« FöregåendeFortsätt »
the Archipelago. — It renders astringent every fluid in which it is dissolved.
• Nat. Delin. vol. iii. p. 222.
is recorded in the history of a Russian prince lately published; who, it is said, duriog the clear and severe frosts of that country, could not move himself ju bed without luminous corruscations. Such may have been the case of those people, who have been related to have taken fire spon. taneously, and to have been reduced to ashes. i
Darwin's Zoonomia, vol. ii. p. 471, or
class iv. l. 4.
3297. [2 Kings ii: 21.] At Tyre there is a well which, from some unknown cause, becomes troubled in September, and continues for some days full of reddish clay. This season is observed as a kind of festival by the inhabitants, who then come in crowds to the well, and pour into it a bucket of sea-water, which, according to them, has the virtue of restoring the clearness of the spring.
VOLNEY, vol. ii. p. 203.
3292. [2 Kings ii. 12.] The stirrup used by the nations of Asia is of a very different form from the European, being oblong, and nearly the length of the foot, with a ridge ou each side, and from the resemblance to some of their dishes, is called “Ruchâb.” On the binder part of this stirrup, which comes under the heels, a spike is often fixed, which answers the purpose of our spur.
Archæologia, vol. xv. p. 408.
3293. - A Brahmin, who is the giver of spiritual birth, the teacher of prescribed duty, is by right (called) the father of an old man, though himself be but a youth.
Laws of Menu. — Works of Sir
W. Jones, vol. iii. p. 104.
This fountain runs plentifully, and waters | a large space of ground, passing througla a plain of seventy
furlongs in extent, a ud twenty broad; wherein it affords nourishment to those most excellent gardens that are thick set with trees. There are in this district many sorts of palm-trees, that are watered by it, different from each other in taste and uame; the better sort of them, when they are pressed, yield an excellent kind of honey, not much inferior in sweetness to other honey. Ezek. xlvii, 12. Lev. ii. 11. JOSEPH. Wars, b. iv.
ch. viii. $ 3.
3299. [- 23.] These children, probably, were disciples of Baal, who were punished, not so much for their disrespect of the prophet, as for their contempt of his God.
Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 35.
3294. [- 19.] The inclemency of the climate of Porto Bello, is sufficiently known all over Europe ; not only strangers who come thither are affected by it, but even the natives themselves suffer in various manners. It destroys the vigor of nature, and often untimely cuts the thread of life. Even the animals from other climates, when brought thither, cease to procreate. It is certain, that there are at least no horses nor asses bred there; which tends to confirm the opinion, that this climate checks the generation of creatures produced in a more benign or less noxious air. (Ulloa's Voy. vol. i. p. 93.) – The soil of Sennaar also, is very unfavourable both to man and beast, and particularly adverse , to their propagation. This seems to be owing to some noxious quality of the fat earth with which it is every way surrounded ; and nothing may be depended on more surely than the fact, that no mare, or other beast of burden, ever foaled in the town, or in any village within several miles round it.
Bruce's Trav. vol. iv. p. 471.
3300. . Iu Hindostan, the public schools for the education of boys, are generally in the open air, on the shady side of the house. The scholars sit on mats, or cow-dung floors, and are taught as much of religion as their caste admits of; also reading, writing, and arithmetic; the two latter by making letters and figures in sand on the floor. Education, like every thing else among the Hindoos, is extremely simple : that of the girls is generally confined to domestic employinents.
Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, rol. ii.
3295. - 20, 21.] The soil was unhappily barren, through the brackishness of its waters. (Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 35.) - What salt made the walers brackish ? and what was the salt that healed them ?
The feathered alum is a salt transmitted to us froin Egypt, Sardinia, and Milo an island of
3301. [2 Kings iii. 11.] The table being removed, before they rise from the ground, a slave or servant, who stands attending on them with a cup of water to give them drink, steps into the middle with a basin or copper pot of water, somewhat like a coffee-pot, and a little soap, and lets the water run on the hands of one after another, in the order as toy sit.
Pitt's Account of the Mahomet.
Religion, p. 24.
3302. [2 Kings iii. 11.)
- Then the heralds ranged The rites in order ; broach'd the wine, and pour'd Fresh water on the hands of all the kings.
Cowper's Iliad, b. iii. I. 298.
in the water but was not properly dissolved in it. And says Professor KLAPROTH (in Scherer's Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, No. 33), “ the phenomena I observed in my experiments on this coloured water [of a lake near Lubotin, in South Prussia) exhibited a chemical analogy to those of the colouring matter obtained from the indigo-plant, Indigofera tinctoria; Ind. argentia; Ind. disperma; and from woad, Isatis tinctoria. For though the water appeared of a dark red crimson color, this color was merely an optical illusion, occasioned by the refraction of the rays of light. The real color was a pure blue. This property of indigo-matter to assume an apparent red color I have observed in the solid colouring matter itself, as the best sort of the West Indian indigo, as well as that extracted from woad, exhibits on its smooth surface, when exposed to the light, a cupreous color. The phenomenon also observed in regard to indigo, that when strewed over coals the smoke which rises iminediately from it, when viewed against the light, has a beautiful light red color, may be connected with the same causes.”
