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sures us, that the victim is killed previously to the commence. W 3392. [2 Kings xxiii. 34. Jehoiakim] Quasi Jehovah jakim ment of the ceremony; that two drums beat slowly, while the || (Hebr.), the LORD will make it prosper. - It was the custom priests pray over the corpse; and then very loud, for some for conquerors to give new names to those whom they thus time after it is interred.

brought under tribute, in token of subjection (to such conquerors, as their adopting fathers).

Univer. Hist, vol. iv. p. 101.

3386. [2 Kings xxiii. 10. The valley of the children of Hinnom] When the carrion thrown into this valley did not waste away fast enough, it was burnt. -- Hence the notion of hell-fire became affixed to Gehenna, which in Greek and Latin represents the Hebrew word ge-hinnom : See Matt. . 22, 29, 30, &c.

Univer. Ilist. vol. iii. p. 592.

3387. - 11.] The antient Persians used to consecrate white horses (camels) and chariots to the sun, with , which they adorned their processions. In such chariots, probably, the idolatrous Israelites might carry about their tabernacle of Moloch, the Sun; and the star of their god Remphan : Amos v. 25, and Acts vii. 43.

See Heron. lib. vii. f Hide Rel. vel.

Persarum. Or, Univer. Hist. vol. ir.
p. 93.

3393: (2 Kings xxiv. 6. Jehoiakim slept with his fathers] Not as to the body, which was left by those who had been carrying him prisoner to Babylon, unburied and exposed in the field or in the high-way, according to Jeremiah's prediction. See Jer. xxii. 18. xxxvi. 30. — This with other passages to the same effect, incontestably proves that, under the Jewish dispensation, the soul was believed to continue its existence from this to the other world, and to join the society of its deceased ancestors immediately on leaving its natural body.

See Dr. A. CLARKE, on Gen. xlix. 33.

3388. [it Magdolus.

29. Megiddo] HERODOTUS (lib. 2) calls

3394. [- 10— 16.] This first captivity, which took place in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, was just eighteen years before the second which commenced at the destruction of Jerusalem. The return from it was at the first issuing of Cyrus's decree, See Zechariah vii. 1. .

See Univer. Hist.vol. ix. p. 499.

3389. - 31.] This Hamutal was the adopting mother of the two kings, Jehoahaz and Zedekiah. See 2 Kings xxiv. 18.

3390.

1 3 3.] Well might the Egyptian monarch dethrone Jehoahaz: the prophet Ezekiel represents that courageous prince, about to avenge his father's death, under the figure of a young lion ready for the prey; and emphatically cries, “ The nations heard of him : he was taken in their snare, and brought into Egypt, loaden with chains.”

See Ezek. xix. 2 -- 4. - Univer. Hist.

vol. iv. p. 102.

3395. [- 13.] Since the battle of Karnal, says Frazer, the loss sustained by the emperor within and without the city, in jewels, treasure, goods, effects, and destroying of fields, setting aside the loss of the buildings, amounted to very nearly 125,000,000! ; out of which Nadir Shah carried away to the value of 87,500,0001. in jewels and other effects; and his officers and soldiers 12,500,0001. The charges of his army, while he continued there, the arrears, pay and gratuity advanced them, with what goods were destroyed by fire, and fields laid waste, made nearly 25,000,0001. more.

See Hist. of Nadir Shah, p. 219.

3396. - 17.] The Hebrew reads Joachin's brother ; 3391.1

34. Turned his name to Jehoiakim] which is evidently a false reading. The Septuagint is, as “ Agreeably to the custom of the eastern princes, who always

we have translated, his father's brother. assume a new name on their accession to a throne.”

If we compare this text with 2 Chron. xxxvi. 9, 10; Scott's Memoirs of Eradut Khan, ll and Jer. i. 2, 3 with 1 Chron. iii. 16, we shall perceive that Address to the Reader.

Zedekialı, the natural son of Jehoiakim and grandson of

Josiah, had been adopted by his grandfather as Ephraim and Manasseh were by Jacob; See Gen. xlviii. 5.

See No. 507.

| France, by observing that “ during a period of five hundred

years, three only have been worthy of the monarchy !”

3397. [2 Kings xxv. 6. The plains) The valley of Jericho. - This valley is surrounded by mountains as with a wall : its content is about two hundred acres. It is very famous for the fertility and amenity of its trees ; particularly, for its balm and opohalsam.

See Justin, lib. xxxvii.

3399. [2 Kings xxv. 11.] The Jews have a synagogue at Couchin, not far from the king's palace, about two miles from the city, in which are carefully kept their records, engraven on copper-plates in Hebrew characters; and when any of the characters decay, they are new cut, so that they can shew their own history from the reign of Nebuchadnezzar to the present time. In these records they declare themselves to be of the tribe of Manasseh, a part whereof was, by order of that haughty conqueror, carried to the eastermost province of his large empire, which, it seems, reached as far as cape Comorio : this journey 20,000 of them travelled in three years from their setting out of Babylon.

PINKERTON's Coll. part xxxii.

p. 379.

