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hold this proposition firmly established, that Iran, or Persia | the testimony of the Persian Historians, we cannot ascribe in its largest sense, was the true centre of population, of the delivery of the Jews to the first Cyrus. The Easteros knowledge, of languages, and of arts; which, instead of assure us, that Ardeshir sent a prince (B. C. 646), named travelling westward only, as it has been fancifully supposed, Coresh, descended from Lohorasp, to punish Baltazar, son or eastward, as might with equal reason have been asserted, of Bakhtnassar, who was grown very insolent in his gowere expanded in all directions to all the regions of the vernment of Babylon ; that Coresh conquered Baltazar, and world, in which the Hindoo race had settled under various was raised by the King (see ch. iv. 3) to the supreme denominations.

command of that City, where he protected and encouraged Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. V the captive Jews. The Persians could have no inducement pp. 73, 94.

to invent this tale, and as it was recorded in the oldest Annals of the kingdoin, we cannot belp giving some credit to it. They tell us also, that Baktnassar signified, in old

Chaldean, The Servant of Nassar, an idol of the Babylo3478. [2 Chron. xxxvi. 22.] Whatever our Chronologers

nians ; but it seems a better opinion, that the true word was say, it is not easy to conceive, that the Jews were delivered

Nebohadonassar, derived from Nebo, Hadon, and Assar, by Cyrus (the noted warrior): the name Coresh, used here

which, we know, were names of three Assyrian deities. (and throughout the Scriptures), has no affinity with the

Ibid. vol. v. pp. 594, 596. Persian word Khostu (Cyrus), and we cannot suppose any corruption (invariable) in the sacred Text; whereas all the Persian writers agree that a prince, named Coresh, who was sent by Bahaman, son of Asfendiar, to goveru Babylon in the room of Baltazar, actually protected the captive Jews, 3479. [2 Chron. xxxvi. 23.] The primeval religion of and permitted them to rebuild their Temple. Our historians, Iran, or Persia, was, a firm helief, that One Supreme God perhaps, deceived by the name Cyrus, which the Greeks made the world by his power, and continually governed it by gave both to Khosru and to Coresh, have fixed the return his providence ; a pious fear, love, and adoration of Him; a of the Jews much earlier than the truth.

due reverence for parents and aged persons; a fraternal We may safely place the building of the second temple affection for the whole human species, and a compassionate under the reign of Arlaxerxes; since, for the reasons before tenderness even for the brute creation, alleged, which appear very decisive, and are confirmed by

Ihid. dol. i. p. 87.

EZRA.

1 YTHAGORAS was killed 471 years before the birth # of Christ, in a battle between the Syracusans and Agrigentines.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 251. This Book of Ezra should be placed at the beginning of Esdras, not bound up in this Copy.

3486. [Ezra ii. 69.] Each drachm of gold being worth about 10 shillings of our money, and every mina of silver about nine pounds sterling, the whole would amount to seventy-five thousand five hundred pounds ; a collection raised, it stems, among those (previously) returned to Jerusalem, and added voluntarily to what had been contributed by their brethren abroad aud deemed sufficient to rebuild the Temple.

Ibid. p. 505. Fide thousand pounds of silder) Should be rendered, fifteen thousand pounds. See 1 Kings x. 17.

3481. [Ezra ii. 2.) Some think the Nehemiah and Mor. decai enumerated here to be the same persons that are so often mentioned in the books of Esther and Nehemiah ; and that finding the work of the Temple obstructed by their enemies, they returned to Shushan.

Unider. Hist, vol. ix. p. 502.

3482. [ 59. Tel-harsa] Probably the same as Telassor, a province of Assyria.

Ibid. p. 504.

3486. (Ezra iii. 2.] The office of high-priesthood belonged to Jeshua by lineal descent, he being the son of Jozadak, whose father Seraiah, high-priest at the taking of Jerusalem, had been put to death at Riblah, 2 Kings xxv. 18. 21. — As for Jozadak, he was carried captive into Babylon, and had been dead some time before the publishing of Cyrus's decree; so that Jeshua was then, head of the pontifical family.

Ibid. p. 502.