See Phil. Mag. pol. xvii. p. 243.
3303. - 17.] It rains on the mountains of Syria when it does not rain on the plains. See Exod. ix. 22.
3304. ( 20.) On the 29th of September, 1810, the inhabitants of the town of Luton, Bedfordshire, were surprised with a singular phenomenon. The common pond, situated in a rather elevated part of the town, which, as there had been no rain in their neighbourhood for some weeks, was gradually becoming shallow of water, suddenly filled and ejected from its bottom all the filth and sediment. It continued flowing over and discharging a great quantity of water, for some hours; and since, has continued quiet as usual.- The towns-people were struck with considerable aların at this circumstance, and apprehended intelligence of some earthquake on the Continent, as this pond had a similar emission at the precise instant the dreadful earthquake happened at Lisbon in the year 1775.
Month. Mag. for Nov. 1810, p. 386.
3306. [2 Kings iii. 25.] When the food of man consisted principally of fruit, it was usual, in times of war, for one party to injure the other by destroying their valuable trees. Thus the Moabites were punished, and thus the Arabs of the Holy Land still make war on each other, burning the corn, cutting down the olive-trees, &c.
HasseLQUIST, Trav. p. 143.
3307. [2 Kings iv. I. The creditor is come to take unto him my two sons to be bondmen] This was a case in which the Hebrews bad such power over their children, that they might sell them to pay what they owed ; and the creditor might force them to it; see Matt. xviii. 25. Huet thinks this custom was transmitted from the Jews to the Athenians, and from these to the Romaus.
BURDER's Oriental Customs, vol. ii.
3305. [- 22.] Various authors, both antient and modern, speak of water being coloured and altered in its appearance. We are told by PLINY (Hist. Nat. lib. xxxi. cap. 30), that the water of the lakes near Babylon had a red color for eleven days in summer, and that the Borysthenes, now called the Dnieper, was in summer of a blue color. In 1668 Mr. SMITH (Acta Erudit. 1709) found the water of the Mediterranean to be of a sky-blue color, and when the sun shone upon it this color was changed to red or purple. The missionary FERDINAND CONSAG (Hist. de Californie, tom. iii. Paris 1767) in the year 1746, observed in the open sea, near California, that the water for the extent of half a mile was of a bluish red color. Navigators have often seen the water at the mouth of the river Plata, on the coast of South Ainerica, of a blood-red color. In January 1799, Mr. AcharD had an opportunity to subject the water of a lake at Strautzberg, supposed to be converted into blood, to some experiments, from which he concluded that the colouring matter consisted of some vegetable substance, and floated
When a Negro takes up goods on credit from any of the Europeans on the Coast of Africa, and does not make payment at the time appointed, the European is authorized, by the laws of the country, to seize upon the debtor himself, if he can find him; or if he cannot be found, on any person of his family; or, in the last resort, on any native of the same kingdom. The person thus seized on, is detained while his friends are sent in quest of the debtor. Wheu he is fouud, a meeting is called of the chief people of the place, and the debtor is coinpelled to ransom
his friend by fulfilling his engagements. If he is unable to do this, bis person is immediately secured, and sent down to the Coast, and the other released. If the debtor cannot be found, the person seized on is obliged to pay double the amount of the debt, or is himself sold into slavery : — This part of the law, however, is seldom enforced.
Mungo PARK's Trav. p. 296.
giving the least disturbance to the house. See Judg. jii. 24. 2 Sam. xviii. 33. 2 Kings xxiii. 12. Acts ix. 37. xx. 8.
Dr. Shaw. — Bib. Research. vol. ii.
3312. [2 Kings iv. 39. Wild vine.] Night-shade.
Unider. Hist. vol. iv. p. 43.
3309. [2 Kings iv. 8.] Among the Nations of Asia, the sentiment of humanity attracts men to each other in a very affecting manner. If, for example, an Asiatic on a journey stop to enjoy his repast, his servants and camel-driver collect around him, and place themselves at his table. If a stranger happen to pass by, he too sits down with him, and after having made an inclination of the head to the master of the family, and given God thauks, he rises and goes on his way, without being interrogated by any one who he is, whence be.comes, or whither he is going. This hospitable practice is common to the Armenians, to the Georgians, to the Turks, to the Persians, to the Siamese, to the Blacks of Madagascar, and to the different Nations of Africa and America. In those countries Man is still dear to Man.
St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature,
vol. iii. p. 179.