3398. [ 11.) A third and final captivity was now effected in the 230 year of Nebuchadnezzar, when their thraldom commenced for 70 years that did not terminate before the solemn dedication of the second Temple when they celebrated in it their grand passover held in the seventh year of Darius's reign. Thus, as there were three successive captivities, there were also three successive restorations, after three distinct intervals of 70 years each.

See 2 Kings xxiv. 10 — 16. and Zechariah

vii. 1, 80. — Also Univer. Hist. vol. ix.

p. 500. MIRABEAU concludes bis cursory remarks on the kings of

3400. [- 25.] If we date the desolation of the land from this murder of Gedaliah, when the few Jews left there fled into Egypt; the number of Sabbatic years thence to the first of Cyrus will be just fifty-two, and will carry us back 364 years, nearly to the beginning of Asa's good reign, when the people began to be very remiss in this and inany particulars of the Mosaic law.

Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 500.

THE FIRST BOOK OF THE CHRONICLES;

OR,

THE HIGH-PRIESTS' ANNALS.

I HESE Chronicles were probably written by Ezra, begat Jerioth of his wife Azubah ;" The Hebrew is, “ He after the Law had been burnt by Antiochus Epiphanes. See begat Azubah his wife and Jerioth.” 2 Esdras xiv. 21 — 44; and i Macc. i. 66. - It is very I probable, says CALMET, that Ezra wrote both books of the 1. Chronicles.

3405. [1 Chron, ii. 34, &c.] As Sheshan, of the tribe The First Book of the Chronicles was kept probably by of Judah, had given his daughter to Jarha, an Egyptian the Samaritans, and written to supply such matters, as had slave, whom he had liberated and adopted on the occasion ; been omitted in the Book of Kings.

the posterity of this marriage are not reckoned to Jarha,

Pool's. Annot. the natural father, but to Sheshan the adopter, and succeed Spain scarcely contains a city which does not possess its to his estate and station in Israel. See the Note on 1 Sam. individual history, or a chronicle. (Bourgoames' Trav. in xviii. 3, 4. Spain.)

When the people of the East have no sons, they frePINKERTON's Coll. part xix. p. 387. quently marry their daughters to their slaves, and that even

wben they have much property to bestow on them. Hassan had been the slave of Kamel his predecessor. But Kamel, according to the custom of the country, gave him one of his daughters in marriage, and left him at his death

one part of the great riches he had amassed in the course of 3402. [1 Chron. ï. 17.) This Jether, though an Ishmaela

a long and prosperous life. ite by nature, is an Israelite by adoption and grace ; see

MAILLET, Letter si. p. 118. 2 Sam. xvi. 25.

AINSWORTH.

3406. [ 51. The father of Bethlehem] The pa

triarch surely, of a place so celebrated in the sacred 3403. - 18. Her sons are these] Here the sons

pages.
P

See i Chron. iv. 14. of the maid Jerioth, are ascribed to her mistress, and called her sons (in the way of adoption).

Smith's MICHAELIS, dol. ii. p. 2, note *.

- See also Gen. xvi. 2. XXX. 3, 4,9.

3407. [1 Chron. iv. 14.] Gia charashim (Hebr.), is 3404.

There is great confusion here in the translated in the Vulgate, vallis artificum the valley of English Trauslations. In some the passage is rendered, artificers, or workers in iron, wood, stone, pottery, &c. ; "He begat Azobah of his wife Jerioth ;" and in others, “He ll-of whom Joab is styled by Rabbi Joseph's Targum, the

chief or superintendent (not the father of a valley, surely).

Fleury's Manners of the Israelites, by

Dr. A. Clarke, p. 70.

3413. [1 Chron. ix. 2.] The Nethanites ‘are, not improbably, supposed to be, Ist, The Gibeonites who were condemned by Joshua to be hewers of wood and drawers of water. 2dly, All the remains of the various tribes of Canaanites, which were by Solomon made a sort of public slaves. Compare Josh. ix. 27, and 1 Kings ix. 20.

Dr. GEDDES.

3408. [1 Chron. v. 1.] Thus, it seems, the primogeniture had privileges annexed to it: a double portion of goods, and the patriarchal chiefship. (Dr. Geddes.) — The firstborn, however, was not the first-fruit of a mother, but the son born to a father, after he had been diguified with office or with power.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. i.

art. lxxxiv.

3414. [1 Chron. x.] From this Chapter to the end, the history is in substance the saine with what has been delivered from the beginning of the last Chapter of 1 Sam. to the end of 2 Kings.

3409. [ 15. Abdiel] This name in modern Arabic

3415. [1 Chron. xi. 5, 6.) And the inhabitants of Jebus

said to David, Thou shalt not come bither. But David took is Abdallah; and signifies the serdant of God. Christ. Research. in Asia, p. 200.

the strong hold of Sion, which is the city of David. And David said, Whosoever first sinites the Jebusites, shall be head and captain. So Joab the sou of Zeruiah went up first,

and was chief captain. 3410. 1 1 9. Jetur] Properly Itur a son of Ish

KENNICOTT. mael. His province, with Battanea on the east and Trachonitis on the south, was situate on the other side of Jordan, on the north side of the half tribe of Manasseh, || 3416. [- 8. But the rest of the city Joab had between that and the territories of Damascus ; so that it spared Joab only smote the Jebusites who were in the made one part of Cocle-Syria, and lay on the one side of | citadel, and spared the rest. - The Hebrew word never Judea, as Idumea, formerly conquered in the same manner, signifies to repair, or rebuild. did lie on the other. — Instead of Jetur or Itur, we should

Dr. Geppes. read Itureans.

