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THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS,

COMMONLY CALLED,

THE THIRD BOOK OF THE KINGS.

I HE word mother in these Books often denotes mother- | ing the slumbering energy of life. And in this respect, I city or metropolis, as Gal. iv. 26. Heb. xii. 22.

apprehend, we ought to approve of the above-described method practised by the autients.

Willich, M. D. 3158. - 2—4.] The bloom of youth, and particu

All living bodies transpire; every instant half the pores of larly that of the healthful virgin, was compared by the Ori

the skin exhale a very subtle humor, that is more important

than all the rest of our evacuations. At the same time anoentals, with roses, lilies, and other elegant flowers ; she was introduced in allegorical description, to represent odoriferous

ther kind of pores receive part of the fluids which surround spices, balms, and oils, and was made the subject of pastoral

us, and communicate them to the vessels. These are inviand other poems. How easy, then, the transition from fancy

sible torrents, which issue from our bodies, and there find to belief, that the exhalations of vigorous aud healthy persons

admittance. It is evident, that in some cases this inspiration must be highly conducive to the support of exhausted age;

is very considerable. Strong people perspire more; weak that they, like the fragrant balms of the East, were capable

people, who have scarcely 'any proper atmosphere, inspire of softening the rigidity of the fibres, of exciting the vital

more than the others; and this perspiration of healthy people spirits, and, in short, of supplying the aged with a fresh

coutains something nutritious and strengthening, which being stock of health. The history before us furnishes a striking inspired by another,

inspired by another, invigorates hiin.

Dr. Tissor. illustration of this renovating process. And the celebrated Boerhaave informs us, that be advised an old and decrepit Burgomaster at Amsterdam to sleep between two young persons; and that his patient, who before was sinking under the 3159. (1 Kings i. 48.] Iustances of paternal confidence are weight of infirmities, obviously recovered strength and cheer rare among sovereigns, who frequently consider their succesfulness of mind. — Upon more accurate inquiries, however, sors as their eneinies. it is pretty evident that most and perhaps the whole of the

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, benefits which the aged derive from this expedient, may be

vol. iv. p. 60. placed to the account of the imagination, and its surprising effects on the body. For, as every living being necessarily vitiates the air foore or less by its respiration, how is it possible that matters or substances, hurtful to one body, if re

3160. [- 51.] As the horns of the altar were five tained, should be useful to another, if communicated ? Or,

cubits (two yards and a half) distant from each other, it was was it supposed, that the watery parts of insensible exhala

impossible for Adonijah to lay hold of the horns of the tion from the juvenile body, could moisten and refresh the

altar : the Hebrew is literally, caught hold (be, Hebr.) in or parched fibres of the aged ? To accomplish this purpose, we

between the horns of the altar : this he might easily do, and are possessed of remedies, much purer and more effectual.

it obviates every difficulty.

Desveux. Natural warmth or heat is the only means competent to produce such a salutary effect; as that alone is capable of excit

3161. [1 Kings ii. 5, 6.] David here, gives it in charge lo Solomon his sou to have Joab punished as a wiltul murderer.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 227.

3168. (1 Kings iii. 15. And made a feast to all his servants) On account of his marriage with Pharaoh's Daughter ; or rather because the Ark was then brought to Jerusalem.

history.

3162. [ 17.] The whole harem of an Eastern king

3169. [- 18. There was no stranger with us in was a part of the regal succession. It was treason for a

the house] They, therefore, as hostesses, usually lodged subject to claim any woman or virgin, who had been once

strangers. in that cloister. Hence Solomon's positive denial of the request, though presented by the queen mother (or royal matron).

See Dr. Geddes. None but such , as had pretensions to the Crown could marry one who had served a king : she would otherwise be degraded.

3170. [1 Kings iv. 3. Scribes] Clerks of court, who wrote down causes, examined witnesses, and sometimes distributed Justice.

Dr. Geddes. 3163. [- 23. Against my life] Probably i (Hebr.), for my, has been changed by trapscribers into o, his or his oun,

3171. [- 7.] These officers were Solomon's general receivers of tribute. — The revenues of princes in the East

are still paid in the fruits and productions of the earth. 3164. [- 26.] In the gardens or sacred inclosures of India, in which children were taught, there are two

There are no other taxes on the peasants.