3483. ( 63.] Though Cyrus had given licence to the Jews to return to their own country, and to exercise their religion as formerly ; yet, from Neh. ix. 38, it appears, that those who returned were as much subject to him as those who remained under his immediate jurisdiction ; and, from the words before us, it is equally evident, that Cyrus's governor considered himself as completely at the head even of their ecclesiastical law,

See HUTCHINSON's Covenant in the

Cherubim, p. 168.

3487. [Ezra iv. 3.) 'A word, which signifies King, was applied by the Persians to every Governor of a province, and the lofty title, King of Kings, which their monarchs afterwards assumed, was no more than Ruler of Rulers, or, Chief of several Chiefs.

Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. v.

p. 595.

3484. [ 63. Tirshatha] Or hatirshatha Hebr.), cup-bearer, as Nehemiah seeins to have been to Artaxerxes. The title however, seems to imply some high dignity, as governor, lord-lieutenant, or deputy; for Sheshbazzar or Zerubbabel evidently held such office.

Unider. Hist. vol. jx. p. 601.

3488. - This refusal was doubtless highly uncharitable, and brought after it a long train of mischiefs. Good

Josiah, one of the best kings that ever reigned in Judah, | what is here called Achmetha, where we are assured the acted differently, inviting these nations to the solemmties at || decree was actually lodged. Jerusalem, and destroying thereby idolatry throughout the

Ibid. dol. iv. p. 381. kingdom; see 2 Kings xxiii. passim. — They seem to have acted as unadvisedly as. Joshua did, with respect to the Gibeonites (see Josh. ix. 14); otherwise they would not have forgot that charity which the Mosaic law commands towards

3495. [Ezra vi. 14, 15.] After the second of Cyrus, the its proselytes, see Exod. xii. 48, et alib. pass.

rebuilding of the Temple was interrupted till the second of Darius, when in seven years it was finished, on the ninth of Darius.

See WAISTON's Note on Joseph. 3489. [Ezra iv. 6, 7.] Ahasuerus was Cambyses, and

Against Apion, $ 21.
Artaxerxes Smerdis ; ,as none 'but Cambyses and Smerdis
reigned between Cyrus and Darius.
Unider. Hist. vol. iv. p. 661. 1 3496.

After the Babylonish captivity, Adar was the name of the twelfth month, answering nearly to our February. In the warın Eastern countries, as February

advances, the fields, which were partly green before, now, 3490 - This Artaxerxes, one of the Magi, is

by the springing up of the latter grain, become entirely conamed Smerdis by Herodotus ; Mardys by Æschylus;

vered with an agreeable verdure : aud though the trees, conSpendadates by Ctesias : and Oropastes by Justin.

tinue in their leafless slate till the end of this month or the Ibid. p. 557.

beginning of March, yet the almond, when latest, being in blossom before the middle of February, and quickly sno

ceeded by the apricot, peach, &c. gives the gardens an 3491. ( 10.] Asnapper is Esar-haddon, the third | agreeable appearance. The spring now becomes extremely son of Sennacherib king of Assyria.

pleasant.

See Russel's Nat. Hist. of Aleppo,

pp. 13, 30. And HasseLQUIST's

Trav. p. 27. 3492. [- 14.] When the emperor of Russia would shew extraordinary grace and favor to any, he sent him bread and salt from his table. And when he invited baron Segismund, the emperor Ferdinand's ambassador, he did it in this form, " Segismund, you shall eat your bread and salt with us."

3497. [Ezra vii. 13.] Thus did the decree of Artaxerxes, Mede's Works, p. 370. fol.

as well as that of Cyrus, ch. i. 3, include all the twelve tribes of Israel that should worship God at Jerusalem ; see.ch. vi. 16, 17.

Unider. Hist. vol. ix. p. 503.

3498. [- 22. Sali] The French process for refining 3493. [Ezra v. 16. Sheshbazzar] This probably was 1 sugar, 'requires not the use of bullock's blood, nor other Zerubbabel's Babylonish name, it being customary for those offensive materials hitherto employed by the sugar-bakers. conquerors to change the paines of their captives, as we find

Month. Mag. for Feb. 1812, p. 54. they did those of soine of the latter kings of Judah, see 2 Kings xxiv. 17; as well as those of Daniel and his three companions, Dan. i. 7.

