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IL HIS Mosaic altar of burnt offerings was not admitted the wall: the latter were placed between palm-trees, exhiby Solomon into the Temple, on account of its smallness. U bited likewise in bass-relief: they were all of the finest gold. That introduced there in lieu of it, was twenty cubits in

Ibid. vol. iv. p. 2. length and breadth, and ten in height.

Verse 5.

3432. [2 Chron. ii. 4.] For the support of these ordinances, every Israelite paid annually the third of a shekel.

See Neh. x. 32, 33.

3436. [2 Chron. v. 12.) The Pagans, Mahomelans, and Christians in India all wear white cotton dresses. (BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 17.) - The Syrian Clergy are still

dressed in white loose vestments, wearing a cap of red silk I hanging down behind.

Christian Research. in Asia, p. 116.

3433. [- 8. Algum-trees] The Septuagint translate algumim here, pine-trees; but this seems absurd, as immediately following fir-trees.

3437. [2 Chron. vii. 3.] The Shechinah, or Divine Preseuce, was withdrawn from the ark of this first temple before it was destroyed by the king of Babylon.


3434. [2 Chron. iii. 8. Gold — six hundred talents] That is, four millions three hundred and twenty thousand pounds sterling.

Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 507.

3435. [- 10 — 14.] The cherubim made by Hiram were of two sorts; the carved image-work, each of which spread one wing over the ark, and touched the wall with the other; and those made in bass-relief, to adorn the sides of

3438. [2 Chron. viii. 4.] SCHULTENS observes (in Vit. Salad. ad docem Tadmora) that, though in the text it is written Tamor, in the margin it is Tadmor. The first, the more usual and softer name of the place, he refers to Tamar the palın, with which this place abounded. In Arabic also, he supposes it was not originally spelled Tadmor, but Tatmor : and thus be accordingly finds it in his Arabic geographical Lexicon; the D being changed into a T euphonc

animals, they would have filled his hands indeed !-- See Hosea xiv. 2, and 2 Chron. xxix. 31.

gratia. The alteration of this name he ascribes wholly to the Romans, who at first corrupting it into Talmura, but understanding the city had its name from its palm-trees, converted Talmura into Palmura, whence Palmyra. - You here see vines and clusters of grapes executed to the life. - The renowned Zenobia and the incomparable Longinus flourished here.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. pp. 247,

249, 253.

3443. [2 Chron. xiii. 20. The LORD struck him] With some kind of sudden death.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 22 (A).

3439. [2 Chron. viii. 4. Tadmor] Palmyra ; which Josephus tells us was a day's journey from the Euphrates.


3444. [2 Chron. xvi. 8.] In the earliest ages the Medes, - Which he built] That is, either founded anew, or at

Syrians, Arabs, &c. fought in chariots, but 'especially the

| Lybians and Ethiopians, as we are here informed. any rate, fortified; for, says MICHAELIS, the phrase, to

Ibid. vol. xvi. p. 654, note (B). build a city, has both these ineanings in the Oriental tongues.

See his Commentaries on the Laws of
Moses, vol. i. p. 79.

3445. [- 14. A very great burning] An illumination for him ; Jer. xxxiv. 5.. - A mode of exhibiting their belief in his future glorification.


From the antient Egyptians perhaps, the 3440. (2 Chron. ix. 14.] Arabia, on its largest scale,

Israelites adopted the practice, not of burning bodies, but of, comprises that extensive Peninsula, which the Red Sea di

burning many spices at their funerals, 2 Chron. xxi. 19. vides from Africa, the great Assyrian river from Irân, and

Jer. xxxiv. 5. of which the Erythrean Sea washes the base :- Its western

BURDER's Oriental Customs, vol. ii. side would be completely maritime, if no isthmus intervened

p. 171, between the Mediterranean, and the Sea of Kolzom. — As the Hindoos and the people of Yemen were both commercial nations in a very early age, they were probably the first instruments of couveying to the western world, the gold, ivory, and perfumes of India. Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 36. 3447. (2 Chron. xvii. 19.). In all 1,100,000! These were

not kept like our standing armies, in constant pay and duty.

