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THE BOOK OF ESTHER.
H18 Ahasseros can be no other than Cyaxares; who, 3522. Esther i. 6 At Rome, to this day are extant the Sir Isaac NEWTON shews, was called Achagerus, As places, the beds, where the masts stood which supported soch seras, Oxyares, Azeres, prince Axeres or Cy-Axeres, the a magnificent court seit as thus, under which the interior word Cy signifying prince in the Median language.
part of that immense anar-theatre the Collisco, was shel. See his Chron. of ant. kingd amend. p. 309. tered. At Caleatta aise, and in other cities of India, it is Oder a hundred and twenty seten provinces) The Per.
still a castor, during as anniversary-goleauty held in honor siap empire under Darius the Mede (Dan. vi. 1) was divided
of their deities, to cover the court yard with a kind of awointo 120 provinces. On the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses,
ing or canopy, to exclude the otherwise too intense heat of and of Thrace in India by Darius Histaspes, seven other pro
the sun. This awning is made of strong canvass, and is sup
ported by ropes from the root of the house : it is also lined vinces were added to its former number. See Univer. Hist. col. iv. p. 403.
with striped calico, in which as an ornamental ceiling the
color green usually predominates Artaxerxes Longimanus was the Ahasuerus who married
Frag. to CALXET, 2d Hardr. pp. 151, 153. Esther; as appears from the following authorities and arguments. 1. The Septuagint throughout this whole book translate Ahasuerus by Artaxerie. 2. JOSEPHUS tells us in ex. prens terws, that Esther's husband was Artaxerxes Longi. 3523. — This, says FORBES, is exactly descriptive manus. (Antiq. I. xi. c. 6.) 3. The apoeryphal additions of a shahryanah, or large canopy, spread ou lofty pillars, u ting took' constantly call ber husband Artaxerxes; and in the gardens and courts of the Mogul palaces, and attached frors several circumstances related of him, both in the cano by similar cords of various colors. Some of these awaings, nical and apocryphal Esther, as to the extraordinary favorhelonging to the ludian emperors, were very costly and disand kindness shewn the Jews by Artaxerxes Longimanos, tinguished by various names; the most so was that called the there arises a convincing proof, that they had such a power bargab, mentioned in the Ayeea Akberry, belveding to the fal advocate as Esther to intercede for them.
emperor Akber; which was of such magnitude, eds to contain Verse 1.
Ibid. vol. y. p. 11. ten thousand persons; and the erecting of it employed one
thousand men for a week, with the help of machiges : one of
these shahmyanahs, without any ornaments, cost ten thousand 3520. ( 2.) The capital of Susiana (now called rupees. Chosistan) is Schouster, believed with reason to be the city
The beds of silver and gold may receive illustration from of Shoshan, famous for a noble palace built bere by Artax
modern Asiatic furniture: The divan, or hall of audience, as erley, who is the Ahasuerus of this book, and for the tomb
also the room for receiving guests in private houses, is gene. of the prophet Daniel : of neither of which there are now
rally covered with a Persian carpet ; round which are placed any remains, though a Persian author of great credit assures
cushions of different shape and size, in cases of yold and uø, that the latter was standing in his time, and that he had
silver kiucob, or of scarlet cloth einbroidered : these are ocseen it.
casionally moved into the courts and gardens, and placed under PINKERTON's Coll. pol. ix. p. 173.
the shahmyanab, for the accomınodation of company.
Orient. Mem. vol. iii. p. 191.
3621. [- 3.) Media, was bounded, accordiog to Ptolemy, on the north by part of the Caspian sea; on the south by Persis, Susiana, and Assyria; on the east by Parthia and Ilyrcania; and on the west by Armenia Major.
Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 355.
3524. [ 9.] It is the custom of Persia, and of all the East, for the women to have their feasts at the same time with, but apart from the men.
