenant betwcen me and the carth. them is most effectual ? I am sure the men are equally pleased.

Whenever the spectator stands between It is commonly remarked that beer strengthens, as well as the sun and a cloud of falling rain, a rainbow is seen, which refreshes ; but the porters of Constantinople, who never drink is nothing inore than the reflection of the differently coloured any thing stronger than water, will carry a load of seven hun- rays of light from the hoso!n of the cloud. dred weight, which is more than any English porter ever

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, vol. i. p. 384. attempted to raise.

353. [Gen. ix. 13–17.] As there can be no rainbow, 343. (Lev. x. 9.] It should here be noted, as greatly in when the heavens are covered with cloads, because the sunfavor of the salutary mode of living recommended in this Work, beams are then precluded from falling upon the rain-drops opthat the active and benevolent Howard utterly discarded posite to the eye of the spectator, the rainbow is a mark of animal foods, as well as fermented and spirituous drinks, from gentle or partial showers. Mr. Whitehurst has endeavoured his diet: water and the plainest vegetables sufficing him. to shew that the primitive islands were only moistened by nocAikin's Vicw of his Character, 8c. p. 222. turnal dews and not by showers (Gen. ii. 5, 6.), as occurs at this day to the Delta of Egypt.

Dr. Darwin. 349. (Acts sv. 20.] In the mind, many alterations take place in consequence of the influence of the bodily organs; and these latter are greatly influenced by the kind of aliment 354. (Gen. ii. 5.) As a uniforın temperature universally which the body receives. God knows what is in man, and he prevailed in the antediluvian atmosphere, it is highly probakuows what is in all creatures; he has therefore graciously for- | ble that it was not subject to storins and tempests, and corbidden what would injure both body and mind, and command sequently not to raia; and if there was no rain, most certainly ed what is best calculated to be useful to both.

no rainbow. Dr. A. CLARKE, on Lerit, si. in fine. |

HUTTON's Whitehurst, p. 178.

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