They were only enrolled by naine, as persons fit to be called

out when their services might be needed against an enemy. 3441. 29.] In Ethiopia there are certain Chris The garrisons probably were relieved at stated times ; so that tjans who have all the canonical books of our Scriptures, and every one might attend duly to his private affairs during the several more. They reckon the prophet Iddo one of the intervals froin duty.. greater prophets, and put him in the class with Isaiah, Eze

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 27. kiel, Elisha, Elijah, and Daniel ; affirming that he wrote 14,000 prophecies (or prophetic lines) many of which they pretend, are still extant among them.

Captain Alex. HAMILTON. – Pinkerton's
Coll. part xxxii. p. 272.

3448. [2 Chron. xxi. 10:] The Phenicians were both younger merchants and navigators than the Syrians, and reaped considerable advantages by the access of these fugitive Edomites. — Their principal commodities were the purple

of Tyre, the glass of Sidon, their own exceedingly fine 3442. [2 Chron. xiii. 9. Whosoever shall fill his hands | linen and elegant pieces of art in metals and wood. with a young bullock and seven rams] Had these been

Ibid. vol. ii. pp. 322, 323.

3449, [2 Chron. xxi. 11.] The beginning of foruication is 1| in the neighbourhood of Egypt; its inhabitants are classed the devising of idols. Wisdom xiv. 12.

with the Arabians of Gur-baal, who dwelt in another canton of the same province. — These wars of Uzziah are omitted in 2 Kings xiv. 21, &c., where his history seems strangely curtailed.

Ibid. vol. iv. p. 67.

3450. [2 Chron. xxii. 2. Forty and two] In 2 Kings viii. 26, we read two and twenty : the latter is evidently 3454. [2 Chron. xxvi. 14, 15.] Both the catapultæ and right; otherwise Ahaziah must have been two years older balista were of Syrian or Phenician invention ; and from those than his father Jehoram, who, at the conclusion of the last || nations the Jews had them, as may be learnt from Pliny, in Chapter, is said to have died in the 40th year of his age. conjunction with Scripture. Univer. Hist. dol. iii. p. 440.

Ibid. dol. xvi. p. 606, note (H). Forty-two years indeed, had elapsed from Oinri's coming to the crown to the reign of Abaziah.

See Tremellius in loco.

Il · 3455.

These engines were invented about 800 The error seems to have been introduced by some Trans- |

years before Christ. criber, who might easily, from a similarity in the Hebrew

EMERSON. letters, write mem beth 42, instead of caph beth 22.

See Essay for a New Translation,
part ii. p. 136.

3456.[ 16.] Among the Antients, it was an opinion almost universally received, that there was a very near affinity between the offices of king and priest. Thus Jeroboam, as priest, was standing by the altar at Beth-el, when the prophet came to denounce its ruin. Even the Roinans, when they had

expulsed the Tarquins, preserved among their sacred officers 3451. [2 Chron. xxiv. 17. The princes of Judah] These the title of Rex. The Athenians also, though they equally could not be of the blood royal, as those had been all de hated monarchy, stiled their second archon, who presided in stroyed by Athaliah : they were consequently, the chiefs or their public sacrifices, Basileus. heads of families in Judah ; such being often, if uot always,

Univer. Hist. vol. vi. p. 92. denominated, after the Patriarchal system, princes. See Num. vii. 2. - Xxv. 14. (See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p.56.) These princes again, were called a king's sons born to him by adoption, as soon as they had attached themselves to his 3457. ( 19.) At this time a great earthquake shook person and fortunes.

the ground, and a rent was made in the Temple, through See, in particular, 2 Sam. iii. 2 -5. which the bright rays of the sun shone and fell on the king's

face, insomuch that the leprosy seized on him immediately. And before the city, at a place called Eroge, half the mountain broke off from the rest on the west, and rolled itself four furlongs, and stood still at the east mountain, till the

roads, as well as the king's gardens, were spoiled by the 3452. (2 Chron. xxvi. 6. Jabneh.] It is supposed to be


Joseph. Antig. b. ix. ch. x. $ 4. — the same with Jamnia situate on the Mediterranean, between Joppa and Azotus or Ashdod, about two hundred and forty

See Amos i. 1. Zech. xiv. 4, 5. furlongs distant from Jerusalem. 2 Maccab. xii. 9.