3525. [Esther i. 10.] One day, Shah Safi, a Persian that the women generally resided by themselves, in apartemperor, returning from the kalenter of Julfa's house, wherem ents allotted to them in the back parts of the tents of their he had drank to excess, gave order that his Georgian queen parents and husbands ; a custom long after continued, and in should come to him. As she understood that he was in liquor, some places at this day observed, among the descendants of she made no great haste : so that lie fell asleep. But, awak the patriarchs. ing soon after, and not seeing her, he called for her a second
Dr. W. Alexander's Hist. of Women, time; on notice of which, she immediately went to him.
vol. i. p. 317. When she entered the chamber, she fonnd the king fallen asleep again; and, in expectation of his awaking, hid herself in a niche behind the haugings, where generally the mattresses 3529. [Esther ii. 19.] The prime minister sat in the King's and coveriets are laid by. Sufi presently after coming out of gate to hear complaints, and to pass judgments. his slumber, and not yet perceiving the queen, in a great
MAVOR. haste demanded the reason of her stay. The Queen-Mother, See No. 856. wbo was a Georgian slave, and hated the young queen, because she was a king's daughter, took the occasion to put her out of favor; and, having first spoken ill of her, gave the sbah to undersland by a sign, that she was hidden in such a
3530. [Esther iii. 9, 10.] Thus the sovereign of Media place on this, Safi, rising in a fury, stabbed her four or
and Persia, encircled by wealth, splendor, aud power, accepts' five times in the belly, with a dagger; and, scarcely knowing
of ten thousand talents of silver (offered by a nobleinan whose what he had done, went to his bed again. Next day, forget
pride was offended at the neglect of a foreigner), to issue a ful of the fact, he cailed for the queen : but when they told
decree, by which some hundred thousand unfortunate captives him what had happened the night betore, he became extremely
dispersed throughout his extensive empire were commanded to afflicted, and send an express mandate throughout his domi
he put to death. (FORBES' Orient. Mem. vol. iii. p. 195.) nions, that no man should drink wine ; with an order, that
Base indeed! but the charge is erroneous : they were only to the governors should stave all the casks, and spill the liquor,
be disfranchised or reduced to the state of slaves; this would wherever they found any. (See TAVERNIER, I. v. c. 1.
have completely gratified the pride of Haman. p. 198. — Also Modern Univer. Hist. vol. v. p. 475 ) We hence learn, that in a royal harém, there is a QueenMother over the slaves ; as well as a King's Mother, or Royal
3631. 12.] The wearing of rings is very antient; Matron, over the Princesses, or Maids of Honor. This fact
it was prohibited in Rome to all mechanics and men of mean may throw considerable light on 1 Kings xi. 3. — In this
condition to wear rings of gold, so that, granting a license sense “one of Mahomet's wives (women) is called the Mo. ther of the faithful.” (See Smith's Michaelis, vol. i.
for any person to wear a ring, was as much as to make him a
gentleman. The usage of sealing with rings is also of great p. 458.) – It has been remarked that slaves were not per
antiquity. mitted to use the term Abba, father, or Imma, mother, in
Luke xv. 22.
Monthly Magazine. accosting their musters and mistresses.
Dr. A. CLARKE, on Rom. viii. 15. See what is said elsewbere of the King's Mother, No.
3526. [ 10 — 12.] Here two circumstances are introduced very foreign to the inanuers of India, although one is perhaps not uncommon in modern Persia, the drinking of wine in public, and the sending for the queen on such an occasion : her conduct in refusing to obey the command implies bow iodecorous and iudelicate she considered it.
FORBES' Orient. Mem. vol. iii. p. 193.
3532. [Esther v. 12.) Athenæus mentions it as a peculiar honor, which no Grecian ever had before or after, that Artaxerxes vouchsafed to invite Timagoras the Cretan to dine eren at the table where his relations ate, and to send him sometimes a part of what was served up at his own ; which some Persians considered as a diminution of his majesty's, and a prostitution of their natiou's honor. Plutarch also, in his life of Artaxerxes, tells us, that none but the king's mother and his real wife were permitted to sit at his lable ; and therefore be mentious it as a condescension in that price, that he sometimes invited his brothers. Consequently Haman had reason to value so highly this particular favor.