CHARDIN. statues, which for the most part are placed before the entrance of the school. One of them represents GANESHA, the protector of the sciences, and of learned men; and the other the goddess SARASVADI, the goddess of eloquence and 3172. [ 25.] Under his vine, in summer ; under

his fig-tree, in winter, — The branches of the banyan, fig, BARTOLOMEO, by Forster, p. 264.

striking bunches of roots from their extremities, form so many arcades which support and secure the principal trunk, and

cottage built under it, against the wintry storm and tempest. 3165. [- 28 - 34.] In the year 955, Pater bishop The foliage of this tree is so thick that not a single drop of of Landaffe called a Synod of his clergy agamst king Nongui || rain can penetrate it. — How happily might the virtuous for sacrilege, because certain persons of his family had dwell under such a shade! (See St. Pierre's Works, vol. iv. murdered a deacon at the altar. — The offending persons p. 031.) — The Asiatics again, who have various kinds of were given up to the bishop; and the Synod adjudged, that the largest grapes, train up their vines to raised lattice-work every one of them should give their estates and all their or arbors, which become so many summer pavilions, under substance to the church they had violated.

whose shelter the inhabitants reclining enjoy the refreshing Hody's English Councils, p. 72. breeze,

Smith's Wonders of Nature and Art, vol. i. p. 151.

-Superest 3166. ( 36.] This was to prevent his entering

Tum leves calamos, et rasæ hastilia virgæ, into any conspiracy with the Benjamites agaiust Solomon.

Fraxineasque aptare sudes, furcasque bicornes ;
Viribus emiti quarum, et contemnere ventos
Assuescant, suinmasque sequi tabulata per ulmos.

Ving. Georg. 2. l. 358, &c.
The next precaution of their rural cares

A range of reeds, and forked props prepares; 3167. (1 Kings iij. I.) Pharaoh gave the city of Gazer, On these the vines their clasping progress form, as a portion with his daughter; the first account we meet

Aud brave the rigors of each rising storm; with, in any country, of marriage-portings.

Ascend the hospitable elm, and spread
Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, Their swelling clusters o'er its verdant head.
vol. ii. p. 211.

Nat. Lelin. vol. ji. p. 242.

3173. (1 Kings įv. 25.] The Asiatic, contented with a rainy clouds in parched and dry situatious, as chains and rods. little rice, and some of the simplest productions of nature, of iron attract thunder-clouds.' reclines beneath the shade, and gives labor and luxury to the In general, vitreous bodies and stones susceptible of polish winds.

are very proper for this purpose ; as water, when diffused by Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist of Women, a general thaw in great quantities through the air, attaches dol. i. p. 277.

itself principally to the glass windows and polished stones of our houses.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

. vol. ii. pp. 252, 325, 333. 3174. — In America, what are called Indian figtrees grow in moist grounds twenty or thirty feet high; then spread a large top, baving on the stem or trunk neither bough 3177. [1 Kings iv. 33.] Tea, as a beverage, has been nor twig. From the extremity of the head-branches issues a made use of for ages, by millions of people in various parts gummy juice, hanging downward like a cord or sinew, and in of Asia. (Sir John Sinclair's Code of Health, vol. i. a few months reaching the ground into which it instantly p. 287.) - It is said, in Barrow's Travels in China, p.319, strikes root. Then being filled from the top-bough, and from that the Chinese, notwithstanding their want of personal its own root, this cord becomes a tree exceeding hastily, and cleanliness, are little troubled with leprous or cutaneous dislets fall like cords as the first stem did. These several cords eases, and they pretend to be totally ignorant of gout, stone, in a year or less, become trees as thick as the nether part or gravel, which they ascribe to the preventive effects of tea. of a lance, and as straight as nature can make them, casting (Ibid. p. 288.) -- Is the tea-tree the hyssop here ; and in forth a shade, and making such a grove, as no other tree in Lev. xiv. 4, where water tinctured with it is directed to be the world can do. In this way one of these trees will cover used even out wardly, in the cleansing of the leper? Or is a whole valley, and would shroud four hundred, or four thou. the tea-tree the rue of Luke xi. 42, which, on account of sand horsemen, if they please.

its great consumption, was made a titheable article? Sir Walter Raleigh's Hist. of the World, || Woodroof excels in flavor the teas of China ; and the first part i. book i. c. 4, § 2.

leaves of whortle-berry, properly gathered and dried in the shade, cannot be distinguished from real teas. In this way, nothing can be more excellent than Balsamic Sage and Garden

Balm. 3175. [ 26.) He of course had broken the Divine See No. 340.