This earthquake, which must have bappened 25 years posterior to that mentioned in Amos i. I, is recorded in Zech. xiv. 4, 5, as a known fact, to which that prophet emphati

cally appeals. 3453. 7. The Menuhims] Who these nations were is uncertain. The Vulgate translates with 'the Ammonites. The S.ptuagint, some of the Minæans. The Chaldee paraphrast, with the Edomites. The English version, which is preierred, interprets the word, and others besides the Ammonites. See Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 94

3458. (2 Chron. xxviii. 3.] An astonishing instance of the As Mahon lay in Arabia Petrea, near Gerar' and Pharon superstition of the antient Indians in respect to their vene

rated fire, remains at this day, in the grand annual festival holden in honor of Darma Rajah, and called the Feast Of Fire; in which, as in the antient rites of Moloch, the devotees walk fast or slow according to their zeal, barefoot over a glowing fire extended to aboul forty feet in length. Some carry their children in their arms, and others lances, sabres, and standards. — The most fervent devotees walk several times over the fire.

See SONNERAT's Trad, vol. i.

p. 154.

3463. (2 Ckron. xxx. 18 - 20.] This is the ouly instance on record, to prove that such as had eaten of the Passover in an unclean (unprepared) state, might be healed at the intercession of man.

See Hutchinson's Use of Reason

recovered, p. 311.

3459. [2 Chron, xxviii. 3.) Jewish writers in general hold, that in this place children were merely carried or led between two fires, by way of (baptizmal) purification. The priests or servants of fire (says Moses MAIMONIDES, More Nevoch, lib. 3. c. 38) persuaded men that their children would die if they did not pass them through the fire: wherefore, parents being anxious for the lives of their children, and perceiving there was neither danger nor difficulty in performing the ceremony, no one neglected it, considering that the children were not to be consumed by fire, but only to pass through it. — Thus, in bringing Christians under the influence of the Divine Wisdom and Love, Jesus Christ bap. tizes with the Holy Spirit and with Fire. Matt. iii. 11.

3464. [2 Chron. xxxi. 5. Honey] Devesch, Dales. The Arabs at this day call dates dubous ; and the honey of dates, dibs or dibis, which is not much inferior to bee-honey. Whence the most learned interpreters agree that the Hebrew in this place, speaks only of dates, or at most of the honey of dates.

See Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. p. 172.

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6- 12.) Dates are reckoned one of the most delicious fruits in Persia, they are no where else so good; the pulp which encloses the stone is a clammy substance, as sweet as honey : when they are ripe, they are luid on heaps, where melting, they candy or preserve themselves without sugar. - The fruit grows in clusters of thirty or forty pounds weight : the tree, which is slender, but very tall, and like other palms, has no branches but on the top, does not bear till it is fifteen years old, but in this sense, the tree of life) continues bearing abode a hundred years. (PINKERTON'S Coll. vol. ix. p. 179. — See Rev. vii. 9. Matt. xxi. 8; Mark xi. 8; and John xii. 13.) - The word äremoth signifies heaps of raisins, figs, pomegranates; as well as of corn threshed out.

HARMER's Observations, vol. iii. p. 285.

3461. [- 23.] Thus, it seems, subordinate deities were worshipped, not with a view to obtain from them the happiness of a future life, but merely temporal benefits and blessings.


3466. [- 10.] How absurd to imagine that animals were thus offered, instead of their skins filled with first-fruits and tithes.

3467. [- 12.]

Pas aluit vites, et succos condidit uvær,
Fanderet ut nato testa paterna merum.

Tibul. El. 10. Lib. 1.'


27.] In Egypt, as soon as a man was dead, he was brought to his trial. The public accuser was heard. If he proved that the deceased had led a bad life, his memory was condemned, and he was deprived of the honors of sepulture. Even the sovereign himself was not exempted from this public inquest on his death. In like manner the Israelites, it seems, would not suffer the bodies of their flagitious princes to be carried into the sepulchres appropriated for their virtuous sovereigns. The effect must have been powerful and influential. The most haughty despot saw, by this solemo investigation of human conduct, that if he trampled on laws human and divine in his life, he also at death would be doomed without reserve to infamy and utter disgrace.