Bib. Research. vol. ji. p. 199.
3527. [Esther ii. 7.] Mordecai having thus adopted Esther, became father-in-law to her husband, Ahasuerus : this accounts for Mordecai's ultimate promotion.
3533. [ -12, 13.] Thus one man is bent on subjugating another, not so much for the sake of seizing his property as to command his admiration, his reverence. Ambition
]4.) In the patriarchal ages, it would seem,
proposes to itself no boundary short of this. To whatever midnight record all the transactions of the preceding day, and condition the proud tyrant may be elevated, and however low | send them off by express messengers to their correspondents his rival reduced ; let him have at bis mercy the fortune, the || iu distant provinces. labor, the person of his adversary, he has gained no point
Forbes' Orient. Mem, vol. iii. p. 130. unless he has gained his homage.
Ambition never rises but at the expense of another. Give it whatever specious name you please, it is ever the sworn W · 3539. (Esther viii. 10, 14.) To ride post with the greatest enemy of all virtue. It is the source of vices the most dau Il speed, the Persians use their wind-camels, which trot so hard gerous and detestable ; of jealousy, of hatred, of intolerance, ll aud fast with outstretched necks, that it is impossible to stay and cruelty. It is forbidden to all men by Nature and Reli them. The rider would be shaken to death, were he not gion, and to the greatest part of subjects, by Government. 1 braced round the waist and tied firmly to the saddle. St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,
Frag. to CALMET, dob. ii. p. 185. ! vol. i. pp. 321, 386.
3540. [- 15.] The crown was the ornament distix
guishing persons of the highest rank, in the courts of all 3534. [Esther vi. 8-10.1 Here we see an exact de- || eastern princes. See, for an idea of such crown, Ezek. scription of the mode of conferring bonor on the favorite of a
See Unider. Hist. vol. ii. p. 448. sovereign ; a princely dress, a horse, and a ring : these are now the usual presents to foreign ambassadors. -- The taking of the signet from the royal finger, and affixing it to the decree; dispatching the halcarras, or posts, to the provinces, and several other preceding circumstances, are still, says FORBES, constantly practised in an Oriental durbar.
3541. [Esther ix. 3.] Thus in the war of 1770, between ch. viii. 2. See his Orient. Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 198. Russia and Turkey, Hassan Pacha, become eminent as a
seaman, preserved the Greeks, when it was deliberated in the
Grand Seignior's council 10 exterminate them entirely as a 3535. - - The crown royal was not to be set on the punishment for their defection, and to prevent their future head of the man, but on the head of the horse : this interpre. rebellion. tation is allowed by Aben-Ezra, by the Targum, and by the
M. de PEYSONNELL's Remarks on Baron Syriac version. No mention is afterward made of the crown
du Toit, p. 90. as set on the head of Mordecai ; nor would Haman have dared to advise that which could not be granted. But it was usual to put the crown royal on the head of a horse led in state ;
5.) The chief magistrate beareth not the and this we are assured was a custom in Persia, as it is with sword of justice in vain. Rom. xiii. 4. the Ethiopians to this day; and so with the Romans. Horses drawing triumphal chariots were crowned.
Gill, in loc. 3543.- 19.] Among the Gentoos, wherever men of the
lowest rank, and husbaudinen, are very numerous, and where there is much ground for tillage, such place is called a town, See Gen. xix. 20. (Halled's Gentoo Laws, p. 172.)
In the East, it is their custom to send a portion of the ban: 3536. [Esther vii. 8.] It was the custom among the quet to those that canuot well come to it, especially to their Greeks and Romans to embrace the kuees of those whom they relations, and those in a state of mouruing. petitioned to be favourable to them. SULPITIUS SEVERUS
MS. CAARDIN. apprehends this to have been done by Haman in the present instance. See Gen, xxiv, 2.