3313. ( 40.) Gargit or skoke is a large kind of weed, the leaves of which are about six inches long, and two inches and a half broad: they resemble those of spinage in their color and texture, but not in shape. — When its leaves first spring from the ground, after being boiled, they are a nutritious and wholesome vegetable, but when they are grown nearly to their full size, they acquire a poisonous quality.
Carver's Trav. in N. America,
3310. ( 10.) Dr. Shaw, in his Travels through the Levant and Barbary, and in bis descriptions of the houses there, takes notice, that they bave imitated the Eastern manner, by building a private set of apartments, which seem rather annexed, than properly belonging to the rest of the house. This little chainber designed by the Sbunamite for Elisha, where he retired at his pleasure, without breaking in upon the private affairs of the family, and without being interrupted in his own devotions, may be conjectured to be one of these separate buildings; as may also the summer parlour of Eglon (Judg. iii. 20), where he was slain by Ehud.
Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii.
3315. [- 14.] By the law of Moses, lepers were sprinkled seven times. Lev. xiv. 7. — In this instance, at | least, sprinkling and dipping were equivaleut.
3316. - 17. Two mules' burden of earth] From the words which follow, it appears that he wanted this earth for the raising of an altar to Jehovah, as the only God he ineant in future to worship.
3311. - To most of the houses of better fashion in the East, there is an oliah (Hebr.), a smaller one annexed, which sometimes rises one story higher than the house ; at other times it consists of one or two rooms only, and a terrace; whilst others, that are built, as they frequeutly are, over the porch or gateway, bave, if we except the ground floor which they have not, all the conveniences that belong to the house, properly so called. There is a door of communication from them into the gallery of the house, kept open or shut at the discretion of the master of the family ; besides another door, which opens immediately from a priry staircase, down into the porch or street, without
3317. - In the East, and in other countries, it was by the giving of earth and water, that a prince was put
in possession of a country ; the investiture being made him | in that manner. - Aristotle says, that to give earth and
water, is to renounce one's liberty. (See HERODOT. Mela pomene, chap. cxxvi. note 127.) – In the attitude of suppliants the Thebans approached the Barbarians, assuring them, what was really the truth, that they were attached to
the Medes, and that they had been among the first to reader nation apply to the wiite fluid which always accompanies the earth and water.
dany of birds and is their arine ? Oue may almost perceive a Ibid. Polymnia, ch. ce xxxii. similar combination of colors in the green and white of this
flower, which accords precisely in that respect with the description Dioscorides gives sf bis Ornithogalum. - Lindegs
gives the same explanatise in his Lectures on the Natural 3315. (2 Kinzı . 19.] In this thing the Lord pardoa
Orders of Plants, pablished by Professor Giseke, Hamburg, thy servant, that when my master went into the house of
1782, p. 287. Rimmon to worship there, and he leaned op my hand, and I
Dr. Edward Smite's English Botany. botted myself in the boase of Rinmon : the Lord pardon thy servant in this thing, that I bowed myself in the house of Rimmon.
See LeTHER': German Bible, printed at / 3323. (2 Kings vi. 35.) The chomer or chamor (Hebr.),
Weimars, with Notes; and Bib. Re the ass, was a measure among the Hebrews, equal to ten search, tol. i. p. 151.
ephahs, or sccenty fide gallons, three pints English, — an ass's ordinary load.
GOODWIN. 3319. - 27.) Was not the Infection in the Garments
The fourth part of a cab) A measure which held but
six eggs. which Gebari took? And did not the prophet refuse to
Unider. Hist. col. iv. p. 39. accept any thing from Naaman, lest he should thereby receive Infection?
3324. — Eighty shekels are four pounds eleven shilings and three-pence; and fice shekels are five shillings and eight-pence balfpenay.
A Cab was almost three pints. — An ass's head was sold
for nine pounds two shillings and sixpence, and three quarters 3320. (2 Kings vi. 25.) Menander, the Ephesian, is his
of a pint of pulse for eleven shillings and five-pence.
See Essay for a New Translation, life of Ithobal king of Tyre, mentions the drought which caused this famine.
• part ii. pp. 38, 44 – 48. See Univer. Hist. pref. p. 27.
3321. - Dove's dung] Chirionim (Hebr.), parched pulse (more probably, raisins); 2 Sam. xvii. 28.
See BOCHART's Hieros, tom. ii. l. i. c. 7. $ 7. The word rendered' dove's dung', as Bochari has fully proved, signifies' vetches', or pulse : and accordingly, some late travellers inform us, that at Grand Cairo and Damascus, there are magazines where they constantly fry this kind of grain, which those who go a pilgrimage buy, and take with them as part of the provision for their journey. The Arabs, at present, call this kind of palse, or veicbes, by the name of doves dang'.
3325. [2 Kings vii. I.) City gates in those days, were not only places of judicature and common resort, but also markets for provisions, like those of the Romans in after ages.