Ibid. p. 295. precept, Deut. xvii. 16. And for ever after his kingdom declined. He hereby made his reign expensive. See ch. I

See No. 137, 1050, 1051. xii. 4.

3178. [1 Kings v. 6. Lebanon] This belonged to the Tyrians and Sidonians originally, but to the Israelites latterly.

3176.

33.] The cedar of Lebanon sends forth the lower part of its branches in an upward direction toward heaven, and lowers their extremities by bending thein downward to the earth. By means of the first disposition, the rain-water is conveyed along the sloping brauch to the trunk; and by the second, the snows in the regions of which it delights to dwell, slide away from off its foliage. Besides, the attitude of an arm raised up into the air, with the hand gently incliving, is suited admirably to the cominanding air of this king of vegetables, and to the majestic .port of

| 3179.

1 8 .) In North America, the Thuya tree is reckoned the best wood for keeping from putrefaction, and is much preferable to the fir in that point.

(See Kalm's Trav. in Pinkerton's Coll.

part liv. p. 618.

Lebanon.

The pellitory which grows on the sides of walls, by attracting the water which foats in the air in imperceptible vapors, has its leaves almost always in a humid staie : like the tree called garoe in a mountain of Ferrol, which travellers tell us is always surrounded with a cloud that distils copiously along its leaves, and fills with water large reservoirs constructed at the root of this tree; the cloud thus affording, like that which accompanied the camp of Israel, an abundaut supply for thousands of people.

Ju the same way, by means of electric stones, it might be possible to form artiticial fountains, which should attract the

3180. ( 10.] Teak-wood is now used in the East, particularly at Calcutta and Bassorah, as far preferable to oak for ship-building. Contrary to expectation, one description of this timber has been found to be lighter than oak, and another about the same weight. It also splinters less than oak; and contains an oil, which preserves iron, and destroys the worm ; whilst the acid of oak corrodes iron, and appears peculiarly grateful to the taste of the worm. Nor is Teak subject to that incurable cause of rapid decay in oak, called the dry rot.

Month. Mag. for Dec. 1814, p. 456.

3181. (1 Kings v. 11. Twenty measures] Twenty thou- 1 there were no fewer than twenty men required to shut them sand baths, 2 Chron. ii. 10.

every day. Verse 16. Three thousand and three hundred] Three

Joseph. Against Apion, b. ii. § 10. thousand and six hundred, 2 Chron. ij. 17.

3182. [1 Kings vi. 1.) When the Tabernacle (according to the reading in the printed Hebrew text) was 480 or (according to another reading, which Josephus and Paul found in the Bibles in common use in Palestine in their time) 592 years old, and must certainly have been pretty much decayed, Solomon began the building of his Temple.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iii. |

p. 388.

3188. [1 Kings vi. 38.] This Temple was built, says JOSEPHUS, six hundred and twelve years after the Jews came out of Egypt. It had four several courts, encompassed with cloisters round about, every one of which had a peculiar degree of separation from the rest. Into the first court every person was allowed to go, even foreigners; all the Jews went into the second, as well as their wives, when they were free from all uncleanness; into the third court went the Jewish men when they were clean and purified; into the fourth went the priests, having on their sacerdotal garments; but into the most sacred place, none went but the high-priests, clothed in their peculiar garments.

Ibid. § 2, 8.

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3184. - As the calyx of the Lotos plant, according to the Indian mythology, is assigned to the gods (representatively) as a place of residence, the Indians have copied it in their architecture, and applied it on the columns, pillars, and architraves of their temples. — This calyx is a symbol of that dip which is made in the atmosphere of our earth in the place of contact where the atmosphere of a heavenly body exhibits to us an image of that floating body, as of a Lotos in its calyx.

See BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston,

pp. 342, 386, 394.

3190. [1 Kings vii. 8.) Prince Radziville thinks Balbeck, the most considerable place in Syria, to have been the Palace built for Pharaoh's daughter.

See Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 245.

3185. [ 27.] The temple had also golden vines ahove it, from which hung clusters of grapes as tall as a man's height.

Joseph. Wars, b. v. ch. v. § 4. —

dol. vi.

3191.

14.] This Hiram, here said to be a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali, is described 2 Chron. ii. 14, as the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan : this change in parentage must have been caused by adoption.

See Frag. to CALMET, vol. ii. p. 58.