3544. ( 24.) This Pur in Hebrew, and Purir
(plural) iu Chaldee, means lots, or a species of divination by 3537. - 10.] All the ill which a man does to his five small stones, tossed about and caught on the hand in vari. fellow creatures recoils sooner or later on himself. This re ous ways. Our boys, says Colonel VALLANEY, play at this action is the only counterpoise capable of bringing him back as a gaine, and so do those on the banks of the Nile, as von to humanity.
will find in Niebuhr. - In the Memoirs of the Florentine Academy you will find a sorceress in the action of divination. drawn froin a picture found in Herculaneum. Two stones remain on the back of the hand and three on the ground.
Now this is the first cast of the Irish Purin, clochatag, or 3538. [Esther viii. 9, 10.] In most of the large Oriental tag-stones, corrupted by the Irish-English to jack-stones. cities, there are a sort of news-writers, or gazetteers, who at 1
Archæologia, vol. vii. p. 168.
THE BOOK OF JOB.
U OB, or the author of the book, which takes its name from one Geld to another, and haystacks removed to a consifrom him, was of the Arabian stock, as the language of that || derable distance. — In its progress it divided into two parts, sublime work incontestibly proves.
one of which took a north-east, and the other a north-west Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 115. direction. The consequence was, that Kirk-Ireton, part of This book of Job the Arabian, which there is reason to | Cowlow and Hopton, were laid completely in a state of believe is more antient than the Writings of Moses, contains
ruins. views of Nature much more profound than is generally ima
Public Prin's. gined ; views, the most common whereof were unknown to us two centuries ago.
St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,
3549. [Job i. 19.] On the 4th of May 1764, as people sat at dinner in Charlestown, South-Carolina, they were
alarmed with an unusual sort of stunning noise, as of the 3546. [Job i.) Origen (on Job) believes Moses to have
ruffling of many drums, intermixed with such a roaring, translated this book from the Syriac into Hebrew, The
thunderiny, churning or dashing sound, as the sea makes, scene of the whole transaction is in the vale of Gulla, that
in breaking on a hollow rocky shore, during a violent storm ; is, about Damascus ; and the time in which Job is placed,
when, on running out of doors, a tremendous cloud (fraoght is during the residence of the Israelites in Egypt.
with whirlwind) was seen advancing at a great rate, with a Smith's MICHAEL18, vol. ij. p. 438.
quick circular inotion, its contents seeming in a violent agitation, while the contiguous clouds drove rapidly towards it in all directions, and were instantly absorbed in its tumultu
ous column. Every moment this meteor appeared differently. 3547. - 1.) Comera, the supposed residence of Some parts of it being black and dark, others of a flameJob, stands on the banks of the Euphrates, about eight miles
color, they rolled over each other in a most 'confused and above Bassora.
rapid manner, as if vast waves of the sea had risen into the PINKERTON's Coll. part xxxii. p. 29). air : and, every now and then, large branches of trees might
be seen hurled about in it. Its diameter was thought to be about 300 yards, and the height 30 degrees; a thick vapor
emitted from it rising much higher. In passing along it car3548. [ 19.) May 12th, 1811, at Hopion in Der ried the waters of the (Ashiley) river before, in the form of byshire a tremendous whirlwind or tornado began its destruc a mountainous wave; so that the bottom was seen in many live operations, and continued its course about five or six places. Such floods of water fell on those parts over which miles in length, and about four or five hundred yards in it passed, as if a whole sea had been discharged on them at breadth. Its appearance was that of an immense cloud in once; and for a mile or two on each side of it, abundance of form of a balloon whirled round with incredible swiftness. It rain fell. As the wind ceased presently after the whirlwind moved also in a circular direction, from S. by W. to N., passed, the branches and leaves of various sorts of trees, having a pipe or tail which it extended down to the ground. which had been carried into the air, continued to fall for half
This irresistible tube darled down and up continually, tear an hour; and in their descent, appeared like flocks of birds ing up plantations, levelling barus, walls, and miners' cots. | of different sizes. A gentleman, over whose plantation the It tore up large trees, carrying them 20 and even 30 yards : skirt of this storm passed, not more than two miles from it twisted the tops from the trunks of other trees, conveying | Charlestown, assured me, that had a thousand negroes been thein to the distance of 50 and 100 yards. Cows were fifted ll employed for a whole day in cutting down his trees, tlicy
could not have made such a waste of them, as this whirlwind is to be considered as not absolutely beyond possibility, since did in less than half a minute.