See Franklin's Hist. of antient and

modern Egypt, p. 374. See No. 940, 943.


16.) Such Levites, under twenty, as came 1o do arty office, with their fathers, about the temple, were entitled to a daily portion independent of that given to their fathers. They are reckoned from three : because that, among the Jews, was the period of weaning,

Dr. Geddes. See No. 941, 942.

3469. (2 Chron. xxxii. 23.] This being a jubilee year, a || there à carved image, an idol worshipped in the vilest vast concourse of people would necessarily flock to Jerusa- | manner. Compare ch. xxxiii. 1-9. lem, as was usual on such occasions ; to pour their rich

See Univer. Hist. dol. iv. p. 88. presents into the temple, especially after such a signal deliverance as they had just experienced.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 87. —
See Usher's Annals, 3295.

3474. [2 Chron. XxxÝ. 20.] Josiah, whatever were his motives, rushed into this expedition against Necho, without consulting the Lord as he might, through Jeremiah'the prophet, aud lost his life in consequence.

3470. (2 Chron. xxxiji. 11 – 19.] The remarkable circumstances recorded here, are not mentioned in the book of Kings; Manasseh's captivity, reformation and deliverance, though important particulars, being equally unnoticed there. JOSEPHUS (Antiq. b. X. C. 4) says only, that the king of

3475. [2 Chron. Xxxvi. 8. His abominations] The TarBabylon gave him his liberty after some time. The Tal.

gum mentions, among other things, his having the image of mudists affirm, that his imprisonment and repentance took

|| Baal on his forehead. - See Reo, xiv. 9. place in the 34th year of his age. However this were, it is the general opinion, that he was imprisoned and liberated in one and the same year. See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 89, 90. 3476. ( 20.) Persia, on the east, has the domi

nions of the Great Mogul; the ocean and the Gulf of Persia, towards the south ; the territories of the Grand Seignior,

on the west; and the country of Circassia, the Caspian Sea 3471. - 18.] The prayer in the Apocryphal books, and the river Oxus, which divides it from the Usbeck Tarascribed to Manasseh, expresses the greatness of his guilt, tary, on the north. misery and repentance in the strongest terms; and repre

Pinkerton's Coll. dol, ix. p. 169. sents him, in his bondage, as so loaded with iron bands, that he could not list up bis head.

Manasseh was taken into captivity by Asar-haddin in the 21st year of his reign : after his return he reigned 34 years 3477. - To give you an idea of the largest king of Judah.

boundaries of Persia, or Irân, the noblest peninsula on Ibid. pp. 90, 206. this habitable globe; let us begin with the source of the

great Assyrian stream, Euphrates (as the Greeks, according to their custom, were pleased to miscall the Forat) and thence descend to its mouth in the Green Sea, or Persian Gulf, including in our line some considerable districts and towns on both sides the river ; thence coasting Persia,

properly so namped, and other Iranian provinces, we come 3472. [2 Chron, xxxiv. 4. They brake down the to the della of the Sindhu or Indus; whence ascending to images] The Chaminim, or images of Cham, the son of the mountains of Cashghar, we discover its fountains and Noah, who was probably the first creature that ever was those of the Jaihun, down which we are conducted to the worshipped : he was the Zeus of Greece, and the Jupiter of Caspian, which formerly perhaps it entered, though it lose Latium.

itself now in the sands and lakes of Khwarezm : we next are Bib. Research. vol. ii. p. 187. led from the sea of Khozar, by the banks of the Cur, on

Cyrus, and along the Caucasean ridges, to the shore of the Euxine, and thence, by the several Grecian seas, to the point, whence we took our departure, at no considerable distance from the Mediterranean. Here let us observe the central position of Iran, which is bounded by Arabia, by

Tartary, and by India; whilst Arabia lies contiguous to 3473. [2 Chron. xxxv. 3.] It is bence concluded that the Iran only, but is remote from Tartary, and divided even ark, thus restored to its place by Josiah, had been in the from the skirts of India by a considerable gulf; no country custody of the priests since its timely removal out of the therefore, but Persia seems likely to have sent forth its sanctuary, when the impious Manasseh basely introduced colouies to all the kingdoms of Asia. - Hence we inay

ending to their custream, Embegin with thest per

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