Univer. Hist, vol. ii. p. 378.
The gate of Fort St. George, called the sea-gate, being very spacious, was formerly the common Il exchange, where merchants of all nations resorted about eleven o'clock, to treat of business or merchandize.
Captain Hamilton, Voy. vol. i. p. 368.
3322. - - The root of the common star of Bethlehem is a white roundish bulb — is eatable when boiled, and much used as food in the Levant. Lipneus says, Mant. 364, it is the dove's dong which was sold so dear during the siege of Samaria (2 Kings vi. 25); though Olans Celsius (Hierobot. vol. ij.p. 30) and many other critics take that term in its literal sense. Ir Linneus is right we obtain a sort of clue to the derivation of Ornithogalum (Bird's milk) which has pozzled all etymologists. May not that denomi
3327. - This gate, at which provisions were sold, had a square which must have been a large one, asking Ahab assembled there foar huvdred false prophets. I suppose, says FLEURY, it was the same in other cities, and that these gates had some building with seats for the judges and elders; for it is said, that Boaz went up to the gate, and sat down there: and when David heard that Absalom was dead, he
went ap to the chamber over the gate, to weep there : This chamber might be the place for private deliberations. Even in the temple of Jerusalem causes were tried at one of the gates, and the judges held their assizes there. After all these examples it is not to be wondered that the Scripture uses the word gate so often, to signify judgment, or the public councils of each city, or the city itself, or the state ; and that, in the Gospel, the gates of hell signify the kingdom or power of the devil.
Dr. A. Clarke's Fleury, p. 182.
especially between the tropies. Violent fevers, called there Nedad, make the principal figure in this fatal list, and generally terminate the third day in death. If the patient survives till the fifth day, he very often recovers, by drinking water only, and throwing a quantity of cold water on him, even in his bed, where he is permitted to lie without any attempt to make him dry, or to change his bed, till another deluge adds to the first. - In the last stage of this distemper, the belly swells to an enormous size, or sometimes immediately after death, and the body within an instant smells most insupportably; to prevent which, they begin to bury the corpse immediately after the breath is out, and often finish within the hour.
BRUCE's Trav, vol. iii. p. 33. - iv.p: 22.
3328. [2 Kings vii. 1. A measure] Seph (Hebr.), a peck and a pint, English. Gen. xviii. 6.
Essay for a New Translation,
part ii. p. 38.
3329. ( 10.] As soon as the Arabs are apprehensive of an attack, they separate into several small camps, at a great distance from each other, and tie their camels to the tents, so as to be able to move off at a moinent's notice.
Memoirs relative to Egypt, p. 300.
3334. [2 Kings viii. 15.] To cure a cold, Johu Campbell, forester of Harries (iu Scotland), walks into the sea up to the iniddle with his clothes on, and immediately after goes to bed in his wet clothes, and then laying the bed clothes over him, procures a sweat, which removes the distemper.
PINKERTON's Coll. part xil. p.587. The winds on the borders of the Persian Gulph are often so scorching, that travellers are suddenly suffocated unless they cover their heads with a wet cloth; if this be too wet they immediately feel an intolerable cold, which would prove fatal if the moisture were not speedily dissipated by the heat.
Accum's Chem. vol. i. p. 124.
3330. [2 Kings viii. 4. And the king talked with Gehazi] This must have been before he was smitten with the leprosy ; no king amongst the Israelites ever talking with a leper, as that would have been contrary to the law of Moses.
3331. [- 9.] Through ostentation, the Easterns never fail to load on four or five horses what might easily be carried by one. In like manner as to jewels, trinkets, and other things of value, they place in fifteen dishes, what a single plate would very well hold.
MAJLLET, Lett. x. p. 86.
3335. [2 Kings ix. 11. Wherefore came this mad fellow to thee ??] It is probable, the profane among the Jews applied this title, indiscriminately, to all who presumed to be inspired. -“They understand nothing of what they say,” says Socrates upon his trial, “ they (the poets) are like Prophets and Divines. They do not carry on their work by the measure of wisdom, or any artful knowledge ; but by s sort of enthusiasm.” - A Poet is at once a light, volatile, and holy thing; he can compose nothing, till he is full of God and out of his senses.
Plato's Iun. p. 534.
3332. [- 13. What ! thy servant ! a dog ! - he do this great deed!] Hazael's exclamation was not the result of horror, but of the unexpected glimpse of a crown.
As soon as any spirit comes to another, and especially when he comes to a man, he instantly knows his thoughts and affections, and what he had then done; thus all his present state, exactly as if he had been with him some time. Such is (spiritual) communication (by the apperception of spheres).
SWEDENBORG, Arcana, ni 5383.
3333. [- 15.] The whole coast of the Red Sea, from Suez to Babelmandel, is very upwholesome; but more