Job is represented as having been again restored to health.
p. 24. On thursday last (July 1809), about six o'clock in the eveniog, the inhabitants of Cirencester were alarmed by the 3552. [Job ii. 8.] The female Indians rub their skin with appearance of one of those phenomena, commonly described | a plant called Incia, the rind of which has the property of or known by the name of a tornado, or whirlwind. It was removing all fith. first observed about three miles to the south ward of the town,
BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 163. where it assumed the appearance of a large conical hay-rick, encompassed with smoke. It moved rather slowly at first, in a direction towards Cirencester, throwing down many trees in
3553. [- 9.] Barach has the double sense of blessthe parish of Siddington. Indeed so tardy was its progress,
ing and cursing : as jalad signifies to beget, and to bring that some persons had time to get upon the tower of Preston
forth; and as tamam (whence tummim or thummim) sig. charch in order to observe its course. When it approached
nifies equally to consume, and to make perfect. nearer to Cirencester, it moved on with a velocity almost incre.
Rev. RICHARD CLARKE. dible; and making towards the basin of the canal, where it did considerable damage, skirted the town, and entered Lord BATHORST's park from the Tetbury-road. Here its fury seemed to be at its beight; for timber trees, measuring from six to ten feet in girth, were torn completely up by the roots, whilst others were stripped of their branches, or literally cut asunder. After crossing the park, it entered an 3554. [Job iv. 8.) This is one of the laws of the Creaorchard at Barton Farm, where it threw down several trees, tion; and may be as much depended on, as that a grain of &c. and seemed to disperse, as it could no longer be traced wheat will constantly produce a plant of wheat, and a grain by the naked eye. It would almost be endless to attempt to of barley a plant of barley. describe the mischief it occasioned, by the blowing down of
WAITE, ricks, unroofing of warehouses, &c. near the basin. A waggon, loaded with fagots, with the horses taken off, standing at one end of the wharf, was impelled forwards nearly forty yards; and its progress was only stopped by encountering a building which broke the shafts off short.
3555. [Job v. 7.] The particles of fire move upwards only in appearance and for a while, but do really descend again by their gravity to the earth.
Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Understanding,
p. 360. 3550. (Job ii. 4.] Before the invention of money, trade Earth rarifies to dew; expanded more, used to be carried on by barter; that is, by exchanging one The subtile dew in air begins to soar : commodity for another : and skins were a very antient tri. Spreads, as she flies, and weary of her naine bute. Imagine a bad harvest, when wheat, the staff of Extenuates still, and changes into flame; life, is scarce : how many skins this year will a man give Thus having by degrees perfection won, for this necessary article, without which he and his family Restless they soon uitwist the web they spun, inust perish! Why, each would add to the heap, and put And fire begins to lose her radiant hue, skin upon skin, for all the skins that a man has will he Mix'd with gross air, and air descends to dew; give for his life. Imagine again, the party engaged to And dew condensing, does her form forego, protect (by the moderns called rulers) raising the tribute, And sinks, a heavy lump of earth below. and threatening, if it were not paid, to put these merchants
Ovid's Metamorph. 6. xv. l. 376. to death. What proportion of skins would they not give, in this case of necessity ! Skin upon skin, yea, all the skins that they have will they give for their lives. The proverb then means, that we would save our lives at any price.
ROBINSON. — See Bib. Research.
3556. (Job vi. 5.] The zebra, called by the Antients
Asinus Silvestris, or wild ass, — for the whiteness, smooth3551. [- 7.] The cure of this disorder (the leprosy) || ness, and blackness of its skin, the beauty and regularity