3499. [- 26.] Extirpation, in the sense here used, Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 501.

and in ch. x. 8, consisted evidently in the confiscation of all the property of the culprit, and his separation from the people.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. iji. p. 437.

3494. [Ezra vi. 2.] Josephus (Antig. b. xi. c. 4) acquaits us, that the decree of Cyrus, respecting the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem, was found at Echbatana. This plainly proves that city to be the same with

3500. [Ezra viii. 27.] Sir J. CHARDIN has mentioned a mixed metal used in the East, and highly esteemed there, which might probably be of as antient an origin as the time ples, but their palaces, either to obstruct the sight, or the of Ezra. - I bave heard, says he, some Dutch gentlemen || approach of the people. speak of a metal in the island of Sumatra and among the

Univer. Hist, vol. iii. p. 283. Macassars, much more esteemed than gold, which royal personages alone might wear. It is a mixture, he adds, if I remember right, of gold and steel, or of copper and steel. Calmbac is this metal, composed of gold and copper ; it in color nearly resembles the pale carnation rose, has a very

3503. [Ezra x. 10.] Moses married a Midianite, Boaz a fine grain, and the polish extremely lively. Gold is not of so lively and brilliant a color.

Moabite; Maacha, Absalom's mother, was the daughter of See Chardin's MS. Notes. Hurmer,

Talmai, king of Gesher; Amasa was the son of Jether, an vol. ii. p. 490.

Ishmaelite, by Abigail, David's sister; and Solomon, in the beginning of his reign, married Pharaoh's daughter. When therefore we find the Lord's people blamed for marrying strange wives, we are to understand the prohibition of those women that represented idolatrous Churches, and were uncon

verted to the Jewish religion. 3501. (Ezra ix. 8.] At the beginning of every year, the

Ibid. p. 326. antient Hetrurians were accustomed, by way of Calendar, to fix a nail regularly in their great Temple. This act, attesting their notion of the commencement of the year, we 3504. - 16.] At the city Kerkook in Chaldea, are are assured by Festus Rufus and Livy, was performed pre shewn the tombs of the prophets Daniel and Ezra ; both cisely on the day of the autumnal equinox.

under one dome. See Dr. Gregory's Assyrian Monarchy,

KHOJEH ABDULKURREEM, p. 139. p. 216.

3505. (- 44.] The Arabs never cross the breeds of 3502. [- 9.] After the Tabernacle was fixed in horses, and preserve the genealogies of these animals for a Shiloh, it was surrounded with a strong wall; as, among | considerable number of generations. the Egyptians and other nations, were not only their Tem

domable number of generations.

THE BOOK OF NEHEMIAH.

LAFTER the death of Ezra, Nehemiah came with his com-
mission to rebuild the walls and gates of Jerusalem. — Ezra
came in the seventh, and Nehemiah in the twenty-fifth year
of Xerxes; that is, after an interval of eighteen years.
ch. i. 11.

Joseph. Antiq. b. xi. ch. v. § 6.

3508. [Neh. iii. 8. Hananiah a son of the apothecaries] That is, one of the Society, company, mystery, or Trade of the Apothecaries; the iatron pais among the Grecians.

See Ch. PATIN's Travels, Germ.

pp. 145, 146.

3507. Neh. ii. 19. Sanballat the Horonite] Being a native of Horonaim, a city of Moab.

Unider. Hist. vol. ix. p. 541. |

2500 s 19,7 Pinah (Hebr.). the point of a angle ; or, as it is called by artists, the salient angle. This kind of angle forms a corner, or open place, in its interior. This corner-gate lay to the north.