3186. [ 32.] On the reverse, of medals, the figure of a pala-tree is the symbol of Judea.

Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 12.

3192.

21.] Jachen is a bluish stone with white veins, so hard that it is wrought with nothing else but the powder of diamonds. This is highly esteemed in the court of the Mogul : they make cups of it and other vessels, of which some are richly wrought with threads of gold, of very curious workınanship.

BERNIER. —- Pinkerton's Coll. dol. iii.

p. 220.

3187. [ 34] The doors of the holy house were seven cubits high, and twenty cubits broad; they were all plated over with gold, and almost of solid gold itself; and

3193. (1 Kings vii. 22.] On the two sides of the temple [ 3198. [1 Kings viii. 10, 62.) At a marriage in India, as doors were pillars, the capitals of which were adorned with || soon as the bridegroom appears full-dressed in the bride's house, branches of a golden vine, which hung down with their the Homa, or connubial fire, is kindled, which the newgrapes and `clusters so well imitated, that art did not yield ll married couple carefully endeavour to keep up, by throwing to nature.

into it sandal wood, frankincense, oil, butter, and other CALMET, Dict. Art. Temple. | inflammable substances.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 279.

3194,

At Casbin grows the fairest grape in Persia, called shahoni, or the royal grape, being of a gold color and transparent.

Sir John CHARDIN. - Pinkerton's Coll.

vol. ix. p. 158.

3199. [- 22.] The Moors at prayers join their hands together, not as we do by the ends of our fingers, but by the sides of their hands, as though they were going to drink out of them.

BRAITHWAITE, Journey to Morocco,

p. 137.

3195. [- 26.] The lily imperial, with tulip-form fowers, is originally from Persia. — The tulip itself grows spontaneously in the vicinity of Constantinople. (St. Pierre's

3200.- From 2 Chron. vi. 13, we learn that Studies of Nature, vol. ii. p. 311.) - The lotos is a water- | Solomon was now kneeling on a scaffold three cubits lily, whose broad leaf, in the greatest inundations of the Nile,

high. rises with the flood, and is never overwhelmed. (BRYANT.

Dr. GEDDES. See Bib. Research. vol. i. p. 269.) — The rivulets in the environs of Damietta are covered with the majestic flower of the (white) lotos, which rises upwards of two feet above the 3201. - 27.] God is, without space, in all space; water. (M. SAVARY.) — This plant is a species of the

without time, in all time : personally above, by his sphere water-lily ; its leaves float on the water, and cover its sur

within, all worlds and all created objects. face, producing many flowers which were formerly wove into

See SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, the crowns of conquerors.

nn. 69 — 82. Beauties of Nature and Art displayed,

vol. xii. p. 141.

3196. - The brazen laver, when quite full, might contain 3,000 baths (2 Chron. iv. 5.); but, when filled partially to its usual mark, ouly 2,000 baths.

- Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. jii. p. 392.

3202. [- 63.] Thus was laid the foundation of a treasury or bank in the temple, which consisted partly of what was allotted for the maintenance of the divine service, partly of donatives for the support of the poor, partly of the portions and doweries of the fatherless and widows, and partly of the substance of the richer sort who deposited their wealth there for security. 2 Maccab. iii. 10. See Univer. llist. vol. ix. p. 595.

- vol. x. p. 73.

3197. [1 Kings viii. 2.] This feast of the Dedication,

3203. - At the Pagodas, the Japanese throw according to USHER (Ann. sub. A. M. 3001), was solem

their offerings, which consist in small pieces of coppernized in the ninth Jubilee, on the eighth day of the seventh

money, into a sort of box or chest. month of the sacred year, whicb was the first of the civil

PINKERTON's Coll. part xxx. p. 6:23. year, answering to the latter part of our October. It lasted seven days, and the feast of tabernacles following immediately, the vast concourse of people who had been invited by

3204. - The Athenians had a coin, says Julius the king, were detained at least other seven days at

Pollux (Onomastic. lib. ix. C. 6), called ox, from the Jerusalem.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 1. ||

figure of that animal enstamped upon it. — The Heathens

say too, that the impress of a sheep was marked on their On the first day of the dedication, they offered 22,000 first coins, and that their money was thence called pecunia. bulls and 120,000 sheep! ch, viii. 63.

This ingenious substitute for animals in barter, the Roman Ibid. p. 2. shepherds, says Dr. GREGORY, might have derived from the

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