See Unider. Hist, vol. x. p. 85.

3411. ( 26.] Compare this account with what is written in the first chapter of Tobit, and you will perceive that Israel, being at least twice invaded by the Assyrians, suffered a double captivity.

Ibid. dol. iv. p. 78.

3417. [1 Chron. xvi. 39.] Though the ark had been removed to Jerusalem, the tabernacle and great sacrificealtar were still at Gibeon; and there remained until the reign of Solomon. Zadok, therefore, with some other priests, and a part of the Levites, were on this occasion seut thither to offer the daily sacritice, and perform the other duties of religion, while the other priests and Levites remained at Jerusalem ; about the ark.

Dr. Geddes.

3412. [1 Chron. viii. 28. Chiefs who dwelt at Jerusalem] Jerusalem was composed of Judahites, Levites, and Benjamites; besides, no doubt, the chiefs of other tribes who occasionally resided there, before the division of the kingdoms.

Dr. GEDDES.

3418. [1 Chron. xx. 3.] Then he brought out its people, and constrained them to saw, to use iron-files and axes. (See Bib. Research. vol. i. p. 68.) — These were thus subjugated, or made servants under the yoke.

See I Tim. vi. 1. 3419. [1 Chron. xxi. 25.] David gave to Ornan in gold, I have resided at Jerusalem; to whom probably appeals might £547.

be made from provincial courts. Essay for a New Translation, pp. 23 — 25.

Ibid.

3420. [1 Chron. xxii. 14.] According to the common calculation, David's treasures amounted to 50,000 tons of

3426. [1 Chron. xxvii: 28.] Sycamores : a species of fig-tree, very common in Judea. (Dr. Geddes.) — These trees bear on the trunk itself a fruit not unlike the fig, which serves as food for poor people.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 301.

gold!

See Deut. xvii. 17.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. i.p. 283.

3427. — The cellars of oil] The modern Greeks 3421. [1 Chron. xxiji.] llere, and from

keep their oil in large earthen jars, sunk in the ground, in 2 Chron. xix. ||

the areas before their houses. 8- ll. xxxiv. 13, we find the Schoterim, or Scribes,

Dr. CHANDLER's Trad. in Greece, p. 126. taken principally from the tribe of Levi This was a very rational procedure, as the Levites devoted themselves particulariy to study; and among husbandmen and unlearned people, few were likely to be so expert at writing, as to be intrusted with the keeping of registers so important. Add 3428. [1 Chron. xxix. 7. Ten thousand drams] The to this, that in later times, the genealogical tables (of the Adarcon, or Darcmon Ezra ji. 69, viii. 27, as used before whole nation) were kept (by them, conveniently) in the l and after the Captivity, was a piece of money in value about Temple.

twenty two shillings. Ibid. p. 250.

Essay for a New Translation, part ii. p. 34. Darics, or drachmas : This seems to have been a Persian coin ; which was probably current in Judea in the time of

David. 3422. {1 Chron. xxiv. 7. Jehoiarib]. This family, the

Dr. Geddes. first of the twenty-four classes appointed to officiate at the temple, was one of the four (families) that returned from

3429. - - Adarkonim (Hebr.), dareichoi (Grk.), the captivity.

See Luke i. 5.

darics, pieces of gold coined by Darius son of Cyaxares, king of the Medles. These, according to Suidas, Harpocration, and the scholiast of ARISTOPHANES (pp. 741,742) were the first monies stamped with a king's image ; and, according to Dr. Bernard, each weighed two grains more than one of

our guineas. 3423. (1 Chron. xxvi. 10.] It is here stated as a cir

- See Ezra viji. 27. Unider. Hist. vol. iv. p. 481. cumstance somewhat singular and unusual, that a father constituted one, who was not a first-born, the head : but, in this case, lie was only the head of a subordinate family.

3430. [ 24.] Several of the Mahommedan chiefs See Smith's Michaelis, vol. i.

came to Ali, and desired him to accept the govern

ment. He - resolved not to accept their allegiance in prip. 449.

vate ; for they proffered to give him their hands (the customary ceremony then in use among them on such

occasions) at his own house : but would have the ceremony 3424. - 13.] These gates were not in the

performed at the Mosque. Telba and Zobein came, and temple itself, but in the wall that surrounded it and its

offered him their hands, as a mark or token of their approporches.

bation. Ali bade thein, if they did it, to be in good earnest, - Dr. Geddes.

otherwise he would give his own hand to either of them that would accept of the government: which they refused, and

gave him theirs. 3425. ( 29.] These scribes and judges seem to

OCKLEY's Hist. of the Saracens, vol. i. p. 4.

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