Univer. Hist. vol. iii. pp. 597, 604. 3510. (Neh. vi. 5. With an open letter in his hand] || is very common to see many of them that have stood for this Norden tells us, that a letter, dispatched by an Arab priuce purpose above 300 years. to a master of a bark, was open. It seems however, not

Modern Unider. Hist. pol. viii. p. 316. customary in Eastern countries so to send letters to people of distinction. Pococke gives us the figure of a Turkish letter, put into a satin bag, to be sent to a great man, with a paper

1 3513. [Neh. viii. 15.] The pine-tree, once cut down, shoots tied to it directed and sealed, and an ivory button tied on the

out again uo more. wax. And Lady Montague says, the bassa of Belgrade's

St. Pierre's Stud. of Nat. vol. ii. p. 302. answer to the English Ambassador going to Constantinople was brought him in a purse of scarlet satin. Nehemiah then, as he was a person of distinction at the Persian court and governor of Judea, bad reason to expect Sanballat's letter in a handsome bag. Its not being so sent intimated, that

3514. [Neh. x. 34.] Joseraus speaks of a feast called Sanballat, so far from acknowledging Nehemiah in his assumed

Xulophoria (Grk.), when it was customary for all to, bring royal dignity, should not even pay him the compliment due

wood to the altar, to keep the sacred fire unextinguished, to any person of distinction.

· De Bello Jud. I. ii. c. 17. & 6. Bib. Research. vol. i. p. 175. — See Harmer, vol. ii. p. 129.

3515. (- 36. The firstborn of our sons, 8c.)- To be redeemed, according to the law of Moses. See Evod. xiii. 13, 15. xxxiv. 20.

3511. [Neh. vii. 64.] Among the Chinese a tablet of ancestry is in every house: and references in conversation are often made to their actions. MACARTNEY's Embassy, p. 295. 3616. [Neh. xii. 22.] The mention here made of Jonathau

(or Johanan) and Jaddua, as high-priests; and also of the reign of Darjus the Persian, must necessarily have been added by some person after the time of Nehemiah, probably by

Simon the Just; as it is incredible to suppose that Nehe. 3512. [Neh. viii. 15.] There are three remarkable trees

miah should live to the reign of Darius Codomannus the last opposite Poppamow, called by the natives Valattee-Emlee, or

Persian emperor, in whose reign Jaddua was high-priest. Europe tamarind, the Adansonia of Linneus; the centre one

Well's Continuation of the Jewish Hist. measures thirty-two feet six inches round the trunk, the tree

p. 85. inserted after Esther in vol, ii, on the left nearly an inch more, and the other not quite thirty

of his Bible. feet. They grow within fifty yards of the Ganges; and about three hundred yards distant is another of still larger circumference. The branches of these celebrated trees rise from the trunks by a large base, disproportioved to their general bulk.

3517. [Neh. xjii. 1.] Before the captivity, the Israelites The fruit, says Forbes, was extremely small when I saw it,

used to assemble themselves at the schools of the prophets and covered with a down of light green like velvet; it ripens on the sabbaths, new moons, and other festivals, to hear the in February: the fruit is then of the size of a cocoa-nut, Scriptures explained to them. But it does not appear that, containing a white pulp, abounding with red seeds. The

as yet, they had synagogues for the purpose (Unider. Hist. Brahmins spoke highly of this fruit, thinking it extremely vol. ix. p. 549): unless the schools of the prophets were after delicious, and the acid peculiarly grateful.

the captivity, so called. Oriental Memoirs, dol. iv. p. 84. The camphire-trees, probably meant here, are of such a stupendous height, that some of them shoot up more than 300 R 3518.

1 2 5.] The greatest affront possible to be feet; their thickness also is so exorbitant,' that 20 men are offered to an Indian of either sex, is to cut off their hair ; often required to embrace the trunk. The branches spread all for whatever corporal punishment their masters think proper to considerable way; and the wood, which is very hard and due inflict on them, they bear with a dutiful tranquillity; but this rable, is of singular use for the construction of large ships, as is a disgrace they never forgive ; and accordingly (at Quito) well as for other more curious pieces of joinery, by reason of it was found necessary for the government to interpose, and the beauty and glossiness of its surface, and the great variety limit this punisbment to the most enormous crimes. of its veins. Their texture is so tenacious and close, that it

Ulloa’s Voy. by Adams, vol. i. p. 267.

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